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Über dieses Buch

This book will deal with geological as well as cultural, historical, archaeological and biological aspects in Jeju Global Geopark. It will start with introduction of Jeju Global Geopark, geographic setting, habitats, history, economy and tourism, management, general geology and geosites, future geosites, other significant heritage sites, economically sustainable tourism, education and promotion and management plan.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

1. Introduction

Abstract
Jeju Island essentially consists of one major shield volcano, Hallasan (= Mt. Halla, 1,950 m in altitude), with satellite cones building out around its flanks, with some preferential occurrence to the north-east and south-west that explains the elongation of the Island. The islets are remnants of past eruptive cones or lava flows. Hallasan is one of Korea’s three sacred mountains and a national park, was established in 1970 to protect its natural and cultural values, to provide for education and enjoyment and to recognize the mountain’s spiritual values to the Korean people. As well as the sacred nature and other heritage values of Hallasan, the island has a wide range of natural and cultural features including well-preserved prehistoric sites such as Gosanri dating back to ~12,000~8,000 years before present. There is also evidence of occupation as much as 80,000 years ago. Recognition of the natural and cultural values of Jeju is demonstrated internationally by the inscription of parts of the island as a UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Reserve (in 2002) and as the Jeju Volcanic Island and Lava Tubes World Heritage Area (in 2007). National recognition is based on a number of national parks nature reserves and national monuments as well as a range of provincial protected areas. The nine geosites (including one geocluster) identified and described herein are protected and managed under the national laws of the Republic of Korea and by the Jeju Special Self-Governing Province under many specific laws. First of all the Constitution of the Republic of Korea defines the protection and transmission of traditional and national culture as the responsibilities of the country (The Constitution of the Republic of Korea, Article 9). Therefore the protection of cultural heritage is the fundamental responsibility of the nation and the law that specifies this is the Cultural Heritage Protection Act 2007. All the nine geosites are Korean National Natural Monuments, and the legal basis for management ultimately lies with the national Cultural Heritage Protection Act 2007. This Act is supplemented by regulations and by provincial ordinances and regulations, and by Administrative Directives from the Cultural Heritage Administration. The Jeju Special Self-Governing Province, local businesses, community organizations and academic institutions have established the Jeju Island Geopark and became a member of the Global Network of National Geoparks assisted by UNESCO in 2010.
Kyung Sik Woo, Young Kwan Sohn, Ung San Ahn, Seok Hoon Yoon, Andy Spate

2. Geographic Setting

Abstract
Jeju is an island, volcanic in origin, situated on the continental shelf 90 km south of the Korean Peninsula. Specifically, Jeju Island is located between 33°11′27″ and 33°33′50″ north in latitude and between 126°08′43″ and 126°58′20″ east in longitude. The island is a slightly flattened ellipse, ~ 70 km in length from south south-west to north north-east, and varying from 30 ~ 35 km in width. In addition there are a number of rocky islets just offshore. The east side of Jeju faces Tsushima and Nagasaki in Japan across the South Sea of the Korean Peninsula and the East China Sea. The west side of the island faces Shanghai in China across the East China Sea. Jeju is 450 km from Seoul, 270 km from Busan, 330 km from Fukuoka in Japan, and 500 km from Shanghai in China.
Kyung Sik Woo, Young Kwan Sohn, Ung San Ahn, Seok Hoon Yoon, Andy Spate

3. Habitats

Abstract
Jeju Island, a volcanic island, is in an oceanic climatic zone and has a relatively mild weather with 15.5 °C as an average annual temperature. However, the climate of Hallasan varies according to altitude so that the geographical distribution of subtropical and arctic plants and animals is different. The land ecosystems of Jeju, reaching from the seaside tidal zone to Baeknokdam, on Hallasan, can be divided into six domains—a coastal wetland zone, an evergreen broadleaved forest zone, a grassland zone, a deciduous forest zone, a coniferous forest zone and an alpine shrub zone.
Kyung Sik Woo, Young Kwan Sohn, Ung San Ahn, Seok Hoon Yoon, Andy Spate

4. History

Abstract
The history of Jeju began during the Paleolithic Age, 70,000–80,000 years ago. Jeju people from the prehistoric age mostly lived in caves. In Billemotgul (cave) there are Paleolithic artifacts, including chipped stone tools and bones of reindeer and bear which are today found to inhabit only Siberia or Alaska. Prehistoric remains in Gosan-ri, Hangyeong-myeon are the oldest remains from the Neolithic Age in Korea, dated 8,000–12,000 years ago. Hunting tools such as arrowheads, spearheads and various earthenware types excavated from the site show the methods and practices of those surviving by hunting and food-gathering within a group.
Kyung Sik Woo, Young Kwan Sohn, Ung San Ahn, Seok Hoon Yoon, Andy Spate

5. Geology of Jeju Island

Abstract
Jeju Island is a volcanic island situated off the southern coast of the Korean Peninsula. The island was produced by volcanic activity which occurred from about 2 million years ago until historic times. The island is 73 km long in the east-west direction and 31 km long in the north-south direction, having an area of 1,847 km2. The island has the typical morphology of a shield volcano, characterized by an overall gentle topography and an elliptical shape in plan elongated in the ENE direction.
Kyung Sik Woo, Young Kwan Sohn, Ung San Ahn, Seok Hoon Yoon, Andy Spate

6. Geosites

Abstract
Mt. Hallasan is the central peak of the gently sloping shield volcano of Jeju Island. It is the highest mountain in South Korea, reaching 1,950 m above sea level. Mt. Hallasan is the symbol of Jeju Island and a representative product of the Quaternary volcanism in the Korean Peninsula and adjacent seas. Mt. Hallasan boasts peculiar volcanic landscape, produced by the crater lake and about forty volcanic cones. Mt. Hallasan was designated as a natural monument (no. 182) in 1966 and a national park in 1970 because the mountain preserves the pristine morphology of a shield volcano unaffected by significant weathering or erosion. The mountain has been protected from human activity since then and is renowned for its unique ecology and biodiversity in addition to volcanic geology and geomorphology. The mountain was designated as a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve in 2002 and as a UNESCO World Natural Heritage in 2007.
Kyung Sik Woo, Young Kwan Sohn, Ung San Ahn, Seok Hoon Yoon, Andy Spate

7. Future Geosites

Abstract
There are many sites which deserve to be identified, managed and interpreted as geosites within the Jeju Island Geopark. Twenty-one sites have been identified for inclusion over the next 10–15 years (Fig. 7.1). An Action Plan will be developed to progressively formally incorporate these additional sites within the Jeju Island Geopark. Other geosites may be added from time to time as research demonstrates their values and the practicality of opening them to the public is assessed.
Kyung Sik Woo, Young Kwan Sohn, Ung San Ahn, Seok Hoon Yoon, Andy Spate

8. Geotourism

Abstract
Education opportunities with and about geoparks are to provide and organize support, tools and activities to communicate scientific knowledge and environmental concepts to the visitors (e.g. through museums, interpretive and educational centers, trails, guided tours, popular literature and maps, modern communication media and so on). They also allow and foster scientific research and cooperation with universities, and between geoscientists and local people. All educational activities should reflect the ethical considerations around holistic environmental protection and sustainable development. One of the main issues is to link education in a local context with all stakeholders. As an example of the importance of Jeju Island as an educational destination, one third of all Korean school excursion students visit Jeju (about 603,000 students in 2011).
Kyung Sik Woo, Young Kwan Sohn, Ung San Ahn, Seok Hoon Yoon, Andy Spate

9. Economy and Development of Sustainable Tourism

Abstract
The Jeju Island Geopark has a fundamental objective to play an active role in the economic development of the island through enhancement of an identity and mission to link the geological and other heritage with geotourism and public awareness and education. This will require the development with strong and effective links between: (1) the Jeju Island Department of Geoparks, (2) the Jeju Volcanic Island and Lava Tubes World Heritage management office, (3) the Jeju Development Center, (4) other branches of the government of the Jeju Special Self-Governing Province, (5) the nine geosites, (6) other natural and cultural heritage sites and their management, (7) all elements of the tourism industry including transport operators, (8) non-government organizations, (9) schools and academic institutions, and (10) interested individuals.
Kyung Sik Woo, Young Kwan Sohn, Ung San Ahn, Seok Hoon Yoon, Andy Spate

10. Management Plan

Abstract
The purpose of the Management Plan is to provide a framework for the care, control and management of nine geosites as the focal points of the Jeju Island Geopark. The plan supports protection of the geosites, development of geotourism and the ongoing economic development of the Jeju Island Geopark in a sustainable manner. The Plan has three main elements as follows: (1) A management structure to ensure that the geosites are managed sustainably and in a coordinated manner throughout the Jeju Island Geopark in association with other natural, cultural, social and economic sites and values; (2) Site management and monitoring concepts to ensure that the natural and cultural values are protected and enhanced for this and future generations; and (3) The establishment of linkages and systems to promote and develop education, tourism and research can work together to promote and enhance an understanding of geological heritage whilst contributing to Jeju’s economy and social well-being.
Kyung Sik Woo, Young Kwan Sohn, Ung San Ahn, Seok Hoon Yoon, Andy Spate

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