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Über dieses Buch

A compact guide to knowledge management, this book makes the subject accessible without oversimplifying it. Organizational issues like strategy and culture are discussed in the context of typical knowledge management processes. The focus is always on pointing out all the issues that need to be taken into account in order to make knowledge management a success. The book then goes on to explore the role of information technology as an enabler of knowledge management relating various technologies to the knowledge management processes, showing the reader what can, and what cannot, be achieved through technology. Throughout the book, references to lessons learned from past projects underline the arguments. Managers will find this book a valuable guide for implementing their own initiatives, while researchers and system designers will find plenty of ideas for future work.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Background

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction

Abstract
The herd is grazing near a small river. A light wind is blowing over the plain. The hunters are lying low behind a ridge, in small groups. They are good hunters: They know where to hide so the herd cannot smell them. Together, they move. The tribe will have a feast tonight.
Herwig Rollett

Chapter 2. Two Complementary Views

Abstract
The most common type of knowledge management framework is based on identifying a number of different processes and then taking those as the foundation for further discussions. Many frameworks of this kind have been proposed as experience has shown their usefulness [97, 146]. Superficially, most of these process-based frameworks appear fairly similar. The differences lie in the details and can be attributed to the intended use of the framework in question.
Herwig Rollett

Chapter 3. Lessons Learned from Past Projects

Abstract
Knowledge management as a topic has attracted a lot of interest in the past few years, and many knowledge management projects have already been conducted in various organizations. Some were outstanding successes, others dismal failures. From the wealth of experiences gained in those projects, valuable lessons can be learned. With the help of these lessons learned, approaching knowledge management is less guesswork based on purely theoretical models, and more grounded in practical experience.
Herwig Rollett

Processes

Frontmatter

Chapter 4. Knowledge Planning

Abstract
Sometimes, by chance, and with a lot of luck, letting chaos reign may actually work. Unless you are willing to stake the future of your organization on that rather slim chance, however, careful planning is imperative for knowledge management.
Herwig Rollett

Chapter 5. Creating Knowledge

Abstract
Many of the approaches discussed under the umbrella of knowledge management are concerned primarily with exploiting existing knowledge. But where does knowledge come from in the first place? This chapter focuses on knowledge creation. That means the development of genuinely new knowledge, as opposed to the more general topic of learning which also includes the absorption of knowledge that already exists elsewhere. The latter is discussed in chapter 6.
Herwig Rollett

Chapter 6. Integrating Knowledge

Abstract
The previous chapter has focused on the creation of new knowledge. This chapter is about making existing knowledge available to an organization. First, ways of acquiring knowledge from external sources are considered, such as hiring and training staff, cooperating with other organizations, and buying knowledge products. After that, the chapter moves on to knowledge that already exists within the company in some form, but is in danger of getting lost or is simply not accessible to all who would benefit from it, particularly if it is locked away in the heads of some employees. The task of discovering knowledge that has not previously been recognized as such in corporate repositories is also discussed. Finally, the role of incentive schemes for integrating knowledge is considered.
Herwig Rollett

Chapter 7. Organizing Knowledge

Abstract
The previous two chapters have dealt with the creation of new knowledge and with making existing knowledge accessible to a company. In order to really contribute to value creation, however, knowledge has to be not only present and accessible, but also organized in an appropriate fashion.
Herwig Rollett

Chapter 8. Transferring Knowledge

Abstract
All the knowledge collected by a company will only amount to a huge, useless knowledge junkyard unless it is transferred to those people who actually create value by putting that knowledge to use. This chapter looks at different ways to transfer knowledge, provides some guidance on how to choose an appropriate method, considers the role of filtering and the presentation of knowledge, and finally takes a look at the transfer of tacit knowledge.
Herwig Rollett

Chapter 9. Maintaining Knowledge

Abstract
One of the important lessons learned in chapter 3 has been that there is a need for ongoing maintenance of knowledge. This chapter discusses that process in more detail. First, the requirements for knowledge maintenance are clarified by considering the various business drivers which make this process necessary in the first place. After that, the different kinds of knowledge that have to be maintained are identified. A description of actions to be taken in order to maintain that knowledge follows. Finally, the question of who should be responsible for maintaining knowledge is considered.
Herwig Rollett

Chapter 10. Assessing Knowledge

Abstract
Assessing knowledge can take a number of forms. This chapter first provides an overview of different approaches. The most important contribution is made measuring intellectual capital. The chapter then describes the steps typically involved in such an endeavor: Strategic modeling, generating and selecting indicators, implementation and measurement, and interpretation and feedback.
Herwig Rollett

Technologies

Frontmatter

Chapter 11. Communication

Abstract
Without communication, there could be no knowledge management. This chapter takes a look at various technologies extending peoples’ reach. After an overview of communication technologies, their relevance to each of the knowledge management processes is discussed. Finally, open issues and opportunities for future research and development are explored.
Herwig Rollett

Chapter 12. Collaboration

Abstract
The first big wave applications for personal computers consisted of tools like word processors and spreadsheets, supporting individual knowledge workers. As soon as a significant fraction of those personal computers became networked, however, a new category of applications established itself: Tools supporting collaboration.
Herwig Rollett

Chapter 13. Content Creation

Abstract
Specialized tools enable the creation of various kinds of content ranging from text documents to expertise profiles. This chapter provides an overview of such tools, discusses their relevance to knowledge management, and points out issues arising in the context of their use.
Herwig Rollett

Chapter 14. Content Management

Abstract
The idea behind both content management systems and document management systems is to support the management of pieces of information over their whole lifecycle. While document management systems deal with complete documents, content management systems typically handle smaller chunks of information which are then joined together as needed. The focus of document management is primarily on providing efficient access to existing documents rather than on manipulating what is inside of those documents. Content management is also concerned with creating and editing smaller pieces of content, and with dynamically creating documents from those pieces.
Herwig Rollett

Chapter 15. Adaptation

Abstract
Adaptation technologies deal with tailoring content to particular users or groups of users. On the one hand, they are concerned with selecting and reformatting content for certain tasks. On the other hand, these technologies offer choices for rendering that content in a way appropriate to the target audience. This chapter briefly surveys such technologies, discusses their relevance to knowledge management, and points out related issues.
Herwig Rollett

Chapter 16. eLearning

Abstract
Information technology has opened up a whole new range of possibilities for distance education. This chapter briefly describes the evolution of eLearning environments, assesses the relevance of eLearning to knowledge managemet, and identifies a number of open issues.
Herwig Rollett

Chapter 17. Personal Tools

Abstract
Knowledge management solutions developed with organizational goals in mind often tend to neglect the perspective of the individual user. Personal knowledge tools, by contrast, focus primarily on the needs of the individual. Although some of these tools do have features for collaborating and sharing knowledge with other people, their most important aim is to support knowledge management in a way that accommodates individual thinking styles and working habits.
Herwig Rollett

Chapter 18. Artificial Intelligence

Abstract
Artificial intelligence research has been dealing with knowledge in computer systems long before knowledge management became a popular concept in business. This chapter provides a brief overview of some important artificial intelligence technologies, assesses their relevance to knowledge management, and points out issues arising in this context.
Herwig Rollett

Chapter 19. Networking

Abstract
While people networks are central to knowledge management, computer networks do not play quite as prominent a role. They do, however, constitute an essential enabler of many knowledge management applications. This chapter provides a quick overview of network-related technologies one should be aware of, assesses their relevance to knowledge management, and discusses issues arising in connection with their use.
Herwig Rollett

Chapter 20. Standards

Abstract
No single software package can serve all knowledge management purposes. Trying to standardize the functionality of systems may not make much sense, but appropriate standards for exchanging information will allow different tools to work togetehr. This chapter surveys the most important standards, discusses their relevance to knowledge management, and points out issues to be considered in this context.
Herwig Rollett

Chapter 21. Hardware

Abstract
Just as information technology as a whole does not constitute the main focus of knowledge management, but rather acts as an enabler, hardware components are the prerequisite for any information technology support of knowledge management. This chapetr first gives a brief overview of the kinds of harware relevant to knowledge management, beginning with basic infrastructure and moving on to useful additions. After that, the relevance of hardware to the individual knowledge management processes is examined and some open issues are pointed out.
Herwig Rollett

Chapter 22. Summary

Abstract
Knowledge management is, first and foremost, a way of thinking. It is a way of thinking for managers: It draws attention to aspects which previously have often been neglected. In another sense, it is also a way of thinking for all employees: A knowledge-friendly culture increasingly determines the success of the company as a whole.
Herwig Rollett

Backmatter

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