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Climate change is broadly recognized as a key environmental issue affecting social and ecological systems worldwide. At the Cancun summit of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change’s 16th Conference, the parties jointly agreed that the vulnerable groups particularly in developing countries and whose livelihood is based on land use practices are the most common victims as in most cases their activities are shaped by the climate. Therefore, solving the climate dilemma through mitigation processes and scientific research is an ethical concern. Thus combining the knowledge systems of the societies and scientific evidences can greatly assist in the creation of coping mechanisms for sustainable development in a situation of changing climate. International Humboldt Kolleg focusing on “knowledge systems of societies and Climate Change” was organized at ISEC. This event was of unique importance, as the year 2011-12 was celebrated as the 60th Anniversary of Diplomatic Relations between India and Germany with the motto "Germany and India - Infinite Opportunities." This volume is the outcome of the papers presented during the IHK 2011 at ISEC, India.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Knowledge Systems of Societies for Adaptation and Mitigation of Impacts of Climate Change: Prologue

India and Germany, as a mark of 60 years of diplomatic relations between them, hosted year-long programmes in their respective countries during 2011–2012. To strengthen the relationship further, a Year of Germany in India was organised under the motto ‘Infinite Opportunities—Germany and India 2011–2012’ with the theme, ‘StadtRäume—CitySpaces’. In this purview the International Humboldt Kolleg convened by Sunil Nautiyal was held at the Institute for Social and Economic Change, Bangalore, with the support of the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation towards strengthening the future research collaboration between Germany and India.

Sunil Nautiyal, K. S. Rao, H. Kaechele, K. V. Raju, R. Schaldach

Accepting Climate Change Challenges: Gambling with the Future or Path-Finding for Long-Term Sustainability?

In recent 20 years, plenty of progress has been made in regard to climate impact and global change related research. While scientific knowledge about the unbridled process of global warming and its associated impacts has increased tremendously, societal and political responses to this challenge seems to be uncoordinated and not target driven.

J. P. Kropp

Ethics of International Action on Climate Change: How Would Mahatma Gandhi Have Looked at it?

Moral responsibilities and Equity are the twin principles to guide mitigation of climate change, both for developed and developing countries, both between and within them. They refer as much to action taken as to emission rights. Instead of taking up the same old eco-destructive path based on endless multiplication of wants, developing countries should find development alternatives and lifestyles which are sustainable as per Gandhi's vision. Equity requires allotment of equal per capita carbon rights.

M. V. Nadkarni

Ethical Analysis of the Global Climate Dilemma

Prof MV Nadkarni in ‘Ethics for our Times’ says that ethical propositions apply to everyone. Ethics like Economics, involves choice between different kinds of life. It promotes the welfare of all. Ethics is not meant only for individuals acting in isolation. It is in the 21st century that people have realized the true interdependence of all people in the world. Carbon emissions and climate change have led to understanding that development in one part of the world can harm others and in the future as well.

S. L. Rao

Ecosystem-Resilience: A Long Journey to Nature Policy

Does nature have her own well-being interests, just as children or future generations have? If humans are part of nature, are they responsible for nature? If the answer is yes, then there arise two fundamental questions. First, is it enough to leave it to science to understand nature and her well-being interests? Is it enough to leave it to science to understand

how

we might fulfil our responsibility for safeguarding nature’s or our own well-being interests? Secondly, who will protect nature’s well-being interests, if nature cannot do it herself in those situations where she comes under the destructive impact of human activity? Similar questions arise regarding children and the future generations.

Giridhari Lal Pandit

Climate Change Induced Coral Bleaching and Algal Phase Shift in Reefs of the Gulf of Mannar, India

Algal phase shift established in bleaching suffered coral reef ecosystem of Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve, South India has been evident in this study during summer 2010. Occurrence of coral bleaching in this region is due to increase in the sea surface temperature (SST), an indicator of climate change in the ocean as organisms respond physiologically to temperature. Bleaching was effective in massive corals when compared to branching coral colonies. Existence of unusual increase in SST for nearly 50 days has been inferred as the cause for bleaching. Mean SST in Gulf of Mannar is rising at the rate of 0.02°C per decade along with 0.1°C increase per decade in minimum SST. It was observed that massive coral forms have fast recovery from bleaching than the branching forms of corals. Non-recovered bleached branching coral forms were witnessed with high algal assemblage cover accompanied by native as well as exotic species. It is concluded that there is possibility of phase shift due to transformation of coral dominated system into algae dominated system in reef ecosystem of Gulf of Mannar, if the SST continuous to increase in future. Such shift will definitely affect the ecosystem services rendered by the coral reefs biodiversity available in the Gulf of Mannar reserve.

J. Joyson Joe Jeevamani, B. Kamalakannan, N. Arun Nagendran, S. Chandrasekaran

Economic Valuation and Sustainability of Dal Lake Ecosystem in Jammu and Kashmir

Natural resources are capital endowments that determine a nation’s wealth and its status in the world economic system. A natural resource is characterized by amounts of biodiversity and geo-diversity existing in various ecosystems. Considering the necessity of these resources, the major concern is to operate an economy within the ecological constraints of earth’s natural resources. Among various resources, water is of immense importance and its various uses include agriculture, industrial, household, recreational, and environmental activities.

M. H. Wani, S. H. Baba, Shahid Yousuf, S. A. Mir, F. A. Shaheen

Biodiversity Conservation, Sustainable Agriculture and Climate Change: A Complex Interrelationship

Biodiversity means a variety of life forms. Regions, home to many different species, are high in biodiversity. Ecosystems with high biodiversity are characterized by complex interactions between different species, which can help the ecosystem remain intact and healthy in the face of disturbance and environmental change. For this reason, looking at biodiversity is a good parameter for assessing the overall health of an ecosystem. Beside habitat loss and fragmentation, overexploitation, pollution, and the impact of invasive alien species, climate change is a serious environmental challenge that could undermine the drive for sustainable development. As a result, governments, communities, and civil society are increasingly concerned with anticipating the future effects of climate change while searching for strategies to mitigate, and adapt to, it’s ill effects.

I. S. Bisht

The Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Insect Pests in Cultivated Ecosystems: An Indian Perspective

Climate change is a variation either in the mean state of the climate or variability in its components, persisting for an extended period. It encompasses temperature increase; sea-level rise, changes in precipitation patterns and increases in the frequency of extreme weather events. These changes have drastic impacts on the economy of agriculture based, biodiversity rich countries like India. Biodiversity and climate change are closely linked and each impacts upon the other.

A. K. Chakravarthy, B. Doddabasappa, P. R. Shashank

Arsenic Groundwater Contamination Related Socio-Economic Problems in India: Issues and Challenges

Water is increasingly becoming a scarce resource, both in terms of quantity as well as quality. Due to increasing population growth, urbanization and rapid industrialization, surface water and groundwater in many places have become scarce resources. Over the years, excess exploitation of both groundwater and surface water resources has caused serious problems in water pollution, as almost 70 per cent of total surface water resources and growing percentages of groundwater are contaminated by biological, toxic, organic and inorganic pollutants (Ministry of water resources 2000).

Barun Kumar Thakur, Vijaya Gupta, Utpal Chattopadhyay

Climate Change and Tomography

Ocean acoustic tomography was first developed by Munk and Wunsch (1979), Munk et al. (1995) and who used it to generate temperature profile of sea water using acoustics. Cornuelle (1985, 2008) have used tomographic methods to generate temperature profiles. It has been already reported in literature that a temperature difference of 1 °C in sea water results in a difference of 4 m/s in speed of acoustic waves passing through it. This indicates that waves passing through different temperatures will have different time of flight to reach the same distance. This phenomenon can be used to regenerate the temperature profile of the path traversed by the wave (ray) from projection data. Sea water acts as a good medium for sound waves to travel long distances. These waves get destructed by many ways such as noise produced by naval ships, noise produced by sea mammals and other similar sounds.

Manish Kumar Bajpai, Brajesh Pande, Phalguni Gupta, Prabhat Munshi

Rethinking Sustainable Development in the Context of Climate Change: Self-Development, Social Transformations and Planetary Realizations

…What is managed under the policy of sustainable development is not the path towards a more sustainable future, but rather the inability and unwillingness to become sustainable.

Ananta Kumar Giri

Biofuels Utilisation: An Attempt to Reduce GHG’s and Mitigate Climate Change

Use of biomass for energy and industry allows a significant quantity of hydrocarbons to be consumed without increasing the CO

2

content of the atmosphere and, thus, makes a positive contribution to the Greenhouse effect and to the problems of ‘global change’ as it occurs in both industrialized and developing countries. Climate change is any long-term significant change in average temperature, precipitation and wind patterns. It takes place due to emissions of greenhouse gases. Carbon dioxide (CO

2

) is the most important greenhouse gas and increasing the use of biomass for energy is an important option for reducing CO

2

emissions. Carbon dioxide emission is projected to grow from 5.8 billion tonnes carbon equivalent in 1990 to 7.8 billion tonnes in 2010 and 9.8 billion tonnes by 2020.

Ashwani Kumar

Impact of Forestry Products on Climate Change Mitigation in India

Climate change is a global environmental problem that has been associated with increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Our modern lifestyles, the products we choose, the emissions of carbon dioxide from industry, society, transport and from our homes, have increased the concentration of CO

2

in the atmosphere. Forestry products definitely play a significant role in mitigating the adverse effects of climate change, by increasing the level of carbon removals from the atmosphere. Different corporate governance systems impact the ability of industries to adopt and transform their activities to meet issues associated with climate change. Until recently, relatively little has been done to measure the contribution made by forest based industries to mitigate the climate change.

C. N. Pandey, S. K. Nath, D. Sujatha

Climate Change Impact in Cold Arid Desert of North–Western Himalaya: Community Based Adaptations and Mitigations

Climate change is a global phenomenon. The cold arid desert of North Western Himalaya is noticeably impacted by climate change. The increase in temperature and decline in precipitation over the period is more profound. The impact of climate change is in the form of rapid reduction in glaciers which has profound future implications for downstream water resources. The impacts of climate change in the region are superimposed on a variety of other environmental and social stresses. Community led adaptations in the harsh environments have significant impact on improving the livelihoods of the region. The creation of artificial glaciers to combat the receding of natural glaciers, thereby increasing water storage and its availability during summer; and production of vegetables in the peak winter through improved solar greenhouses which mitigates the CO

2

emissions were identified as the major climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies. The creation of artificial glaciers is a high altitude water conservation technique in the wake of climate change. With glacier retreat and shorter as well as warmer winters in the cold arid eco-region of Western Himalayas (Ladakh), the water crisis is compounding day by day. Construction of artificial glaciers is a means for harvesting glacial meltwater for the irrigation needs of farmers which otherwise goes waste. The technology has a wider scope for up-scaling and can be replicated in similar geo-climatic conditions. The impact of technology on the income of beneficiary is three to four times higher besides social and environmental benefits. Society needs to improve its adaptation strategies, and level structural inequalities that make adaptation by poor people more difficult. It is important to strengthen local knowledge, innovations, and practices within social and ecological systems as well as strengthening the functioning of institutions relevant for adaptation. Sound science together with credible, salient, legitimate knowledge is important to support the development and implementation of sound policies. Researchers and developmental agencies need to further improve this technology and funding should come forth from the donor agencies for implementing of such technology on wider scale.

F. A. Shaheen, M. H. Wani, S. A. Wani, Chewang Norphel

Conservation of Multipurpose Tree Species to Ensure Ecosystem Sustainability and Farmers Livelihood in Indian Arid Zone

Arid and semi-arid areas in India cover 1.27 million sq km accounting for 38 % of the country’s geographical area. The Great Indian Desert, also known as ‘Thar Desert’, has an area of 0.32 million sq km, which is approximately 10 % of the total geographic area. The Indian desert happens to be the smallest desert of the world, however, exhibiting a wide range of habitats and rich in biodiversity comprising Palaearctic, Oriental and Saharan elements. There are around 30 plant species in the arid zone known for their edible use and of these around 20 species are known for their edible fruits, either raw or use as vegetables.

S. K. Malik, D. C. Bhandari, Susheel Kumar, O. P. Dhariwal

Exploring the Impacts of Climate Variability on Traditional Agricultural Practices in the Villages of THAR

The biggest threat that human kind is facing today, is of the changing climate and its relative impacts. Sufficient evidences from a variety of different studies indicate that, changes of climate would have an important effect on agriculture and livestock.

Aditi Phansalkar

Bt Cotton Cultivation in Gujarat: Emerging Issues and Environmental Challenges

India was first exposed to the use of insecticides way back in 1948. Between 1950 and 1970, which were the heydays of Green Revolution, Indian agriculture witnessed a surge in the use of organochlorines, organophosphates and carbamytes, which are in use even today.

N. Lalitha, P. K. Viswanathan

Water Conservation in Urban Areas: A Case Study of Rain Water Harvesting Initiative in Bangalore City

The challenges of urbanization are manifold and pose an unprecedented impact on the infrastructure demands. Demand on key services like water, sanitation, transportation, housing increases in high proportions. Specific to drinking water, compared to the other sectors, the requirement of potable water is small; rain water could be a potential resource to meet the requirements. Climate change could bring in higher fluctuations in rainfall patterns which the urban infrastructure may not be able to accommodate. Bangalore, the capital city of Karnataka, is India’s sixth most populous city and fifth most populous urban agglomeration. Of the many challenges that urban Bangalore face, water is one of the critical issues. In view of this, Rain Water Harvesting (RWH) has been made mandatory based on the Bangalore Rainwater Harvesting Regulations, 2009. In this backdrop, a study was carried out to explore the adoption and implementation of RWH in Bangalore by capturing people’s perceptions, socio-economic and institutional constraints.

S. Manasi, K. S. Umamani

Mining-Induced Desiccation of Water Bodies and Consequent Impact on Traditional Economic Livelihood: An Analytical Framework

Lowering of water table by rampant mining creates severe threat to traditional economy. An analytical framework is designed for planning social optimal mine extraction path and social welfare path. If society sets a maxi–min rule of sacrificing some traditional output to increase mine production, the minimum amount of water required for the society is determined here. Two alternative tax measures are proposed and compared—on rate of mine-resource depletion; and on mining-induced loss of traditional output.

Lekha Mukhopadhyay, Bhaskar Ghosh

Water Pollution Impacts on Livelihoods: A Case Study of Fishing Communities in Tungabhadra Sub Basin

Water pollution is a multifaceted issue that poses a great challenge to provide efficient water governance. One such challenge is the issue of pollution as it affects environment, health and quality of life of the people. Climate change is an additional pressure besides others viz. on fisheries, loss of habitat disturbance and so on. Climate change is said to be altering the structure of both the marine and freshwater ecosystems with serious implications for fisheries, food and livelihood security. The paper addresses issues of pollution, decline in species and its impacts on the livelihoods of the fishermen and institutional constraints in the Tungabhadra sub basin.

S. Manasi

Pollution Caused by Agricultural Waste Burning and Possible Alternate Uses of Crop Stubble: A Case Study of Punjab

Crop residue burning is one among the many sources of air pollution. Burning of farm waste causes severe pollution of land and water on local as well as regional scale. This also adversely affects the nutrient budget in the soil. Straw carbon, nitrogen and sulphur are completely burnt and lost to the atmosphere in the process of burning. It results in the emission of smoke which if added to the gases present in the air like methane, nitrogen oxide and ammonia, can cause severe atmospheric pollution. These gaseous emissions can result in health risk, aggravating asthma, chronic bronchitis and decrease lung function. Burning of crop residue also contributes indirectly to the increased ozone pollution. It has adverse consequences on the quality of soil. When the crop residue is burnt the existing minerals present in the soil get destroyed which adversely hampers the cultivation of the next crop. The on field impact of burning includes removal of a large portion of the organic material. The off field impacts are related to human health due to general air quality degradation resulting in aggravation of respiratory (like cough, asthma, bronchitis), eye and skin diseases. The black soot generated during burning also results in poor visibility which could lead to increased road side incidences of accident. Punjab Government, its various Departments and other institutions like Punjab Agricultural University, Punjab Farmers Commission are all making efforts to devise some alternate economic uses of rice stubble. These include the stubble treated with urea as a fodder for animals, its use in biothermal energy production, paper manufacturing, mushroom cultivation, bedding for animals, etc. Punjab government is also providing subsidy to the farmers to promote the use of equipments which help in checking the burning of crop residues, like rotavators, happy seeders, zero–till-drills and straw reapers. While on the one hand, there is an urgent need to revitalize the research in agriculture and related activities, on the other hand, to tackle the problem of soil degradation and water depletion, a dedicated programme for promoting resource conservation technologies, such as zero tillage, deep ploughing, raised bed planting, laser land leveling etc., should be promoted. An eco friendly technology will be beneficial to the farmer community and the state by providing them a tool for improving soil health and environment for sustainable agriculture.

Parmod Kumar, Laxmi Joshi

Bioremediation of Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) Pollution at HCH Dump Sites

Globally, the period from early the 1950s to late 1980s has shown an increased use of primarily three pesticides namely DDT.

Shailly Anand, Jaya Malhotra, Neha Niharika, Devi Lal, Swati Jindal, Jaspreet Kaur, Aeshna Nigam, Nidhi Garg, Pushp Lata, Jasvinder Kaur, Naseer Sangwan, Amit Kumar Singh, Ankita Dua, Anjali Saxena, Vatsala Dwivedi, Udita Mukherjee, Rup Lal

Habitat Characteristics of the Critically Endangered Pigmy Hog (Porcula salvania) of Manas National Park and Rajiv Gandhi Orang National Park in Assam, Northeast India

The pygmy hog (

Porcula salvania

) is one of the endemic animals of northeast India and it is the smallest and the rarest wild Suid in the world. The animal was once distributed in tall, wet grasslands throughout the range of southern foothills of the Himalayas, occurring only in the Indian sub-continent (Oliver 1985).

P. P. Mary, Radha Raman Sinha, Awadhesh Kumar, Mintu Medhi, Gautam Narayan, Parag Deka

Conservation, Restoration, and Management of Mangrove Wetlands Against Risks of Climate Change and Vulnerability of Coastal Livelihoods in Gujarat

This paper makes an illustrative case for conservation, restoration, and sustainable management of mangrove wetland-based ecosystems in Gujarat amidst the growing crisis of livelihoods facing the coastal communities in the event of climate change induced threats and livelihood security. The empirical analysis contained in the paper is based on the study of the impacts of mangrove restoration activities in the Gulf of Kutch undertaken by the Government of Gujarat under the initiatives of the India–Canada Environment Facility (ICEF) in the initial phase (2000–2005) and the Gujarat Ecology Commission, later on (since 2005). The paper discusses the importance of conservation and restoration of mangrove wetlands in the present context and the global and local initiatives thereon. It then presents the empirical case of the socio-economic and ecological outcomes of the community-based mangrove restoration (CBMR) in Gujarat and its livelihood outcomes. The paper concludes by underlying the major challenges facing the conservation and restoration of mangrove wetlands in the state and the imperatives of policy and institutional interventions in the emerging context of climate change risks and vulnerability of coastal livelihoods. It also brings out the imperative of a better understanding of the dynamics of the ongoing interventionist policies and programmes towards restoration and conservation of mangroves in rest of the Indian states, especially, West Bengal, Orissa, Tamil Nadu, and Andhra Pradesh, which are at the forefront of implementing mangrove restoration activities.

P. K. Viswanathan

Land Acquisition and Land Diversion for Mining Towards Industrial Growth: Interest Conflict and Negotiation Game for Sustainable Development

Acquisition of community land for mining activities leads to conflict of interest between miners and traditional communities. This can be resolved by two types of institutions: either the community and miner negotiate and reach the Nash solution in game theoretic framework; or settlement is made by intervention of the social planner. For both cases the long-term impacts of mine reserve depletion and change of land-use pattern are analytically compared and sustainable development is discussed.

Lekha Mukhopadhyay, Bhaskar Ghosh

Sustainable Land Use Planning Using Geospatial Technology

Everyone in the world depends completely on Earth’s ecosystems and the services they provide such as food, water, disease management, climate regulation, spiritual fulfilment, and aesthetic enjoyment. Over the past 50 years, humans have changed the ecosystems more rapidly and extensively than in any comparable period of time in human history, largely to meet the rapidly growing demands for food, fresh water, timber, fibre, and fuel of an ever-expanding human population.

S. P. S. Kushwaha, Suchismita Mukhopadhyay

Exergy: A Useful Concept for Ecology and Sustainability

In early 19th century, the design and construction of steam engines was an important step in the industrial revolution. Efforts to understand working of steam engine quantitatively laid the foundations of the science of thermodynamics.

Göran Wall, Dilip G. Banhatti

A Model Based Method to Assess Climate Change Impacts on Rain-Fed Farming Systems: How to Analyze Crop-Yield Variability?

Since the introduction of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) during the United Nations Millennium Summit in 2000, large efforts have been made to eradicate extreme poverty and half the number of starving people within the time span from 1990 to 2015 (to no more than 420 million).

Benjamin Stuch, Rüdiger Schaldach, Jan Schüngel

Mitigating the Water, Energy and Food Crisis: A Humane Solution

Rising world population coupled with urbanization and industrialization of developing countries impose severe and spurting demand on the limited natural resources as well as endanger fragile eco-system. None can have a second opinion on the three fundamental needs that are associated with life sustenance on this planet:

Energy

,

Water

,

and Food

. In India,

agriculture

values both

water

and

energy

on equal footing and they are very critical for human health as well as essential for keeping the wheels of economy to move ahead. Nearly, 30–40 percent of all energy in India is used to move and process water around and most of that water is used for agricultural purposes. But, still the sector’s contribution to economy is volatile and deficient. There is an urgent need to work out a few practical solutions and draw a system to the table that revisits and addresses the

Energy-Water-Food

nexus. The time has come for various stakeholders such as policymakers, industry, and the public at large, to focus on specific strategic policy imperatives which can bring about a sustained growth with higher

efficiency

and

optimal utilization

of resources. This paper attempts to suggest the ways and means of improving the

efficiency

in the use of these inputs for a

sustainable

performance in this sector and with a special focus on environment.

S. Subramanian, G. Bhalachandran

Impact of Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme on Livelihood Security and Eco-Restoration in Andhra Pradesh

The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act is in implementation from 2006 onward in 200 most backward districts and was extended to all rural districts of India in 2008 with renewed vigour and mandate to enhance the rural livelihood opportunities.

P. Leelavathi

Promoting and Enhancing Sustainable Livelihood Options as an Adaptive Strategy to Reduce Vulnerability and Increase Resilience to Climate Change Impact in the Central Himalaya

In the rural landscape of the central Himalaya, livelihoods of the people depend heavily on agriculture, animal husbandry and forestry sectors and they are inextricably connected with each other. The role of forest goods and services in sustaining the productivity of the agriculture and animal husbandry is immense. The central Himalayan region has a number of characteristics that increase the region’s vulnerability to climate change impacts. Higher population and poverty, coupled with low resilience to climate risks, make the region highly vulnerable to climate change. Livelihoods of majority of the poor/marginal and traditional societies are heavily dependent on natural resources particularly in the hilly region. Changes in the availability of the resources, accentuated by climate risks, are expected to have far-reaching implications. These risks could undermine the gains made in poverty reduction and livelihoods and impede progress towards meeting the desired national development goals. International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has confirmed that we are now locked into inevitable changes in climate system. Changes on climate such as mean temperature, increased frequency and intensity of extreme weather events as well as changes in precipitation pattern, sea level rise and glaciers retreat have been projected. Although there is a lack of certainty in predicting and quantifying climate change impacts on socio-economic systems, it is well known that climate change impacts threaten a major dimension of human well being, namely food security. These climate change related risks threaten approximately 70 % of the rural people largely dependent on rain-fed agriculture in the central Himalaya. For the rural poor, human security is synonymous with food security. Extreme droughts or untimely heavy rains have often led not only to loss of life, but also an exacerbation of poverty conditions through the degradation of the natural resource base, leading to increase in poverty particularly in low income groups. Hence, low income group or poor people are the most vulnerable to the impacts of climate change.

R. K. Maikhuri, L. S. Rawat, Sunil Nautiyal, Vikram S. Negi, D. S. Pharswan, P. Phondani

Emerging Technological Intervention Models with Scalable Solutions for Adaptation to Climate Change and Livelihood Gains in Indian Himalayan Region: Case Studies on Action Research at the Grassroots Level

Climate change is a global issue which demands immediate action in order to avert its impacts at local, regional and global levels. There are immediate and responsible calls from every nook and corner of the world particularly from Inter-governmental panel on climate change (IPCC) to take effective measures for maintaining the natural balance in the climate system due to anthropogenic release of green house gases (GHGs).

Sunil K. Agarwal

Environmental and Socio-Economic Impacts of Climate Change in the Sundarban Delta and the Need for Green Management

Sundarban, covering southern parts of West Bengal (India) and Bangladesh, is tiger-reserve core area of 10,000 sq.km., plus fringe area forest with villages. It is the sea-facing part of world’s largest delta, through which rivers Ganga (Padma) and Bhagirathi flow into the Bay of Bengal—branching into hundreds of rivers and creeks. Sundarban eco-system is unique in housing a wide variety of flora (world’s largest mangrove forest) diverse fauna (home for Royal Bengal Tiger) and at least 2500 years of human settlement on land, and an interestingly rich aquatic collect on like fishes, dolphins, crocodiles and Olive Ridley turtles in water. All these made Sundarban worth saving as “World Heritage”, as declared by UN bodies. But the delicate ecological balance of this complex eco-system has now been affected badly by climate changes, triggered mainly by global warming. Two global warming effects—(i) rising sea level, eating up land in Sundarban, and (ii) shortening of Himalayan glaciers reducing the flow of fresh river water and subsequently increasing salinity of river and so l water in Sundarban—in particular, threaten life in Sundarban for plants, animals and human beings. Super-cyclone cum tsunami of 2009 flooded farmlands and ponds of Sundarban with sea-water. All these have lowered the already low income of its inhabitants to the stage of half–starvation and led to exodus of ~ 70 % of men to various cities of India. The left-out population with highly reduced male population is a major social problem, added to the already existing economic problem. Projects like luxury tourism at commercial scale ship-breaking and petro-chemical industries have been proposed with the advertised goal of generating new income avenues for the poor inhabitants. We firstly show that these projects are likely to further harm the delicate environment and life in Sundarban, and also damage the Sundarban economy in the long run. Secondly, Sundarban residents have no training to get these jobs and recreational tours by outsiders in Sundarban can create more socio-economic problems among them. So, we develop alternative green solutions to the problems arising from climate change and global warming Re-introduction of traditional cultivation of fruits, vegetables, chilly, paddy and pulses in Sundarban, better transport, solar energy, electrification and fish- and food-preservation industries—green avenues to give good income to the inhabitants—must replace the non-green city-centric projects.

Udayan De

EMPRI’s Approach Towards Development of State Action Plan on Climate Change, Karnataka

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) at the Earth Summit in Rio, in 1992, noted that climate change is a global phenomenon that requires mitigation measures at all levels. Soon after, an intense and growing international debate over the future response to climate change has emerged. Countries like India and China have particularly high stakes because of the region’s high population, burgeoning economies and vulnerabilities to the impact of climate change. After Kyoto, there is a general consciousness about the climate change reality perceived (Reid and Huq 2007). Under the UNFCCC, every country is required to develop a climate response programme that integrates climate change activities into all relevant sectors, including energy, transport, industry, agriculture, forestry and waste management. UK has been at the forefront of climate security policy and international efforts to embark on greater responsibility to the climate challenge through multilateral organization.

Papiya Roy, Felix Nitz

Challenges Faced by South Africa When Adapting to Climate Change

The intention of this presentation is to indicate what barriers many developing countries may be experiencing in attempting to align themselves with global programmes trying to alleviate

global warming

. In the southern hemisphere, including South Africa,

climate change

is a more acceptable concept, since this is what is being experienced in the south. The reason for this is that the Antarctic region displays different climatic conditions to that occurring at the Arctic circle. A German helicopter pilot, who has continuously been ferrying scientific staff and equipment to the South African base camp in the Antarctic for the past 13 years has witnessed a progressive increase in ice and snow over the past 6 years (E. Erik, 2011, Personal Communications). The icing up is so severe that the ships can no longer get as close to their destination as they used to 7 years ago. The only noticeable exception is a volcano on the west bank, which at most affects about 4 % of the surface area of the Antarctic. This view has been confirmed by numerous TV shows, showing a very different state of affairs than what is commonly experienced by visitors to the arctic region.

Ernst Uken

Tourism, Environment and Economic Growth in Himalayan Kingdom of Bhutan

At present, tourism has become one of the fastest growing industries in the world (Singha and Elangbam 2009; Rinzin et al. 2007), and probably there is no other economic activity which transects so many industries, levels and sectors as tourism does (Cater 1995).

Komol Singha

Green Buildings; Benefits to Our Environment

Today over 50 % of world’s population live in urban areas and it is projected that this would rise to 70 % by 2050. With this current demographic trend we foresee that it would be difficult to provide adequate infrastructure, institutional support and proper public service

Tejaswini B. Yakkundimath

Impact of Education, Age and Land Holding on Understanding the Aspects in Climate Change: A Case Study

Farming community is provided with custom-tailored weather forecasts and advisories from various universities and organizations to increase the production and minimize the adverse effects of climate change. Unless the perception of farmers on climate change is known, advisories disseminated does not yield any fruitful results.

M. B. Rajegowda, H. S. Padmashri, N. A. Janardhana Gowda, C. N. Shilpa, B. V. Pavithra, D. V. Soumya

Rural India as Key Factor to Cope with Climate Change

The global climate pattern has been changing fast and observational evidence indicates that high carbon emissions and climate changes in the 20th century have already affected a diverse set of physical and biological systems (IPCC 2001; IPCC 2007a, b).

H. Kaechele, T. Kutter, K. Specht, S. Nautiyal, T. S. Amjath-Babu, K. Müller, K. V. Raju

Knowledge Systems of Societies for Adaptation and Mitigation of Impacts of Climate Change: Epilogue

The highly successful Humboldt Kolleg on “Knowledge Systems of Societies for Adaptation and Mitigation of Impacts of Climate Change” convened by Sunil Nautiyal, CEENR, ISEC showed a high relevance of climate change research in more or less in all relevant scientific areas. Today, adaptation and mitigation research plays an important role in all scientific and social science disciplines. In addition interdisciplinary climate change research covers all scales, from macro to micro.

Sunil Nautiyal, K. S. Rao, H. Kaechele, K. V. Raju, R. Schaldach
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