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Über dieses Buch

Tobias Brandt outlines how information technology (IT) can be used to integrate sustainable energy technologies into existing infrastructures. The topic is approached from micro, meso, as well as macro perspectives. He first describes how IT artifacts can be used to manage renewable energy sources and energy storage devices in individual households and microgrids for an improved economic and ecological performance. The author proceeds by assessing the economic feasibility of aggregating electric vehicles for large-scale energy storage. The final chapter explores the issue of stability in automated mechanisms. A game-theoretical model is first introduced for financial markets and later transferred to the automated management of energy demand.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

I Introduction: Integrating Sustainable Energy Technologies

Abstract
For decades, global energy consumption has only known one direction—upwards. Energy fuels cars, trucks, and planes, it powers machines, it allows to cook, helps to communicate, and enables to work. Energy is the foundation of prosperity in developed countries and the engine of growth in the developing world. Yet, despite its importance, popular awareness and discussions on how we produce, distribute, and consume energy used to be rare.
Tobias Brandt

II Designing IT Solutions for Individual Households

Abstract
In recent years, research on the role of information systems (IS) in creating sustainable power systems has become a cornerstone of the IS discipline. In this paper we consider a particular aspect of this role—information systems as the facilitator of synergies between green technologies in the Smart Grid. Following a design perspective we propose that information systems can enhance technical objects with new features, thereby increasing their potential value towards a sustainable energy paradigm. We substantiate this proposition using a case study on batteries of electric vehicles. The information system designed in this study enables the battery to serve as an energy storage device in conjunction with a residential photovoltaic system while the vehicle is parked at home. This IS-enabled additional feature provides several financial and environmental benefits to the owner and society at large. Additionally, based on this case study, we outline possible interferences and obstacles in designing information systems for the Smart Grid and provide recommendations to guide future research.
Tobias Brandt

III Designing an Energy Information System for Microgrid Operation

Abstract
In this paper we demonstrate the contribution of information systems towards a sustainable and reliable power supply. Following a Design Science approach, we develop an information system for microgrid operation at a U.S. army base. Microgrids enable an improved integration of distributed renewable energy sources and increase the robustness of the overall power grid. The microgrid in this study contains extensive photovoltaic generation, the energy demand of the base, as well as energy storage. The information system we design controls and optimizes microgrid operations under uncertainty, as well as physical and organizational constraints. Using real-world data to evaluate the system, we show that it substantially increases the amount of clean photovoltaic energy that can be generated while simultaneously decreasing energy costs of the base. Thereby, we are able to improve the ecological and economic efficiency of the microgrid.
Tobias Brandt

IV A Business Model for Employing Electric Vehicles for Energy Storage

Abstract
Aggregating the storage capabilities of electric vehicles is generally considered to be a promising method of supporting the integration of volatile renewable energy sources into the power grid. We analyze this concept from an economic perspective by developing and evaluating a business model for electric vehicle aggregation. Specifically, we investigate the case of parking garage operators using the electric vehicles located at their facilities to provide reserve energy for frequency regulation. We evaluate revenues and cost structures using extensive real-world data sets on the German market for frequency regulation, on battery states of charge at different times of day, and on occupancy rates of parking facilities. We find that possible revenues given current market conditions are far inferior to investment costs for charging and IT infrastructure. Even if the operator installs these features to enable customers to charge their vehicles for a fee, it would be more profitable to focus on this service and charge vehicles immediately when they enter the garage instead of delaying charging for frequency regulation. Overall, we conclude that a large-scale adoption of electric mobility may produce greater challenges to the power grid than is currently projected.
Tobias Brandt

V Mechanism Stability—Flash Crashes and Avalanche Effects

Abstract
Flash crashes, perceived as sharp drops in market prices that rebound shortly after, have turned the public eye towards the vulnerability of IT-based stock trading. In this paper, we explain flash crashes as a result of actions made by rational agents. We argue that the advancement of information technology, which has long been associated with competitive advantages, may cause ambiguities with respect to the game form that give rise to a Hypergame. We employ Hypergame Theory to demonstrate that a market crash constitutes an equilibrium state if players misperceive the true game. Once the ambiguity is resolved, prices readjust to the appropriate level, creating the characteristic flash crash effect. By analyzing the interaction with herd behavior, we find that flash crashes may be unavoidable and a systemic problem of modern financial markets. Furthermore, we outline that flash-crash-like effects are also relevant in other applications that rely on increasing automation, such as the automated management of energy demand.
Tobias Brandt
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