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This chapter shows that innovation systems could be modelled in two ways. Firstly, from the perspective of a National Innovation System in which firms lead the process of innovation. And secondly, from the perspective of the Triple Helix Model in which the strength of the university—government—firm linkage determines the level of innovation in a country. Government creates the policy and the environment which enables entrepreneurial firms to take knowledge created in university-type environments, and then to transform this knowledge into something of physical use with commercial value. It became apparent that China’s innovation system could be modelled on the basis of the Triple Helix Model which consisted of the university—government—firm/entrepreneur, while India’s innovation was similar but lacked the entrepreneurial/firm level involvement. On the other hand, it also became clear India’s innovation system can be best modelled on the basis of a National Innovation System model rather than on the basis of the Triple Helix Model.
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- Knowledge CreationKnowledge Creation and Knowledge Spillovers: China’s Aggregate Economy
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