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Über dieses Buch

The Springer book series Innovation, Technology, and Knowledge Management was launched in March 2008 as a forum and intellectual, scholarly “podium” for global/local, transdisciplinary, transsectoral, public–private, and leading/“bleeding” -edge ideas, theories, and perspectives on these topics. The book series is accompanied by the Springer Journal of the Knowledge Economy, which was launched in 2009 with the same editorial leadership. The series showcases provocative views that diverge from the current “conv- tional wisdom,” that are properly grounded in theory and practice, and that consider 1 2 the concepts of robust competitiveness, sustainable entrepreneurship, and demo- 3 cratic capitalism, central to its philosophy and objectives. More specifically, the aim of this series is to highlight emerging research and practice at the dynamic intersection of these fields, where individuals, organizations, industries, regions, and nations are harnessing creativity and invention to achieve and sustain growth. Books that are part of the series explore the impact of innovation at the “macro” (economies, markets), “meso” (industries, firms), and “micro” levels. (teams, indi viduals), drawing from such related disciplines as finance, organizational psychology, research and development, science policy, information systems, and 1 We define sustainable entrepreneurship as the creation of viable, profitable, and scalable firms. Such firms engender the formation of self-replicating and mutually enhancing innovation networks and knowledge clusters (innovation ecosystems), leading toward robust competitiveness (E.G. Carayannis, International Journal of Innovation and Regional Development, 1(3), 235–254, 2009).

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Knowledge

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Scenario Setting

We live in the fast-moving times and discontinuous changes of the new age of knowledge, information and access (see Appendix 1), when nimbleness, speed, transparency and local sensitivity have become absolutely essential to success.

The transition from the machine-age to the knowledge-age has raised an awareness of the need to replace the old guard of atom-based firms with a new breed of counter-cultural, digital-rooted companies. They employ brains instead of hands, invest in new concepts and contents rather than in new machines, accept fast change as a constant, and behave as coopetitors who collaborate and compete with other companies at the same time to generate new market spaces, instead of fighting for existing markets.

Thomas Andersson, Martin G. Curley, Piero Formica

Chapter 2. Foundation Laws of Knowledge Dynamics

The coevolution of ideas (the content) and their historical, social, organizational, and institutional forms (the context) has been the mainspring of economic growth throughout history.

It is the flow of energy that makes possible the coevolution that marks one civilization from the next. The energy circuit of the industrial age, such as that of sailing-ship or iron-hulled, ocean-going steamship, differs widely from today.

We live in the “knowledgefication” era in which the flow of energy is a flow of knowledge where innovation is instigated by the ability to create knowledge and manage it.

In a world awash with information, “knowledgefication” creates a difference in the sense that it allows people to discern from dozens of web pages the information needed and to gauge its relevance.

Thomas Andersson, Martin G. Curley, Piero Formica

Chapter 3. The Knowledge Value Chain

The sustained phase of transition to economies characterized by considerable, and sometimes revolutionary, advances in science, technology, and related industries, coupled with subsequent profound changes in economy and society, has increased the importance of the knowledge-intensive phases of production for value creation. As enterprises become more reliant on technology, they will become more dependent on knowledge.

Accordingly, policy makers in a growing number of countries have become increasingly concerned with the management of the entire knowledge chain: from creation to transfer (i.e., the diffusion, conversion, and entrepreneurial exploitation of scientific and technological knowledge). The knowledge chain also has profound implications for higher education institutions and business schools, which, to be successful, need to help companies create knowledge and become part of knowledge streams.

Thomas Andersson, Martin G. Curley, Piero Formica

Chapter 4. Industry and Knowledge Clusters

Clusters can be likened to the living organisms in the rainforest populated by a vast number of species with wide range, such as the parasite, the predator, the symbiont, and the table companion, which will be described in the following paragraph. In the rainforest internal design, which means relationships, is what is valuable. The quality of relationships in a cluster is heavily affected by social capital, which tends to reflect the special characteristics of a particular cluster community in terms of mores, manners, and in the hearts and minds of those who live in it. Social capital thus differs from cluster to cluster, and each cluster is unique – as is the case in a rainforest, where only one of two identical organisms survives. Clusters are “one-of-a-kind,” and not “one-size-fits-all,” living organisms.

Thomas Andersson, Martin G. Curley, Piero Formica

Chapter 5. Embracing Business Ecosystems to Enable Sustainable and Accelerated Innovation

In a successful business ecosystem, the level of interconnection of products is much greater than in traditional business designs. This puts the whole concept beyond the reach of the typical corporate comfort zone. Yet increasing dependence upon an ecosystem is the only way companies will be able to continue competing in the new marketplace.

To build that dependence, and indeed interdependence, the first hurdle executives face is simply to embrace the idea – accept the ecosystem concept and work together for real results. The next step is to identify key players and determine the role of each organization in developing the product ecosystem. Changing needs call for a change in skill sets, and mapping out how those new roles will be executed is an essential part of the game plan. And finally, before putting the plan into action, it is important to determine how to construct positive, win–win relationships. In the old way of thinking, bigger players could put a squeeze on suppliers to get the lowest cost, but they would miss an opportunity to develop a relationship with those suppliers. In building a thriving, successful, and self-reliant ecosystem, leaders who have strong relationships will find themselves with the advantage. Win–lose structures are based on cost alone, but win–win relationships come from working together.

This mentality is carrying over from the business sector into government. Today, we are at the start of a heightened awareness of the power of this new way of thinking, and governments are applying the principles to create national innovation systems. For example, the governments of Singapore and Ireland are attempting to create environments that make it easy for companies to innovate. Instead of keeping strict reins on businesses, they have loosened legal requirements and allowed more flexible labor laws. This has given innovation the freedom to thrive and ecosystems the opportunity to evolve, paving the way for an entire nation to develop momentum.

Thomas Andersson, Martin G. Curley, Piero Formica

Chapter 6. Corporate Management of Knowledge

Corporate management of knowledge (CMK) aims to gather, create, and share knowledge in order to promote organizational innovation that delivers value to the ecosystem of partners, customers, employees, alliances, and other relationships in which the company is involved. There must be a high level of sensitivity toward the interdependence with all those players.

CMK looks at knowledge from the organization’s point of view. In particular, the focus is on organizational innovation that improves organization’s processes as derived from the organization’s business objectives. Contents, contexts, and communities (the “triple C”) capture the essence of this approach.

For the purpose of CMK initiatives and processes, knowledge is categorized as highlighted in Exhibit 46.

Thomas Andersson, Martin G. Curley, Piero Formica

Chapter 7. Knowledge-Relevant Economic Policy: Analyzing Knowledge Policymaking in Managed and Free-Market Economies

Although the power of knowledge to forge the economy and society has never been so memorably and sharply delineated as in current circumstances, most companies have not succeeded, so far, in seizing the vast opportunities available for knowledge innovation. In an ever more demanding market of talents, knowledge capacity is underutilized and industry leaders do not aspire to follow in the talents’ footsteps.

This disheartening economic climate depends on how modern economic policy is shaped. To take a course appropriate to the “knowledgefication” era, the flow of energy needs a proper policy. The distinguished novelist Isabel Paterson laid the foundations of the reasoning behind this recommendation in her masterpiece,

The God of the Machine

, published in 1943.

Sixty years or so later, the time had come to reappraise that theme. In their celebrated book,

The Knowledge Creating Company

, Nonaka and Takeuchi (1995) portrayed the Paterson’s flow of energy as a flow of knowledge (see Chap. 2).

Today, Nonaka’s and Takeuchi’s view is entrenched in managers’ thinking. By far less explored and even more controversial the argument seems to be that the organizational form and its evolution (organizational innovations) at the flow level are under the influence of the political institutions’ workings and, therefore, the government policy through regulation on knowledge creation, dissemination, application, and management.

Indeed, the government policy stance should take something of a front seat in the knowledge economy. Knowledge flows with contained context and values. Knowledge-relevant economic policy (hereafter “knowledge policy”) carries far-reaching implications on both.

Thomas Andersson, Martin G. Curley, Piero Formica

Chapter 8. Global Advance of the Knowledge Economy

As has been discussed already, the impact of the knowledge-based era is pervasive. It does not apply only to individual sectors or only developed countries. Although there is a massive difference in the readiness and ability of different actors to take advantage of the new opportunities and counter the difficulties, change has arrived across the board.

Only a few years ago, it was correctly said, “half humanity has still not made a phone call.” That, being true then, is certainly not true anymore. In great parts of the world, there has been a deep concern about the “digital divide,” reflecting the perception among billions of people around the world that technology has not helped them catch up with developed societies and the anticipation that the latest technological (information) revolution would not be different. True, ICT has in some cases been put to use to acquire computers or develop data banks that were not really needed. There have certainly been excessive costs and inappropriate training, which has left a lot of expensive investment idle and doomed to decay. Such problems are far from done and over with. The fact is, however, that the outlook has shifted in decisive fashion.

With the accelerating diffusion of mobile telephony, the information society is in the process of reaching out. Competition has set in; costs of hardware are coming down; services are becoming user-friendly, even for the illiterate, and with consideration to local conditions calling for energy-intensive and environmental-friendly technologies. People anywhere are getting access to information they could not obtain in the past – information that in many cases is of great value to them, although there could without any doubt be a lot more production of such useful information and a lot less of information that is not useful.

In this chapter, we examine the state of readiness for different parts of the world. Special attention is devoted to the degree to which each of the major regions of what is now referred to as the developing world have advanced in important respects.

Thomas Andersson, Martin G. Curley, Piero Formica

Entrepreneurship

Frontmatter

Chapter 9. The Entrepreneurial Revolution

Historically, the rise of great civilizations has been predicated on

entrepreneurship

– that is, the ability of transforming novel ideas into goods and services that through trade can be bought and sold.

The rise of the Phoenician civilization, as well as the unparalleled growth of the Ancient Maritime Republics (Amalfi, Genoa, Venice, and Pisa) and the city of Amsterdam, was all credited in large part to the entrepreneurial spirit, energy, and initiative of their populations. The Phoenicians are renowned for their seafaring skills and mercantile entrepreneurship. Bold explorers, they pursued entrepreneurial actions that helped break old ways of thinking and open the way for new ideas. The merchant based city-states of Italy thrived – thanks to their adroit entrepreneurship in manufacturing, shipping, and international trade.

Thomas Andersson, Martin G. Curley, Piero Formica

Chapter 10. Types of Entrepreneurs

An entrepreneur is an independent agent who adopts a set of rules, consistent with a “search-and-satisfying” type of behavior, in order to reach goals such as the growth and profitability of his or her company. In doing this, curiosity and an instinct for exploration drive the entrepreneur – a combination in which intentional action and the faculty of making lucky and unexpected finds by accident sit side by side.

Somehow, entrepreneurs are the incarnation in the real world of the characters of a fairy story, “The Three Princes of Serendip,”

1

who “were always making discoveries, by accidents and sagacity, of things they were not in quest of.” They accept that everything is a matter of degree – that is, they “expect every ‘well-formed’ statement to be not true or false, but true more or less or false somewhat.” In other words, they believe that “A and not-A holds to any degree” (Kosko 1994). By the way, this logic, which is of Buddhist origin and has been defined as “multivalent” or “fuzzy,” in contrast to Aristotle’s “bivalent” logic, marks the most distant frontier between entrepreneurs and those scientists, mostly from the Western culture, who deem that fuzzy logic is wrong and pernicious, notwithstanding the number of innovations that originated from it.

Thomas Andersson, Martin G. Curley, Piero Formica

Chapter 11. Entrepreneurial and Corporate Universities

Better-educated individuals raise the potential to start new businesses. Investment in tertiary education ought to be diverted toward innovative educational institutions that allow people to acquire skills they need to recognize and pursue business opportunities. The entrepreneurial universities are the most advanced forms of educational institutions embarking upon a new wave of teaching and learning methodologies in the field of entrepreneurship. Besides, these institutions harvest, in the marketplace, the fruits of university research, capitalize on business development thanks to the know how of professors, researchers, graduates and students, and provokes new company formation in the knowledge-based industries.

According to David Blunkett, the United Kingdom’s former Secretary of State for Education, “In the knowledge economy, entrepreneurial universities will be as important as entrepreneurial businesses.” In fact, to address the phenomenon of entrepreneurship and accelerate its pace, the most dynamic economies are producing innovative types of social and business models for advanced education.

Thomas Andersson, Martin G. Curley, Piero Formica

Chapter 12. Small Business and Entrepreneurial Growth Companies

The quality of entrepreneurship evokes the difference between small business ventures and entrepreneurial growth companies.

The creation of entrepreneurship in terms of the quantity of new ventures does not automatically assure profitable changes. The success of the enterprise economy machine depends on the quality of its engine – that is, the process of allocating resources for the generation of productive and innovation-driven rather than rent-seeking undertakings. Rent-seeking activities promote forces that choose corporatism over enterprise, and are responsible for a blatant abuse of power. In contrast, productive enterprises constitute the army trained to fight on the ground of competition.

On the one hand, a small business venture tends to be independently owned and operated, not dominant in its field, and not engaged in new marketing or innovative practices. On the other hand, the principal goals of an entrepreneurial venture are profitability and growth, and the business is characterized by innovative strategic practices.

Thomas Andersson, Martin G. Curley, Piero Formica

Chapter 13. Native and International Entrepreneurship

A new anatomy of the entrepreneurial body is emerging with increased mobility of people who travel, visit, study, or work without restraint outside their native countries. Moreover, the Internet-mediated economy facilitates personal ties and continued access to one’s home culture. Physical proximity is, therefore, no longer the most important factor in discouraging networking on a world scale.

Mobility across borders and novel scientific-technological capabilities are driving a transition from the traditional form of entrepreneurship (we call it “native entrepreneurship,” to typify the locally oriented and static behavior of the entrepreneurial context) organized along lines of geographical proximity and cultural identity to a new form called international entrepreneurship, which is one of the most visible manifestations of a process of cultural integration that happens through a global spread of ideas.

Native entrepreneurship resembles an island whose borders are dictated by the natural barriers of its physical space. What is more, the proximity effect creates other types of barriers – those raised by family favoritism, crony capitalism, ethnic, racial or religious factionalism, which have oftentimes prevented native new ventures from succeeding.

Thomas Andersson, Martin G. Curley, Piero Formica

Chapter 14. Laboratory Experiments as a Tool in Empirical Economic Analysis of High-Expectation Entrepreneurship

Experimentation for the entrepreneur will often focus on adoption of the innovation and the value that is created for both the end consumer of the innovation and the entrepreneur and the potential ecosystem that is required to deliver the innovation. For an innovation to be sustainable the innovation has to deliver value to the end consumer, the entrepreneur, and the innovation and delivery ecosystem, otherwise the innovation and entrepreneurial activity half-life will be short.

Experiments point out how high-expectation entrepreneurs should cultivate market outcomes, which behavior should guide trust building between the former and their potential financiers, and how policy makers should design and test “rules of the game.” Persistent beta states (i.e., states associated with normal waking consciousness) for the business model and underpinning venture offerings become the norm. Rapid experiment iteration and rapid solution prototyping go hand-in-hand for the high-expectation entrepreneur, with plateaus of stability introduced to the iteration cycles, to enable commercialization and value capture from the evolving offerings.

The educational context under which high-expectation entrepreneurship could be cultivated would draw benefits from experiences made in the medical schools where different performance learning modes are created whose real impact is part of the educational and research activity. In particular, a business school should go beyond doing detached diagnoses, to really developing experiments, even of a therapeutic kind, and testing them clinically in interaction with private and public organizations.

Thomas Andersson, Martin G. Curley, Piero Formica

Backmatter

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