Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
Every site resembles a living organism, and like organisms, sites vary in health. This chapter discusses what “site health” means, and methods for preserving it during construction. Like human health, site health is not easy to define in a simple formula. Prevention is usually more successful—and less expensive—than cure.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Conversely, Ian McHarg often compared humans to a planetary disease, noting how sprawling modern cities seen from on high look like mold growths.
Paul R. Ehrlich et al., “No Middle Way on the Environment,” Atlantic Monthly, Dec 1997, 98–104. See especially p. 101, which lists environmental services and states, “These services operate on such a grand scale, and in such intricate and little-explored ways, that most of them could not be replaced by technology—even if no expense were spared, as Biosphere 2 showed.”
Hard figures on this perennial subject are surprisingly rare. Federal courts have ruled that loss of a single mature tree reduced property value by 9 percent, and have ruled on tree-specific financial losses in other cases. The Urban Land Institute, in a study cosponsored by ASLA (but involving only architects and devel-opment experts in actual research), considers the perception that landscape adds to property value as be-lievable but unproven due to lack of quantification. Developers interviewed for the study indicated a 5 percent increase in value for individual gardens and a 20 percent increase for public landscape amenities affecting the whole development (this increase equals six times the extra construction cost for the amenities). Presumably these figures relate to newly installed landscaping. Lloyd W. Bookout, Michael D. Beyard, and Steven W. Fader, Value by Design: Landscape, Site Planning, and Amenities (Washington DC: Urban Land Institute and American Society of Landscape Architects, 1994). Other anecdotal evidence tends to be in this range, though I have heard realtors state that mature landscapes can add 75 percent to the sale price of a home. Appraisers are more likely than developers to know values for mature landscapes, and a study of appraising formulas would probably be revealing. Some wonderfully varied estimates of the value of specific trees are shown in Table 3.1, p. 158.
Floyd Swink and Gerould Wilhelm, Plants of the Chicago Region, 4th ed. (Indianapolis: Indiana Academy of Science, 1994); supplanted by Gerould Wilhelm and Laura Rericha, Flora of the Chicago Region: A Floristic and Ecological Synthesis (Indianapolis: Indiana Academy of Science, 2017).
See http://universalfqa.org/. Free registration is required.
Thanks to Leslie Sauer for acquainting me with this approach to site health.
See chapter 1 of John D. Peine, Ecosystem Management for Sustainability (Boca Raton FL: CRC Press, 1998).
For an overview and links, see www.santafe.edu/.
James S. Russell, “Wetlands Dilemma,” Architectural Record, Jan 1993, 36–39. The architect was Elide Albert.
Thanks to staff at Holman’s surveying supply in Albuquerque ( www.holmans.com/) for up-to-the-minute information, first on GPS and, for this edition, on drones.
GPS satellites also “rise and set” in the sky; at some times of day, this may affect surveying.
As early as the 2000 edition, we noted a static, non-GPS-linked form of LiDAR used for structural surveys and predicted, “Sustainable work may someday benefit from advanced tools that offer better understanding of the dynamics of each site.” UAS bring this hope a long step closer.
David Bird and Dominique Chabot, “Can Drones Help Our Wildlife?,” Ontario Profes-sional Surveyor, Summer 2015, 8–11. Based on research posted at www.nrcresearchpress.com/journal/juvs, special virtual issue on wildlife of the Journal of Unmanned Vehicle Systems.
Daniel Tal, “More Than Toys,” LAM, Mar 2017, 38–40.
Cost range is from Robert Galvin, “Drones Earn Their Place in Surveying,” Point of Be-ginning, 1 Feb 2016, www.pobonline.com/articles/98067-drones-earn-their-place-in-surveying. Prices are likely to drop, as for most electronics, as more users adopt UAS. Galvin points out that a single conventional aerial photo flight can cost $10,000; thus, a UAS could pay for itself, based on purchase cost alone, after five projects.
For more on Public Lab, see Jennifer Reut, “Open Invitation,” LAM, Oct 2016, 66–74.
Herb Schaal, FASLA, is a master of such methods; see K. Sorvig, “Drawing the Experience of Place,” LAM, Oct 2005, 170–78.
Samira Jafari, “Google Earth Used to Show Effects of Mining,” Associated Press syndicated report, 5 Nov 2006.
Microsoft’s Virtual Earth, released in 2006, appears to have little if any presence in the design world.
The parent company, Placeways, was purchased in December 2016 by City Explained, http://communityviz.city-explained.com/.
The thread is at https://forums.autodesk.com/t5/autocad-forum/autodesk-software-for-landscape-architects/td-p/5625174; there is no guarantee that it will remain posted indefinitely.
Jonathan Lerner, “The Toolmaker,” LAM, Apr 2017, 92–104.
The original design was by Tower Optical Company of Norwalk CT, which began making these iconic tour-ist-trap fixtures in 1932. The term “owl-ized” refers to the viewer looking like an owl’s face.
Concerns about the aging grid work toward better records; fear of terrorism works against it.
For some utilities, it is desirable to have a wide legal easement to keep trespassers away, but the full width does not need to be clear-cut.
Stuart H. McDonald, “Prospect,” LAM, Sep 1993, 120.
Formerly Edison Field.
“U.S. Tower Counts and Site Information Are Often Inaccurate and Purposely Misleading,” Wireless Estimator, http://wirelessestimator.com/articles/2015/u-s-tower-counts-and-site-information-are-often-inaccurate-and-purposely-misleading/. See also Ben Campanelli, “Planning for Cellular Towers,” Planning Commissioners Journal 28 (1997): 4.
An example is the cell-and-clock tower at Arroyo del Oso Golf Course in Albuquerque, where city council members attempted to require that cell towers be concealed.
Robert L. Thayer Jr., Gray World, Green Heart (New York: Wiley, 1994), 46.
Jon Frandsen, “System Uses Cable Instead of Towers,” Gannet News Service, 22 Mar 1998.
John Schaeffer, ed., Solar Living Sourcebook, 9th ed. (Ukiah CA: Real Goods, 1996), 374–76, 546.
Knight Ridder News, “Devices Will Let Households Generate Power, Experts Say,” Santa Fe New Mexican, 7 Jul 1999, A4.
Center for Watershed Protection, “Model Development Principles to Protect Our Streams, Lakes, and Wetlands” (Ellicott City MD: Center for Watershed Protection, 1998). The specific guideline, Principle 19, p. 15: allowable clearing distance. It is based on 1991 standards from the Maryland Department of Natural Resources.
Phillip J. Craul, Urban Soil in Landscape Design (New York: Wiley, 1992), 135–37.
Ibid., 45. The original gives figures per gram of soil; converted by me.
William Thompson, “A Long Road to Freedom,” LAM, Feb 1998, 50–55.
See note 3 above.
Ann Brenoff, “Locution, Locution, Locution,” Los Angeles Times, 14 Jan 2007, dis-cusses various effects of wording in real-estate listings.
R. J. Hauer, R. W. Miller, and D. M. Ouimet, “Street Tree Decline and Construction Dam-age,” Journal of Arboriculture 20, no. 2 (1994): 94–97.
See I. R. Jones et al., “Detection of Large Woody Debris Accumulations in Old-Growth Forests Using Sonic Wave Collection,” Transactions of the Important Tree Scientists 120, no. 2 (Mar 2002): 201–9, www.scq.ubc.ca/detection-of-large-woody-debris-accumulations-in-old-growth-forests-using-sonic-wave-collection/.
Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, “Living with Wildlife: Snags—the Wildlife Tree,” http://wdfw.wa.gov/living/snags/snags.pdf. A useful reference, downloadable.
Craul, Urban Soil, 137.
Robert Adams Ivy Jr., Fay Jones (Washington DC: AIA Press, 1992), 35.
Donald Hoffmann, Frank Lloyd Wright’s Fallingwater: The House and Its History (New York: Dover, 1985).
Information from a photocopied graph attributed to AASHTO; title and date unknown.
Lisa Cowan and David Cowan, “Review of Methods for Low Impact Restoration,” paper presented at the ASLA 1997 Annual Meeting.
Karl Vick, “Closed-Door Deal Could Open Land in Montana,” Washington Post, 5 Jul 2008. Through at least 2015, Plum Creek’s dealings remained in the news, in part because the company merged with Weyerhaeuser.
Kathleen Corish, Clearing and Grading Strategies for Urban Watersheds (Washington DC: Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments, 1995). European laws protecting trees, forests, and special land types are also worth studying.
Alex Wilson, “Dewees Island: More Than Just a Green Development,” EBN, Feb 1997, 5–7. Descriptions that follow are from this article.
- Keep Healthy Sites Healthy
J. William Thompson
- Island Press/Center for Resource Economics
- Principle 1