Research on the constituents of the natural environment may begin in the field, but it is usually completed in the laboratory. Having acquired a sample, the researcher needs to be familiar with a range of laboratory techniques in order to determine its characteristics. Many samples taken from the natural environment are chemical solutions, such as river, sea, lake and rain waters, for which basic chemical methods for dilute solutions are appropriate. Other samples, however, like soil and sediment samples, may be mixtures of solid particles and dilute solutions. For these, some special techniques to determine simple chemical and physical properties of the materials are necessary. This chapter proceeds from a description of basic laboratory equipment to essential chemical techniques and, finally, to special laboratory techniques for soils and sediments.
Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
- Laboratory techniques
D. L. Dent
I. N. McCave
- Springer Netherlands
Systemische Notwendigkeit zur Weiterentwicklung von Hybridnetzen