Skip to main content

Über dieses Buch

This book seeks to provide a comprehensive coverage of the important and growing field of ladle metallurgy, including theory, practice, and economics. During the past decade, major advances have been made in the secondary metallurgy of steel and other metals; indeed, secondary metallurgy, that is, the ladle treatment of molten metals, following the melting and refining steps, has become an important and inevitable part of the overall processing sequence. Ladle metallurgy is attractive because it can provide an effective means for adjusting and fine-tuning the composition and temperature of the molten products prior to solidification processing. Ladle metallurgy allows us to produce materials of very high purity and will become increasingly an essential process requirement. Indeed, many of the novel casting techniques will mandate steels of much higher cleanliness than those in current practice. Of course, ladle metallurgy or secondary metallurgy is not limited to steel; indeed, major advances have been made and are being made in the secondary processing of aluminum, aluminum alloys, and many specialty metals.



1. Overview of Injection Technology

Treating steel in the ladle is as old as the use of ladles in steelmaking. The main purposes for ladle treatment of hot metal and liquid steel include desulphurization, deoxidation, alloying, and inclusion shape control. One of the first ordinary ladle metallurgical processes was the Perrin process [1], in which steel was tapped into a ladle containing premelted slag. The kinetic energy of the steel was used to produce a large reaction surface and intensive stirring in the ladle.
Göran Carlsson

2. The Fundamental Aspects of Injection Metallurgy

In this chapter, we shall examine some of the fundamental aspects of injection metallurgy. While the majority of readers will be more interested in the practical and economic aspects of injection processes, with emphasis on “What can be accomplished?” and “At what cost?”, there are sound reasons for examining the theoretical basis of these operations.
Julian Szekely

3. Injection Practice in the Secondary Metallurgy of Steel

In this chapter, we shall describe the practical aspects of ladle metallurgy, with emphasis on equipment construction, operating experience, and practical operating guidelines. In an ideal world, practice would be fully based on theory, and all the practices would have a complete fundamental explanation and justification. This would then represent a complete harmony between the material in this chapter and that given in Chapter 2.
Lars Helle

4. Economic Considerations

Injection metallurgy is introduced into steelmaking to reach specific objectives, such as:
improved steel quality
increased productivity
the possibility to produce special grades
increased yields.
Göran Carlsson

5. Testing Technique for Powder Injection

When powder is injected into the ladle, it is of utmost importance that the powder and gas flow rates are stable, otherwise the lance nozzles could be blocked. In order to learn how to match the properties of powder with the injection equipment, special dry blowing tests can be performed. An experimental setup is shown in Fig. 5.1.
Göran Carlsson


Weitere Informationen