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Computer Aided Design (CAD) technology plays a key role in today's advanced manufacturing environment. To reduce the time to market, achieve zero defect quality the first time, and use available production and logistics resources effectively, product and design process knowledge covering the whole product life-cycle must be used throughout product design. Once generated, this intensive design knowledge should be made available to later life-cycle activities. Due to the increasing concern about global environmental issues and rapidly changing economical situation worldwide, design must exhibit high performance not only in quality and productivity, but also in life-cycle issues, including extended producer's liability. These goals require designers and engineers to use various kinds of design knowledge intensively during product design and to generate design information for use in later stages of the product life-cycle such as production, distribution, operation, maintenance, reclamation, and recycling. Therefore, future CAD systems must incorporate product and design process knowledge, which are not explicitly dealt with in the current systems, in their design tools and design object models.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Architecture for Knowledge Intensive CAD

Frontmatter

1. An Intellectual Infrastructure for Integrating Design Knowledge

Abstract
This paper analyzes the contradictions which hamper the collaboration of various stakeholders in evaluating early design concept, and defines a structural model of functional requirements for a team of catalytic consultants, which can facilitate self-organization of design knowledge and is named “SINPL-MEGANET ”.
Yusaku Shibata

2. An experimental environment for exchanging engineering design knowledge by cognitive agents

Abstract
Large engineering design projects involve many different disciplines each with their own area of concern and expertise. A large amount of information (design data and knowledge) is processed and exchanged among such disciplines, and even within each discipline. Traditional computer environments cannot cope easily with such complex situations. Hence new approaches must be sought. This paper presents an experimental design environment organized as a population of asynchronous cognitive agents. Issues about the general architecture, the internal structure of an agent and inter-agent communication mechanism are discussed. A prototype including a number of independent agents is then presented and demonstrated on a small mechanical design.
W. Shen, J.-P. A. Barthès

3. PICCSS: Problem Interactive Clarification and Concurrent Solving System

Abstract
This paper proposes the system named as ‘PICCSS’(Problem Interactive Clarification and Concurrent Solving System). PICCSS is developed for application of the Concurrent Problem Solving (CPS) framework. The CPS framework provides a new problem solving paradigm. The main features of CPS are 1) connection-oriented knowledge representation, 2) top-down function refinement, and 3) integration of spatial and temporal structures. PICCSS can support a designer on conceptual design problems where a product and manufacturing processes should be considered. After illustrating PICCSS architecture, the sequence of using PICCSS to design a product and make its manufacturing plan is described using an example of designing a certain mechanical pump. This experimental case study shows that PICCSS can deal with the conceptual design and provide not only a rough product draft but also a rough manufacturing plan very efficiently. This paper demonstrates these results with the reusable knowledge for mechanical design. Finally, our system is evaluated from some viewpoints and future enhancements to be made are given.
Y. Nishioka, S. Nakasuka, K. Hori

4. A formal theory for knowledge-based product model representation

Abstract
The field of design science attempts to place engineering design on a more formal, rigorous footing. This paper introduces recent work by the author in this area. Artifact-Centered Modeling (ACM) is a general framework intended to partition the design endeavor in manageable sections. A fundamental part of ACM is the representation of information about products being designed. The Axiomatic Information Model for Design (AIM-D) is a formal theory about product information based on axiomatic set theory. AIM-D provides formal bases for quantities, features, parts and assemblies, systems, and subassemblies; these are all notions essential to design. It is not a product modeling system per se, but rather a logic of product structure whose axioms define criteria for determining the logical validity of product models. A previous version of the theory has been found to contain logical inconsistencies; the version presented herein addresses those problems. A complete axiomatization of the new theory is given, including a discussion of its validity. One of the obvious applications of AIM-D is in the development of knowledge-based systems for design. The author is currently implementing such a system using AIM-D as its foundation. The system, called Designer, provides the logical rigor of AIM-D within a computerized environment. At the user’s level, the system appears to be an object-oriented knowledge-base capable of representing information about all the kinds of entities represented in AIM-D. Although still under development, a discussion of the design and implementation plans for Designer is given.
Filippo A. Salustri

5. Knowledge Based Design of Complex Products by the Concept of Design Working Spaces

Abstract
In this article an approach is shown to support knowledge intensive engineering along the product-life-cycle. The approach supports the design of complex products by the concept of design working spaces. A design working space is an eucledian space and builds the framework for a methodological decomposition of complex design problems into sub-problems. The sub-problems are evaluated by a knowledge based design system which is flexible and evaluates problems along the product-life-cycle phases. With an example we describe the knowledge based design system for knowledge intensive design activities.
H. Grabowski, R.-S. Lossack

Methodologies for Knowledge Intensive CAD

Frontmatter

6. Design Innovation Guided by Modeling Assumptions

Abstract
In this paper we propose a method for innovation in design based on relaxing modeling assumptions. A design process is innovative if it can expand the design space it searches beyond the space defined by the initial problem formulation. Typically, an engineering design problem is formalized as a set of constraints that must be met on various properties of the resulting design (e.g., weight), and an objective function on these properties to be optimized. The properties are defined by giving a set of equations for deriving them, and the parameters in these equations define the search space. However, these equations normally are simplified models of the general underlying physics, based on various assumptions (e.g., radial symmetry) about the artifact being modeled. We present a method of expanding the initial design space, when it does not contain any acceptable designs, by introducing new parameters, based on a process of relaxing the assumptions underlying the given models of the physical properties. Our technique rationalizes the Dimensional Variable Expansion approach to innovative design found in the literature, and generalizes it.
Jyotibikas Bhattacharya, Louis Steinberg

7. On Design Evaluation Based on Functional Modeling

Abstract
During early stages of the design process, functional descriptions are often used to describe the design object behavior. Based on the knowledge of such functional descriptions of the design object (i.e. the design parameters contained in these functional relationships), the Pi-theorem is used to derive the associated dimensionless groups. These dimensionless groups are shown to fulfill the necessary conditions commonly expected of evaluation parameters. Based on the validity of the consequently established evaluation hypothesis that “any minimal description in the sense of the Pi-theorem is an evaluation”, these automatically generated dimensionless groups then serve as evaluation parameters for the purpose of design object evaluation.
The properties of this evaluation method, such as minimality, completeness, hierarchical decomposition, consistency, causality and sensitivity analysis of the design variables, are derived and discussed. A brief example of the conceptual design of a gas turbine shows the feasibility of the suggested approach. This design evaluation method should in principle be common to the reasoning process of the engineer since it relies on the traditional engineering technique of dimensional analysis.
Stephan Rudolph

Design Knowledge Representation

Frontmatter

8. Case Studies of Ontology for the Knowledge Intensive Engineering Framework

Abstract
Knowledge intensive engineering is a new style of engineering in which engineering knowledge is used in a flexible and integrated manner and aims at generating more added value. A Knowledge Intensive Engineering Framework (KIEF) is a computational framework for knowledge intensive engineering. To develop KIEF, we have to build a Very Large-scale Knowledge Base (VLKB) that contains a wide variety of engineering design knowledge, from commonsense knowledge about the physical world to domain specific knowledge systematized as physics theories. VLKB for KIEF has a system of fundamental concepts called “ontology.” This paper describes the role of the ontology in KIEF, and validates the effectiveness of our approach through case studies.
Takayuki Sekiya, Tetsuo Tomiyama

9. Active Catalog: A Knowledge-Rich Design Library Facilitating Information Consumption

Abstract
A catalog is a basic resource to a number of people and disciplines ranging from shoppers to companies wanting to sell products. They have traditionally been in paper form and are due for rapid revolution in content and presentation because of the existence of the Internet and the World Wide Web. This paper deals with one component in such a revolution; a component aimed, initially, at aiding the design engineer and later other users.
Today’s engineering design methodology, in the search for minimum time-to-market, emphasizes reusing existing reliable components wherever possible. This, in turn, requires components to be described in forms useful to the engineer and in forms that help in finding the information about the component in the first place. It also raises new challenges in support for not only efficiently retrieval of information but also for powerful mechanisms for information evaluation and consumption. Although rich in content, today’s catalogs and libraries of catalogs and other information are poor in using domain knowledge to help designers to access information in catalogs and libraries during the course of a design. Consumption (in the engineering case) requires the descriptive information to be incorporated not only in documents and drawings but also in simulations of as many modalities as are deemed necessary for performing the engineering task.
In this paper, we describe a prototype system, ACTIVE CATALOG, that utilizes a rich body of domain knowledge to facilitate the access and consumption of library contents. The domain knowledge-base system provides a vocabulary that is at a much higher level of conceptualization than that used by traditional database query or the key-word match technique widely employed by Web applications. Based on the knowledge of the domain and the meaning of the queries specified in this vocabulary, a search engine accesses library components that satisfy the “semantics” defined by the queries. In addition, ACTIVE CATALOG, suggested by its name, adds to traditional library contents such as textual and image information, a rich set of models of different modalities. The system, in turn, allows a designer to down-load models, viewers, running code or simulation code to evaluate dynamic and behavioral aspects of a component in a systems environment via interactive simulation before committing the component for prototype or production use.
ACTIVE CATALOG methodology of use supports a new “Try-Before-You-Buy” methodology.
Ping Luo, Peter Will

10. Graphical Presentation of Designs: A Knowledge Intensive Design Approach

Abstract
The basis of Knowledge Intensive CAD (KIC) is that “intensive life-cycle knowledge regarding products and design processes must be incorporated in the center of the CAD architecture.” We would like to extend this concept slightly by concentrating on the presentation of designs and design information to the designer. In this we argue that knowledge about some aspects of the design process must be included in the presentation phase of the CAD system. In addition we propose that presentation itself is a design process and give a description of this process.
Marton E. Balazs, David C. Brown, Peter Bastien, Craig E. Wills

11. The RACE Asynchronous Collaboration Environment Project

Abstract
The RACE Asynchronous Collaboration Environment Project (the “RACE” Project) is in progress at Research into Artifacts, Center for Engineering (RACE), the University of Tokyo. The objective of this project is to find knowledge representation that is useful for the process of reorganizing existing information into design knowledge. As a testbed of such knowledge representation, an asynchronous and distributed design environment is being built on the basis of the World-Wide Web.
T. Kiriyama, A. Kubota

12. Object Modeling to Localize Knowledge for Feature Interrelationships

Abstract
Effective object-oriented software support of knowledge intensive CAD requires extension of the object-oriented paradigm because its hierarchies are fundamentally based upon ancestral relations. Propagations are proposed as an extension to facilitate modeling of interrelationships between features. Such object modeling provides an effective software tool for localized perspectives upon design knowledge stored in rule and case bases. These local views show promise as a means to avoid the combinatorial explosions common to knowledge based systems, as will be discussed with respect to a completed industrial example and to ongoing work on rapid prototyping data.
T. J. Peters, S. A. Demurjian, R. McCartney, D. M. Needham

13. Structuring Knowledge of Life-Cycle Consequences for Supporting Concurrent Design Exploration

Abstract
This paper is concerned with the development of a model for knowledge of consequences which can support provident reasoning design. The work is focused on part design synthesis decision making so as to support individual designers engaged in life-cycle design exploration. The emerging model is one based on structured relationships between a number of aspects which are considered to be the source of life-cycle consequences, namely Features [F], Parameter values [V], Material [M], Constraints [C] and Process [P] factors. The approach is seen to be a framework for the systematization of domain knowledge which can subsequently be employed in a Knowledge Intensive CAD system for supporting concurrent design of components. Examples in the approach are drawn from the domain of injection moulded plastic components.
J. Borg, K. J. MacCallum

14. Classification of Geometric Design Information and Manipulation for Vague Geometric Modelling

Abstract
Conventional CAD systems have made significant contributions towards the detailed modelling and analysis of geometric designs, but are generally incapable of supporting the early conceptualisation and synthesis stages of design. To overcome this weakness, these systems need to improve in several areas: (a) they should be able to support designers in establishing geometric models using vague geometric information; (b) suitable manipulations should be available to evolve vague geometric models towards the final definite design; and (c) while using the systems, the designers should not need to alter their course of design unnecessarily or unnaturally. This paper discusses these key requirements based on experience from developing a prototype system for early geometric configuration design. Geometric information, manipulations and the corresponding design process are examined and classified. Finally, brief description is given on the geometric configuration system being developed to explore these requirements.
X. Guan, K. J. MacCallum, A. H. B. Duffy

15. Dealing with standard components for knowledge intensive CAD

Abstract
The design of engineering sub-assemblies is an essential and important part of any machine or system design activity. These sub-assemblies are a combination of custom designed elements and standard components from manufacturers catalogues. This paper describes the way in which these elements can considered in an integrated manner at an early stage in the design process. This is achieved by the development of an integrated hierarchical structure and the parametric representation of catalogue information.
S. J. Culley, G. Theobald

Knowledge Intensive Design for the Life-Cycle

Frontmatter

16. Supporting Multiple Views in Design for Manufacture

Abstract
While concurrent engineering has become an accepted philosophy, its implementation leads to a need for radically different software support tools than those that are currently in the marketplace. This paper discusses the requirements for such tools, with emphasis on providing support in design for manufacture. The paper highlights recent progress in providing data driven design for manufacture support for injection moulded products based on the use of both Product and Manufacturing Models. This concept is then used to explore ideas which have the potential to provide design support where multiple manufacturing processes impinge on design decisions. The use of product range models, multiple view representations of product data and data interpretation mechanisms to release manufacturing information are discussed.
R. I. M. Young

17. Integrating Electrical and Mechanical Design and Process Planning

Abstract
This paper reports on the development of the process-planning module for EDAPS, an integrated system for designing and planning the manufacture of microwave modules. Microwave modules are complex devices having both electrical and mechanical properties, and EDAPS integrates electrical design, mechanical design, and process planning for both the mechanical and electrical domains.
EDAPS’s process planning module provides an integrated approach to process planning in both the electronic and mechanical domains, specifically in the manufacture of microwave transmit-receive (T/R) modules. It enables EDAPS to generate process plans concurrently with design-and we are developing ways for EDAPS to use the process planning information provide feedback to designers about manufacturability, cost, and lead time for manufacturing their designs.
The planning module is based on a modified version of an AI planning methodology called Hierarchical Task Network (HTN) planning. We provide an overview of its operation, and compare and contrast it to how HTN planning is normally done.
S. J. J. Smith, K. Hebbar, D. S. Nau, I. Minis

Report on Working Groups

Frontmatter

18. Which way to KIC?

Abstract
This paper is a report of the discussions of three working groups at the KIC-2 workshop. The groups were assigned to discuss System Architectures, Representations, and Delivered Systems, and were charged with addressing topics from the point of view of Research Achievements, Research Issues, and Industry Needs.
David C. Brown

Backmatter

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