Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
The present chapter provides a detailed account of the labor market characteristics from developing and transition countries, with special emphasis on a number of current policies that have been adopted in India. One such policy, that this chapter models and discusses in considerable detail, is the employment guarantee scheme, which appears to be the largest of any such programs ever implemented. The characteristics of the labor market discussed with relevance to the employment guarantee scheme stand largely outside the formal industrial environment in India. The thin organized sector in India, and other countries with similar economic potentials and aspirations, also received adequate emphasis in view of the standard labor market reforms adopted over the last two decades. In light of this, we have reviewed important analytical structures that create the interface between organized labor force and the industrial reorganization. Issues like the labor laws prevailing in India, its implications for economic activities, in general, and the evolution of both organized and unorganized sectors, in particular, have been discussed. This chapter sets the tone for discussions on specific issues in the following chapters.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Abel, A., and O. Blanchard. 1986. The present value of profit and cyclical movements of investment. Econometrica 54:249–273.
Aghion, Philippe, Robin Burgess, Stephen Redding, and Fabrizio Zilibotti. 2005. The unequal effects of liberalization: Evidence from dismantling the License Raj in India, Unpublished.
Alleyne, Dillon. 2001. The dynamics of growth, employment and economics reforms in Jamaica. Social and Economic Studies 50 (1): 55–125.
Ananat, T. C. A., and O. Goswami. 1995. Getting everything wrong: India’s policy regarding sick firms. In Essays in industrial policy, ed. Dilip Mukherjee. New Delhi: OUP.
Annual Survey of Industries, various issues, Ministry of Industry, Government of India.
Behar, Alberto. 2009. Tax wedges, unemployment benefits and labor market outcomes in the new EU members. Czech Economic Review 3 (1): 69–92.
Bernanke, Ben. 1983. Irreversibility, uncertainty and cyclical investment. Quarterly Journal of Economics 98:85–106.
Bertola, G. 1998. Irreversible investment. Research in Economics 52 (1): 3–37.
Besley, Timothy, and Robin Burgess. 2004. Can labor regulation hinder economic performance? Evidence from India. Quarterly Journal of Economics 119 (1): 91–134. CrossRef
Bhalotra, S. 1998. The puzzle of jobless growth in Indian manufacturing, Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics 60 (1): 5–32. CrossRef
Bhattacharjea, A. 2006. Labor market regulations and industrial performance in India: A critical review of the empirical evidence. The Indian Journal of Labor Economics 49 (2): 211–232.
Boeri, Tito, and Hartmut Lehmann. 1999. Unemployment and labor market policies in transition countries. Journal of Comparative Economics 27 (1): 1–3. CrossRef
Boeri, Tito, and Katherine Terrell. 2002. Institutional determinants of labor reallocation in transition. Journal of Economic Perspectives 16 (1): 51–76. CrossRef
Borisov, Vadim, and Simon Clarke. 2006. The rise and fall of social partnership in postsocialist europe: The commonwealth of independent states. Industrial Relations Journal 37 (6): 607–629. CrossRef
Brand, V., et al. 1993. Women informal sector workers and structural adjustments in Zimbabwe. In Social change and economic reform in Africa. Uppsala: Scandinavian Institute of African Studies.
Cazes, Sandrine. 2002. Do labor market institutions matter in transition economies? An analysis of labor market flexibility in the late nineties. Discussion paper 140/2002. International Institute for Labor Studies, ILO.
Cazes, Sandrine, and Alena Nesporova. 2003. Labor markets in transition: balancing flexibility and security in central and eastern Europe. Geneva, ILO.
Chaudhuri, K., R. Pal, and B. Saha. 2006. Labor unions and trade and industrial reforms: evidence from India, Unpublished.
Checchi, D., and M. Galeotti. 1993. The relationship between employment and investment: Theoretical aspects and empirical evidence for Italy. Journal of Applied Economics 25 (1): 13–24.
Commander, Simon, and Axel Heitmueller. 2007. Does unemployment insurance help explain unemployment in transition countries? Unpublished paper. London Business School.
Datta, R. C. 2003. Labour market—Social institution, economic reforms and social cost. In Labour market and institution in India, ed. Uchikawa Shuji. New Delhi: Manohar.
Davidson, Carl, and Steven Matusz. 2006. Trade liberalization and compensation. International Economic Review 47 (3): 723–747. CrossRef
Dutta Roy, S. 2003. Employment dynamics in Indian industry: Adjustment lags and the impact of job security regulations. Journal of Development Economics 73:233–256. CrossRef
Ederveen, Sjef, and Laura Thissen. 2007. Can labour market institutions explain high unemployment rates in the new EU member states? Empirica 34 (4):299–317.
Fallon, Peter, and Robert Lucas 1991. The impact of job-security regulations in India and Zimbabwe. The World Bank Economic Review 5 (3): 395–413. CrossRef
Fallon, Peter, and Robert Lucas. 1993. Job-security regulations and the dynamic demand for labor in India and Zimbabwe. Journal of Development Economics 40 (2): 241–275. CrossRef
Fialová K., and O. Schneider. 2009. Labor market institutions and their effect on labor market performance in the new EU member countries. Eastern European Economics 47 (3): 57–83.
Funkhouser, Edward. 1994. The urban informal sector in Central America: Household survey evidence. University of California, Santa Barbara Working Papers in Economics, 23–94.
Gaiha, R. 1996. The employment guarantee scheme in India: Is it mistargeted? Asian Survey 36 (12): 1201–1212. CrossRef
Gaiha, R. 2004. Is there a case for the employment guarantee scheme in India? Some recent evidence, ASARC Working Paper 2004–2009.
Hasan, R., D. Mitra, and K. V. Ramaswamy. 2003. Trade reforms, labor regulations and labor-demand elasticities: Empirical evidence from india”, Working Paper 9879, Cambridge, National Bureau of Economic Research.
Heckman, J., and G. Sedlacek. 1985. Heterogeneity, aggregation and market wage functions: An empirical model of self-selection in the labor market. Journal of Political Economy 93 (6): 1077–1125.
Ihrig, Jane, et al. 2000. The dynamics of informal employment; board of governors of the federal reserve system. International Finance Discussion Paper 664.
Indian Labor Year book, various issues. The Ministry of Labor, Government of India.
International Labor Organisation (ILO). 1972. Informal sector. Geneva: ILO.
Jepsen, G. 1991. Wage contarcts and edesign of tax enforcement policy in the shadow economy. Aarhus Institute of Economics Memo: 1991–21. Working Paper.
Johnson, Simon, et al. 1997. The unofficial economy in transition. Brookings Paper on Economic Activity 10 (2): 159–221. CrossRef
Kar, S., and S. Marjit. 2001. Informal sector in general equilibrium: Welfare effects of trade policy reforms. International Review of Economics and Finance 10:289–300. CrossRef
Kletzer, Lori. 2004. Trade-related job loss and wage insurance: A synthetic review. Review of International Economics 12 (5): 724–748. CrossRef
Kletzer, Lori, and Robert Litan. 2001. A prescription to relieve worker anxiety. PB01–PB02 Washington: Institute for International Economics Policy Brief.
Klapper, Leora, Luc Laeven, and Raghuram Rajan. 2005. Barriers to entrepreneurship, Working paper, University of Chicago.
Kohl, Heribert. 2008. Where do trade unions stand in eastern Europe today? Stock-taking after eu enlargement. Internationale Politik und Gesellschaft 3:107–127.
Kurukshetra, A., and Gulab Singh. 1999. Gros domestic product and employment in the informal sector of the Indian economy. Indian Journal of Labor Economics 42 (2): 217–230.
Layard, R., and S. Nickell. 1991. Unemployment. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
Lehmann, Hartmut, and Alexander Muravyev. 2009. How important are labor market institutions for labor market performance in transition countries? IZA discussion paper No. 4673, December, Bonn.
Lehmann, Hartmut, and Alexander Muravyev. 2010. Labor market institutions and labor market performance: What can we learn from transition countries? Working Paper 714, Dipartimento Scienze Economiche, Universita’ di Bologna.
Lucas, Robert E. 1988. On the mechanics of economic development. Journal of Monetary Economics 22:3–42.
Malinvaud, E. 1982. Wages and unemployment. The Economic Journal 92:1–13. CrossRef
Marjit, S., and S. Kar. 2007. Urban informal sector and poverty—Effects of trade reform and capital mobility in India. PEP-MPIA working paper No. 2007–2009, Canada. www.pep-net.org. Accessed March 2014.
Marjit, S., and S. Kar. 2011. The outsiders: Economic reform and informal labour in a developing country. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. CrossRef
Marjit, S., S. Kar, and P. Sarkar. 2005. Structural reform and informal wage. South Asia Economic Journal 5 (2): 261–266. CrossRef
Marjit, S., S. Kar, and D. Maity. 2009. Labour market reform and poverty-the role of informal sector. In New and enduring themes in development economics, eds. Bhaskar Dutta, Tridip Ray and E. Somanathan. New York: World Scientific.
Mayer, W. 1984. Endogenous tariff formation. American Economic Review 74 (5): 970–985.
Ministry of Finance, Government of India. 2006. Economic Survey 2005–2006.
Minsky, H. P. 1986. Stabilizing an unstable economy. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Mookherjee, Dilip. 1995. Indian industry: Policies and performance. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.
Musyoki, A., and J. Orodho. 1993. Urban women workers in the informal sector and economic change in Kenya in the 1980s. In Social change and economic reform in Africa, 106–133. Uppsala: Scandinavian Institute of African Studies.
Nagaraj, R. 1994. Employment and wages in manufacturing industries: Trends hypotheses and evidence. Economic and Political Weekly 29 (Jan 22): 177–186.
Nagaraj, R. 2007. Labor market in India current concerns and policy responses, OECD Paper.
Newell, A. and J. Symons. 1987. Mid-1980s unemployment. LSE Centre for Labour Economics DP 203.
Nickell, Stephen. 1997. Unemployment and labor market rigidities: Europe versus North America. Journal of Economic Perspectives 11 (3): 55–74. CrossRef
Nivorozhkin, Anton. 2005. An evaluation of government-sponsored vocational training programmes for the unemployed in urban Russia. Cambridge Journal of Economics 29 (6): 1053–1072.
Ramaswamy, B., and W. Wadhwa. 2005. Getting the job guarantee plan right. Economic Times March 20.
Ramsay, T. 2002. The jobs guarantee: A Post Keynesian analysis. Journal of Post Keynesian Economics 25 (2): 273–291 (Winter 2002–2003).
Ravallion, M., G. Datt, and S. Chaudhuri. 1993. Does Maharashtra’s employment guarantee scheme guarantee employment? Effects of the 1988 wage increase. Economic Development and Cultural Change 42:251–275. CrossRef
Riboud, Michelle, Carolina Sřnchez Přramo, and Carlos Silva Jřuregui. 2003. Does eurosclerosis matter? Institutional reform and labor market performance in Central and Eastern European countries in the 1990s. Social protection discussion paper series No. 0202, World Bank.
Rovelli, Riccardo, and Randolph Bruno. 2010. Labor market policies and outcomes in the enlarged EU. Journal of Common Market Studies 48 (6): 661–685.
Rutkowski, J. 1996. High skills pay off: The changing wage structure during economic transition in Poland. Economics of Transition 4 (1): 89–112.
Saavedra, J., and Alberto Chong. 1999. Structural reform, institutions and earnings: evidence from the formal and informal sectors in Urban Peru. Journal of Development Studies 35 (4): 95–116. CrossRef
Saha, Bibhas. 2006. Labor institutions in India and China: A tale of two nations. Journal of South Asian Development 1 (2) 179–205. CrossRef
Shapiro, C., and J. Stiglitz. 1984. Equilibrium unemployment as a worker discipline device. American Economic Review 74 (3): 433–444.
Sharma, A. 2006, May. Flexibility, employment and labour market reforms in India. Economic and Political Weekly 41 (21): 2078–2085.
Svejnar, Jan. 2004. Labor market flexibility in Central and East Europe. In Beyond transition, ed. M. Dabrowski, B. Slay, and J. Neneman, 101–118. USA: Ashgate.
Svejnar, Jan. 1999. Labor markets in the transitional Central and Eastern European economies. In Handbook of labor economics, eds. O. Ashenfelter and D. Card. New York: Elsevier. (3(3), 2809–2857).
Tendulkar, S. 2004. Organised labour market in India: Pre and post reform. Paper presented at the conference on Anti Poverty and Social Policy in India organised by the Mac Arthur Research Network on Inequality and Economic Performance, Neemrana.
Tripp, A. M. 1997. Changing the rules: the politics of liberalization and the urban informal economy in Tanzania. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Vickery, W. 2000. Fifteen fatal fallacies of financial fundamentalism: A disquisition on demand side economics, working paper No. 1, Center for Full Employment and Price Stability (CFEPS), University of Missouri, Kansas City, Jan 2000. www.cfeps.org/pubs/wp/wp01/wp01.html.
Webster, L., and P. Fidler. 1996. The informal sector and microfinance in West Africa. Washington DC: World Bank Regional and Sectoral Studies, World Bank.
World Bank. 2005. Enhancing job opportunities: Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union. Washington, DC: World Bank.
World Bank. 2007. Fiscal policy and economic growth. Washington, DC: World Bank.
World Development Report. 2000. United Nations, NY.
Zagha, Robert. 1998. Labor and India’s economic reforms. Journal of Policy Reform 2 (4): 403–426. CrossRef
- Labor Markets in Developing and Transition Countries
- Springer India
Neuer Inhalt/© Stellmach, Neuer Inhalt/© Maturus, Pluta Logo/© Pluta