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Über dieses Buch

This edited volume sheds new light on the impact of rapid Land Use/Cover Changes (LU/CC) on greenhouse gases (GHG’s) and aerosol emissions in South and Southeast Asia. Several countries in South/Southeast Asia have the highest population growth rates in the world, which is the main cause for LU/CC. Conversion of dense forests to agricultural areas and then to residential and urban areas is most commonly observed in South/Southeast Asian countries with a significant release of GHG’s and aerosols.

The book showcases several case studies on the use of remote sensing and geospatial technologies to quantify biomass burning and air pollution impacts, aerosol pollution, LU/CC, and impacts on ecosystem services. The book also includes articles on regional initiatives in research, capacity building, and training. The authors of this book are international experts in the field, and their contributions highlight significant drivers and impacts of air pollution in South/Southeast Asia. Readers will discover the latest tools and techniques, in particular, the use of satellite remote sensing and geospatial technologies for quantifying GHG’s, aerosols and pollution episodes in this region.



Erratum to: Land-Atmospheric Research Applications in South and Southeast Asia

1. Copyright has been changed to “This is a U.S. Government work and not under copyright protection in the US; foreign copyright protection may apply” throughout the book.

Krishna Prasad Vadrevu, Toshimasa Ohara, Chris Justice

Regional Initiatives


Chapter 1. South/Southeast Asia Research Initiative (SARI): A Response to Regional Needs in Land Cover/Land Use Change Science and Education

The goal of this initiative is to develop an innovative regional research, education, and capacity building program involving state-of-the-art remote sensing, natural sciences, engineering, and social sciences to enrich LCLUC science in South/Southeast Asia. SARI has two important objectives. First, to advance LCLUC science in the region. Second, to strengthen existing and build new collaborations between US and South/Southeast Asia researchers in the areas of LCLUC research. The impetus for such an initiative came from the LCLUC science team meeting held in Coimbatore, India, January 19–23, 2013.To address LCLUC science, SARI has been utilizing a systems approach to problem-solving that examines both biophysical and socioeconomic aspects of land systems, including the interactions between land use and climate and the interrelationships among policy, governance, and land use. A central component of SARI is to use of geospatial data from both remotely sensed and in situ sources and models. To strengthen the theoretical underpinnings of LCLUC science in the South/Southeast Asian region, SARI has been facilitating: (a) new partnerships with space agencies, universities, and non-government organizations; (b) novel and regionally appropriate methodologies and algorithms for LCLUC products; (c) data sharing mechanisms; (d) leadership training; (e) international workshops to identify regional priorities, discuss and share scientific findings; (f) capacity building programs; and (g) international student/researcher exchanges, including among LCLUC scientists in the region. SARI has been serving as a facilitator and catalyst for LCLUC research in South/Southeast Asia. The outputs have been beneficial to the US, South/Southeast Asia, and international researchers and serving as a model for interdisciplinary research linking LCLUC science with NASA assets.

Krishna Prasad Vadrevu

Chapter 2. SERVIR: Connecting Earth Observation Satellite Data to Local Science Applications

With four international centers or “hubs,” a joint NASA/USAID initiative known as SERVIR is well positioned to fast-track the application of Earth Observation (EO) satellite data into decision-making contexts across the globe. This chapter describes the SERVIR program and how it helps developing countries use EO data to address environmental issues. The focus is on SERVIR applications in Land-Cover and Land-Use Change (LCLUC) and emissions in Asia. These projects and applications, developed in collaboration with SERVIR hubs in Nepal and Thailand, are helping decision-makers in these regions monitor and manage forest resources, understand land cover dynamics, and inform greenhouse gas inventories.

Africa Flores, Dauna S. Coulter, Ashutosh S. Limaye, Daniel Irwin

Biomass Burning, Air Pollution and Impacts


Chapter 3. Emission of Toxic Air Pollutants and Greenhouse Gases from Crop Residue Open Burning in Southeast Asia

Agricultural crop production plays an important role in the economic development of Southeast Asia (SEA) countries. Annually, large amounts of crop residues are generated and field open burning for land clearing is commonly practiced which emits considerable amounts of toxic air pollutants and climate forcing agents. This study estimated the emissions of toxic gases, aerosol, and greenhouse gases from the crop residue open burning (CROB) in SEA countries. Emission inventory (EI) was done using the activity data gathered from primary surveys and published records for the SEA countries. The best estimates of emission species were calculated using the emission factors and the activity data that were most relevant for the considered SEA countries. In 2010, the SEA CROB emissions, in Gg were: 16,160 for CO; 320 for NOx; 28 for SO2; 980 for NMVOC; 550 for NH3; 2060 for PM10; 1880 for PM2.5; 80 for BC; 885 for OC; 178,370 for CO2; 580 for CH4; and 14 for N2O. Indonesia was the top contributor of all emission species (25–39%) followed by Vietnam (17–30%), Myanmar (8–19%), and Thailand (7–16%). Among 8 crop types considered, rice straw field burning contributed dominantly (85–98%) to the total SEA CROB emissions, followed by sugarcane, maize, and soybean. Low and high emission estimates were calculated using the ranges of activity data and available emission factors, respectively, to assess the uncertainty of the emission estimate for each species. The obtained gridded SEA CROB emissions with a resolution of 0.1° × 0.1° revealed higher emission intensity over the agricultural land areas, especially of rice, sugarcane, and maize. Temporal emissions showed higher peaks in the months following major crop harvesting periods in the dry season. The EI data for CROB produced in this study provided a key input for assessment of relative contributions of the emission sources in the SEA for further development of emission reduction strategies.

Nguyen Thi Kim Oanh, Didin Agustian Permadi, Nguyen Phan Dong, Dang Anh Nguyet

Chapter 4. Impacts of Biomass Burning Emissions on Tropospheric NO2 Vertical Column Density over Continental Southeast Asia

The behavior of tropospheric NO2 vertical column density (VCD) over continental Southeast Asia (Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam) was systematically analyzed using observations from the SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY) and a regional chemical transport model (CTM) during 2003–2008. NO2 VCD over continental Southeast Asia showed a distinctive large peak from winter (December) to early spring (April). The regional CTM was configured with anthropogenic emissions taken from the Regional Emission inventory in Asia (REAS) version 2.1 and biomass burning emissions taken from the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED) version 3.1. Overall, the model could reproduce the NO2 VCD observed by space-borne sensors. A mismatch between satellite observations and the regional CTM was found only in January over Cambodia. A likely reason for this mismatch was diurnal variation in biomass burning emissions. During the analysis period, the largest biomass burning event was reported from December 2003 to April 2004, and a sensitivity analysis was conducted by omitting the biomass burning emissions in the CTM. It was found that the seasonal variations of NO2 VCD, with the peak during winter to early spring, were caused by biomass burning emissions in all countries in continental Southeast Asia. The contribution of biomass burning emissions to NO2 VCD over continental Southeast Asia was an average of 28% during this period and a maximum of 58% in March 2004.

Syuichi Itahashi, Itsushi Uno, Hitoshi Irie, Jun-Ichi Kurokawa, Toshimasa Ohara

Chapter 5. Observations of Asian Dust and Agricultural Fire Smoke Episodes: Transport and Impacts on Regional Air Quality in Southeast China

This chapter presents an integrated observations of Asian dust and agricultural fire smoke episodes in spring and summer 2011 in Nanjing, China, using multiple satellites, ground-based sensors, and transport model. The source, long-range transport, time-height distribution, optical characteristics, and impacts on the air quality and visibility are demonstrated. The dust episode on May 1 shows two dust layers loading in the planetary-boundary-layer (PBL) and free troposphere originating from the Gobi deserts and Taklimakan deserts, respectively. The dust aerosols show the depolarization ratio of 0.1–0.2, optical depth (AOD) of 1.6 at 500-nm, and Angstrom exponents of 0.2. The hourly PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations show the maximum value of 767 μg/m3 and 222 μg/m3 thus indicating a heavy air pollution. The models are capable of simulating the right timing of dust transport event and primary loading in the PBL. For the episode of agricultural fires on June 3–4, the smoke aerosols are mainly located in the PBL with small depolarization ratio, and the AODs increase up to 3.0 with Angstrom exponent of 1.5–1.6. The PM10 and PM2.5 mass indicate a dramatic increase with the peak value reaching 800 μg/m3 and 485 μg/m3, respectively. The MODIS fire product shows the sources of agriculture fires located in the mid-east China (e.g., Jiangshu, Anhui, and Henan provinces). Regional transports are further illustrated by MODIS, OMI, and CALIPSO. Finally, the evaluations of MODIS-AOD and their correlation with the ground PM10 are illustrated in Nanjing urban area.

Yonghua Wu, Yong Han, Tijian Wang

Chapter 6. Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Land and Forest Fires in Indonesia Using MODIS Active Fire Dataset

Land and forest fires occur in Indonesia every year causing ecological damage and economic losses. Most of the fires are human initiated as locals use fire as a land clearing tool, converting forests to agriculture and plantations. In this study, we use descriptive statistics to analyze fires from 2006 to 2015 using MODIS satellite data. Specifically, spatio-temporal patterns of fires have been analyzed in all provinces, forest types, peatlands, and moratorium areas. The results suggested fires in almost all regions of Indonesia, in particular, Sumatra, Kalimantan, and Papua. The highest fire intensity was found in the production forests (73%). The year of 2015 was the worst fire season in Indonesia since 1997. During 2015, 67% of fires were detected in forest areas and 33% in non-forest areas. We also found 36% of active fires occurring in peatlands. Within the fire moratorium area, active fires continue to increase significantly suggesting moratorium areas had not been effective for fire mitigation.

Israr Albar, I. Nengah Surati Jaya, Bambang Hero Saharjo, Budi Kuncahyo, Krishna Prasad Vadrevu

Chapter 7. Severe Air Pollution Due to Peat Fires During 2015 Super El Niño in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia

Severe air pollution due to biomass burning occurred again in Indonesia during the 2015 super El Niño. In this study, air pollution data measured at Palangkaraya, near the northern part of the Mega Rice Project (MRP) area in Kalimantan, are analyzed in conjunction with fire and precipitation data, and satellite imagery. During super (very strong) El Niño conditions in 2015, the dry season lasted about 150 days from late-May to late-October, with low precipitation (=1.0 mm day−1; average precipitation in dry season = 3.9 mm day−1). Forest and peat fires became active around mid-August, about 3 months after the onset of the dry season, followed by a period of severe air pollution (PM10 > 420 × 10−6 gm−3; Hazardous level) starting in mid-September and lasting through late-October. These time-lags between the dry season, fires, and air pollution period suggest that biomass fuel needs about 3 months to become dry enough to start active fires, and that peat underground needs about 4 months to become ignitable dry peat. After severe peat fires began in late-September, highest daily and hourly PM10 concentrations (3010 and 3760 × 10−6 gm−3, respectively) were observed on October 20, 2015. These fire and air pollution occurrence tendencies suggest that peat fires are the main source of air pollution.

Hiroshi Hayasaka, Alpon Sepriando

Chapter 8. Forest and Land Fires in Riau Province: A Case Study in Fire Prevention Policy Implementation with Local Concession Holders

During the last 5 years (2010–2014), the frequency of forest and land fires in the Riau province had increased significantly each year. Various government policies were implemented to minimize forest and land fire such as through constitution, government policy, President’s policy, Ministry of forestry policy, Ministry of Agriculture policy, and Director General policy. The regulations mandated that every permit owner both in forestry and plantation sector must have facilities (infrastructure), human resources, and sufficient institutional system to prevent forest and land fires in their unit area. Besides, the government had also mandated to every business permit owner to consider biophysical aspects to prevent forest and land fires. However, forest and land fires in Riau are still continuing every year with increasing frequency. This condition creates a question about what is actually happening in Riau. This chapter shows that forest and land fire in June 2013 and January–March 2014 in Riau occurred because the policies were not implemented optimally by both forestry and palm oil plantation companies. Factors behind the forest and land fires in Riau province were attributed to (1) resources (human resources, information, authority, and facilities); (2) attitude of policy implementer in unit area; and (3) bureaucracy and an organizational structure. From five oil palm plantation companies observed, it was found that four companies classified into category 2 or do not implement the policies. The four companies with the level of policy implementation are as follows: (1) PT. MEG (23.0%); (2) PT. TFDI (23.0%); (3) PT. JJP (23.5%); and PT. BNS (48.3%). The other companies which were PT. SAGM classified into category 1 or do not implement the policies at all (18.5%). Of the 12 forestry companies observed, it was found that one company PT. SRL Blok III was classified into category 1 which do not implement the policies at all (7.22%). Another company PT SRL Blok V was classified into category 3 which lacked in policy implementation (50.78%). The remaining ten companies (1) PT. DRT; (2) PT. NSP; (3) PT. SPA; (4) PT. SSL; (5) PT.AA; (6) PT.SG; (7) PT.SRL Blok IV; (8) PT. SPM; (9) PT.RUJ; and (10) PT. RRL were classified into category 2 which did not implement the policy (26.20–43.40%).

Bambang Hero Saharjo, Alex Yungan

Chapter 9. Biomass Burning Emissions Variation from Satellite-Derived Land Cover, Burned Area, and Emission Factors in Vietnam

Biomass burning emissions variation was calculated based on differences in satellite-derived products: MODIS and MERIS-based land cover, MODIS and MERIS-based burned area (BA), as well as global and regionally - averaged emission factors. The products and resulting emissions were compared for 3 years (2006–2008) in Vietnam. They were compared at four spatial scales including: (1) country level; (2) region level; (3) land cover; and (4) grid-cell level. For the different products, we especially focused on BA as it is the major input for emission calculations. The BA products were tested for differences using the mean absolute deviation (MAD), Average Absolute Deviation (AAD), and Student’s t-test for significance. Of the different regions, Central Highlands showed the highest AAD in BAs. At a country level, the MERIS BA amounts were relatively higher than the MODIS BAs and especially during peak biomass burning months. We also found that emissions calculations using MERIS LC were relatively lower than those from MODIS LC. While over croplands, the regional emission factors yielded notably higher emissions compared with the global emission factors suggesting that current large-scale studies may be underestimating the biomass burning emissions. We further addressed the potential impact of emissions on urban air quality in Hanoi City through HYSPLIT trajectory modeling.

Kristofer Lasko, Krishna Prasad Vadrevu

Chapter 10. Enhancement of Fire Early Warning System in Vietnam Using Spatial Data and Assimilation

Accurate and timely information on vegetation fires is crucial for mitigation and rehabilitation measures. With the advent of spatial technologies, fire risk can be mapped at varied spatial scales integrating multiple datasets. In Vietnam, forest protection department (FPD) leads the forest and fire management activities. FPD routinely generates fire early warning maps at a district level that depict fire risk varying from level I to level V with increasing severity. The FPD fire risk maps are based on an algorithm that only uses ground-based meteorological inputs. In this study, we improve the fire risk assessment through assimilating meteorological as well as satellite data and map the fire risk at 0.1 × 0.1° grid cells. We use MODIS active fires to test the relative accuracy of FPD-generated fire risk map and our approach. Results suggest a significant enhancement in fire risk using our approach. Our results outperformed the FPD results in terms of both spatial details and fire risk information, i.e., we found a much higher fire density at level IV and level V at 0.1 × 0.1° grid scale than the FPD district-level maps. Our results highlight the potential of data assimilation for an improved fire early warning in Vietnam.

Ba Tung Nguyen, Khac Phong Do, Nguyen Le Tran, Quang Hung Bui, Thi Nhat Thanh Nguyen, Van Quynh Vuong, Thanh Ha Le

Chapter 11. Greenhouse Gas Budget of Terrestrial Ecosystems in Monsoon Asia: A Process-Based Model Study for the Period 1901–2014

Terrestrial ecosystems, including both natural vegetation and croplands, in Monsoon Asia play important roles in the global greenhouse gas budget, but there remain large uncertainties in our present regional-scale accounting. In this study, we applied a process-based model, Vegetation Integrative SImulator for Trace gases (VISIT), to the Monsoon Asia region to simulate sinks and sources of CO2, CH4, and N2O in terrestrial ecosystems. From 1901 to 2014, temporal change and spatial distribution of these gases were simulated. The region was estimated as a net sink of CO2 (about a quarter of the global total), but emissions of CH4 and N2O largely offset the effect. Because of heterogeneity and variability in terrestrial processes, we recommend an integrated study to elucidate the total budget in this region.

Akihiko Ito, Motoko Inatomi

Chapter 12. Simulations of Emissions, Air Quality, and Climate Contribution in Southeast Asia for March and December

Air pollution is a major concern over Southeast Asia, especially in March when biomass burning and anthropogenic emissions both contribute significantly to air quality in terms of gases and aerosols. This work explores the sensitivity of air quality in terms of ozone in Southeast Asia from future emissions and climate. Simulations with the Nested Regional Climate Model coupled with Chemistry (NRCM-Chem) with 60 and 12 km grid sizes were performed for March and December during 2030–2034 and present day (2005–2009). The NRCM-Chem model employs initial and boundary conditions from the Community Climate System Version 3 (CCSM3) for meteorological variables and Community Atmospheric Model with Chemistry (CAM-Chem) for chemical species. The emission inventories include anthropogenic, biogenic, and biomass burning emissions. The future anthropogenic emissions are the RCP4.5 scenario from CAM-Chem emissions, while biomass burning emissions are the same in both present-day and 2030–2034 simulations. Three simulations were conducted for: (1) present day (2005–2009), (2) future day using the RCP4.5 climate scenario and present anthropogenic emission, and (3) future day using the RCP4.5 climate scenario and future anthropogenic emission. We find, by comparing the NRCM-Chem results with the CAM-Chem results (at a coarser grid spacing of ~200 km), that the two model results have a similar spatial pattern in the present day over Southeast Asia, and they agree fairly well compared to ground-based observations from Pollution Control Department in Thailand. Model results indicate that climate change alone increases ozone concentrations by about 30% in Southeast Asia, while the combination of climate and emission changes in the future increase ozone by another 10% compared to the simulation with only future climate change.

Teerachai Amnuaylojaroen, Mary C. Barth, Gabriele Pfister, Cindy Bruyere

Chapter 13. Study of Lower Tropospheric Ozone over Central and Eastern China: Comparison of Satellite Observation with Model Simulation

The lower tropospheric ozone enhancement over Central and Eastern China (CEC) was reported by Hayashida et al. (Atmos Chem Phys 15(17):9865–9881, 2015) using the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) multiple-layer product retrieved by Liu et al. (Atmos Chem Phys 10(5):2521–2537, 2010), which first showed the lower tropospheric ozone enhancement from ultraviolet and visible (UV-Vis) spectra measurements from space. However, to clarify the enhancement in the concentration of the lowermost ozone using spaceborne measurements, it is necessary to understand the effect of ozone variation in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS), because of large smoothing errors in the retrieval scheme. In this study, a scheme was developed to eliminate the artificial effect of UT/LS ozone enhancement on lower tropospheric ozone retrieval using OMI. By applying the UT/LS screening scheme for June 2006, we removed the artificial effect of the UT/LS ozone enhancement on the lower tropospheric ozone. Even after UT/LS screening, we were able to show a clear enhancement in the lower tropospheric ozone over CEC in June 2006 and confirmed the conclusion derived by Hayashida et al. (Atmos Chem Phys 15(17):9865–9881, 2015). To clarify the reason for ozone enhancement in June, the effects of emissions from open crop residue burning (OCRB) in the North China Plain on lower tropospheric ozone were also examined using a comparison with model simulations. On the scale of the vertical resolution of OMI observations, the effect of OCRB on ozone enhancement does not seem to be significant, although it may be more significant when focusing on ozone in the planetary boundary layer.

Sachiko Hayashida, Satoko Kayaba, Makoto Deushi, Kazuyo Yamaji, Akiko Ono, Mizuo Kajino, Tsuyoshi Thomas Sekiyama, Takashi Maki, Xiong Liu

Chapter 14. Multi-scale Simulations of Atmospheric Pollutants Using a Non-hydrostatic Icosahedral Atmospheric Model

We have developed a seamless global-to-regional model to calculate atmospheric aerosol chemistry by coupling existing aerosol and chemical modules to a global cloud-system-resolving model (NICAM-Chem). The model can simulate air pollutants with various grid sizes ranging from global low resolution (~200 km) on yearly scales to regional high resolution (~10 km) on monthly scales and global high resolution (<10 km) on weekly scales. To date, we have confirmed that the NICAM-Chem simulated aerosols at low-to-high resolutions, and global-to-regional scales are generally comparable to validated observations. Furthermore, the very recent availability of cutting-edge computational capabilities provided by the K computer at RIKEN in Japan enabled us to perform seasonal air pollution simulations with a high global resolution model (14 km), which generally reproduced the observed aerosol distributions. In this paper, we introduce the following application studies using the NICAM-Chem model: future scenario experiments, downscaling using results obtained by a coupled atmosphere-ocean model, estimation of human health due to PM2.5, simulations of radioactive matter using a regional model, and aerosol assimilation by a localized ensemble transform Kalman filter.

Daisuke Goto, Teruyuki Nakajima, Dai Tie, Hisashi Yashiro, Yousuke Sato, Kentaroh Suzuki, Junya Uchida, Shota Misawa, Ryoma Yonemoto, Tran Thi Ngoc Trieu, Hirofumi Tomita, Masaki Satoh

Chapter 15. Project MANTRA: Multi-platform ANalysis of TRace Gases and Aerosols with a Focus on Atmospheric CO2 Measurements for Southeast Asia

This chapter gives an overview of Project MANTRA (Multi-platform Analysis of Trace gases and Aerosols) focusing on atmospheric carbon dioxide. Specifically, this chapter addresses how surface CO2 data can be measured in a cost-effective manner. Applications are shown for measurements at Lampang Rajabhat University (LPRU), Thailand, at the University of the Philippines Institute of Environmental Science and Meteorology (UP-IESM) and at Biñan, Laguna, Philippines. The measured data were also compared with simulations using the Regional Emissions Inventory in Asia (REAS ver. 2.1) and the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model. Mobile measurements taken from the Lampang-Tak route in Thailand and from Quezon City-Baguio route in the Philippines are also shown. Broadening to the regional scale, measurements from the Ship of Opportunity (SOOP), from the High-performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research (HIAPER) Pole-to-Pole Observation (HIPPO) and from the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) over the Southeast Asian region are presented. New initiatives such as the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) Southeast Asia are also introduced.

Ronald C. Macatangay

Chapter 16. Dry Deposition of Reactive Nitrogen Species in Tropics

With the rising demand for food and energy security across the globe, the reactive nitrogen species (Nr) has undergone a rapid accumulation as NO3− $$ {\mathrm{NO}}_3^{-} $$ and NH4+ $$ {\mathrm{NH}}_4^{+} $$ even in the remote region of the world. The growing sources and altered transport pathways of global nitrogen cycling have consequently provided an increasing interaction of excess Nr with the atmospheric transport and removal mechanism. This has resulted in the exceedance of Nr deposition fluxes beyond its critical threshold level with a cascade of environmental, health and related economic problems arising from its sequential transfer through different environmental compartments. Hence, the problem of excess Nr as one of the most pressing issues of the environment has been well documented by assessment reports and budget inventories of the developed nations. However, with global shifts in land use pattern and the expanding fringes of semi-arid deserts, there is a growing need for exploring the role of mineral dust as the ultimate sink to the excess Nr acidity in the atmosphere. High temperature condition of the tropics along with the atmospheric abundance of mineral dust rich in carbonate and bicarbonate of Ca2+ and Mg2+ has been instrumental to the size segregated partitioning of Nr towards the coarse mode phase. This chapter addresses the spatial gaps arising from the level of uncertainty attached in the estimation of Nr fluxes due to the changing dynamics of land use patterns. Delhi being the epitome of the growing pollution and population problem of the Indo-Gangetic plain has been chosen as a reference site for deciphering the interaction mechanism involved in mineral dust scavenging of Nr. Such a comprehensive overview of the global deposition rates of Nr along with the estimates from our case study would be helpful in strengthening our present understanding of the Nr tropospheric reactions and its removal processes under dry weather condition.

Reema Tiwari, Umesh Kulshrestha

Aerosol Pollution


Chapter 17. Aerosols and Climate Change: Present Understanding, Challenges, and Future Outlook

Atmospheric aerosols are a mixture of solid or liquid particles suspended in the medium of air. Their physical (size, shape, and texture) and chemical properties vary over sub-micron and super-micron radius range, consequently their removal processes, and their residence times differ greatly. Aerosols play a vital role in cloud formation and air pollution among others. The space-time variations in aerosol characteristics, and aerosol types arise due to different aerosol sources, and atmospheric dynamics which include boundary layer, temperature, relative humidity variations, and long-range transport. The optical, physical, and chemical characteristics of aerosols over continent and ocean exhibit distinct variations. Atmospheric aerosols through direct and indirect radiative effects influence the Earth-atmosphere radiation budget and climate. The challenges involved in estimating the direct and indirect radiative effects of aerosols, and further detection and attribution of the temperature response due to aerosols which include delineating more quantitatively the natural and man-made contribution, and scattering versus absorbing aerosols are detailed in this chapter. The presence of different aerosol species over a location produced by sources of local origin, and long-range transport can give rise to different mixing states of aerosols owing to aging and interaction among them which in turn can change their characteristics and life cycle. Results reveal that single scattering albedo, which is non-linearly related to aerosol radiative forcing, is significantly different for external, core-shell, and internal mixtures. Aerosol measurements from a remote sensing perspective and the advances that have been made in this regard are enlisted. The future requirements in terms of measurements, remote sensing techniques, and modeling studies for better detection and attribution of climate change due to aerosols is envisioned.

S. Ramachandran

Chapter 18. Organic Aerosols in South and East Asia: Composition and Sources

Atmospheric aerosol loadings are high in South and East Asia because of extensive economic development in India and China. Asian aerosols are further transported over the outflow regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Organic aerosols (OA) are composed of a complex mixture of many compounds and represent a large fraction of fine particulate matter in the atmosphere. OA can significantly impact the Earth’s climate system and cause adverse effects on human health. To illustrate the current state of knowledge of OA in South and East Asia, we describe the concentrations of carbonaceous components and their stable carbon (13C) and radiocarbon isotope ratios, molecular composition and distributions of OA including marker species, 13C isotopic compositions of dicarboxylic acids and related compounds in the South and East Asian atmosphere based on a survey of literature. We further discuss possible primary sources and secondary formation and transformation pathways of OA in South and East Asia.

Chandra Mouli Pavuluri, Kimitaka Kawamura

Chapter 19. Shortwave Radiation, Climate Change, and Anthropogenic Aerosols in China

This study reviews the role of aerosols in the shortwave radiation budget and climate change in China. As an example of the aerosol radiative effect, the relationship between surface shortwave radiation and aerosol properties is explored. The anthropogenic aerosol, particularly black carbon is important to address long-term variations of surface shortwave radiation in China. Another role of aerosol is its relation to cloud formation and precipitation processes. Cloud condensation is affected by air pollution aerosol, but the aerosol effect on precipitation is not obvious. Quantitative assessment of the aerosol effect on the cloud and precipitation is quite difficult particularly in China as local aerosol has a wide range of chemical and physical properties. The mixture status is also a key factor to understand and predict climate change in the past, present, and future. The improved understanding of aerosols and precursor emissions can aid to resolve some climate change issues.

Tadahiro Hayasaka

Chapter 20. Conceptualizing How Severe Haze Events Are Impacting Long-Term Satellite-Based Trend Studies of Aerosol Optical Thickness over Asia

Error budgets derived for aerosol trend analysis from satellite-based datasets always consider sensor calibration, cloud contamination, and sampling scale. Here, we also consider and characterize an additional uncertainty induced by severe haze events. Such events were evaluated using MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) daily aerosol optical thickness (AOT) products (Terra MOD04 and Aqua MYD04) and AErosol RObotic Network (AERONET) AOT measurements over two regions subject to relatively high anthropogenic pollution loadings (and, as such, those conditions whereby the hygroscopic enhancement of local particulate mass is more likely): Beijing, China; and Kanpur, India. Further, the data are analyzed for trend analysis using two methods: linear and non-linear regression techniques. The latter, considered using the relatively new ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) methodology, allows for better representation of trends in non-linear time series, which is more practical for considering aerosol global trends overall. Our work shows that the severe haze events exhibit a significant impact on the AOT trends derived from these two regions. AOT trends from both the Terra and Aqua MODIS platforms over Kanpur are consistent with and without haze AOT using the linear method. Slight decreasing AOT trends were observed at Beijing from Terra and Aqua using both linear and non-linear methods. Case studies show the practical influence of severe haze events on the over- and under-estimate of MODIS AOT in these urban areas and how ground-based instrumentation critically assist interpretation of satellite-based aerosol observations.

Zhao Yang Zhang, Man Sing Wong, James R. Campbell

Chapter 21. Aerosol Properties over Kuching, Sarawak from Satellite and Ground-Based Measurements

The effect of aerosols on the global and regional climate can be understood through an insight into the properties of aerosols. In this article, the optical properties of aerosols were analyzed through the ground-based Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) and MODIS satellite data over Kuching city in northwestern Sarawak. This study deals with the optical properties of aerosols: aerosol optical depth (AOD), Angstrom exponent (α), single scattering albedo (SSA), and the asymmetry factor (ASY) during 2011–2012 over Kuching city, Sarawak, Malaysia. The results show that the variability in optical properties of aerosols can be determined by the type of aerosol or the source of the aerosol. In the study area, higher concentrations are encountered due to the presence of aerosol from urban activities, especially during the dry season. While monsoonal rainfall tends to reduce aerosol concentrations by washing aerosols out of the atmosphere, their effect is still significant during the wet season.

Arnis Asmat, Khairunnisa Abdul Jalal, Siti Noratiqah Mohd Deros

Chapter 22. Investigating the Aerosol Type and Spatial Distribution During Winter Fog Conditions over Indo-Gangetic Plains

The South Asian region in general and the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) in particular hold about 1/6th of the world’s population is considered as one of the major hotspots of atmospheric pollution. Fog is a major meteorological phenomenon which can generate significant social and economic disruptions. Meteorological stations provide information about the fog episodes only on the basis of point observation. Continuous monitoring as well as a spatially coherent picture of fog distribution can only be possible through the complementary use of satellite imagery. This study focuses on winter fog episodes over South Asian region using the Moderate Resolution Image Spectrometer (MODIS) and OMI Aerosol Product in combination with Fire, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), and carbon monoxide (CO) datasets. MOD04 level 2 Collection 6 data is used to study aerosol load. Spatial distribution and types of aerosols are characterized using aerosol type over land product from MODIS. UV Aerosol Absorbing Index (UVAAI) from ozone monitoring instrument was also used for aerosol characterization over South Asia. The MODIS-derived aerosol optical depth was validated with independent ground-based measurements from the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) stations across the Indo-Gangetic plains. A significant correlation between MODIS (AOD) and AERONET Station (AOD) data was identified. The objectives of the study were to map the spatial extent of aerosol and their types during special weather conditions like fog over IGP. Absorbing aerosols originating from biomass burning activities are predominant in IGP. The spatial and temporal correlations between AOD and tropospheric columns of NO2, SO2, and CO are used to infer information about source region and composition of aerosol particles in IGP region.

Muhammad Fahim Khokhar, Naila Yasmin

Chapter 23. Satellite Aerosol Optical Depth over Vietnam - An Analysis from VIIRS and CALIOP Aerosol Products

Satellite aerosol products are useful to address a variety of questions relating to the atmosphere, climate change, air pollution, and human health. Thus, their evaluation followed by validation in different regions of the world can help in refining the products. In this study, VIIRS (2012–2015) and CALIPSO (2006–2015) aerosol products are analyzed and compared for seasonal trend and aerosol subtypes at Nghia Do, Nha Trang, and Bac Lieu AERONET stations located in the north, central, and southern regions of Vietnam, respectively. At Nghia Do station, VIIRS AOD captured the northern seasonal trends well with low errors, and high correlation coefficients. CALIPSO aerosol subtypes have shown polluted dust, biomass burning, polluted continental, clean continental, and desert dust coinciding with the northern climate conditions, agricultural burning, and long-range transport. At Nha Trang station, VIIRS AOD performed poorly with no seasonal trends, large errors, and low correlation coefficients. However, aerosol subtype analysis revealed marine aerosol, polluted continental, polluted dust, biomass burning, and desert dust events over the Nha Trang which are mostly explained by location, local climate conditions, and vegetation burning. For Bac Lieu station, VIIRS AOD quality is the lowest compared to AERONET AOD. No seasonal trend has been captured and the errors are extremely high in rainy and dry seasons at this station. CALIPSO aerosol subtypes are marine aerosol, polluted continental, polluted dust, biomass burning, and clean continental which could be explained by location, heat island, and local paddy rice seasonality. In overall, evaluation of VIIRS and CALIPSO aerosol products over Vietnam provides useful insights on their utility and potential applications in aerosol and air quality research.

Vinh T. Tran, Ha V. Pham, Thanh T. N. Nguyen, Thanh X. Pham, Quang Hung Bui, Anh X. Nguyen, Thuy T. Nguyen

Chapter 24. Satellite Remote Sensing of Aerosols and Gaseous Pollution over Pakistan

The trace gases–aerosols–climate interaction is an important subject regarding climate change, air quality studies, and modeling. This study focuses on the spatiotemporal variability, trends, and seasonality of aerosols and important trace gases such as NO2, CH4, O3, and CO over Pakistan using satellite remote sensing. In the present work, to assess the total aerosol burden, we have analyzed the Aqua-MODIS derived deep blue aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 550 nm for the period July 2002 to June 2015. We have also compared AOD from Aqua with that of Terra and MISR. High correlation (R = 0.832) was observed between Aqua-AOD and Terra-AOD while relatively low correlation (0.666) was found between Aqua-AOD and MISR-AOD. The AOD starts to increase from February and becomes maximum (0.55) in July and then decreases afterwards. We have also discussed seasonal and annual mean AOD derived from Aqua-MODIS over six megacities of Pakistan. Annual mean value of tropospheric NO2 column derived from OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) is found to be 1.187 ± 0.018 × 1015 molecules/cm2 during 2005–2015. NO2 column exhibits two peaks, i.e., primary peak in June (1.325 ± 0.079 × 1015 molecules/cm2) and secondary peak in December (1.258 ± 0.099 × 1015 molecules/cm2). Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) observations reveal an annual averaged value of CO to be 123.165 ± 6.67 (ppbv). AIRS data show large spatial and temporal variations of lower-tropospheric O3 retrieved at 850 hPa. Yearly time and space averaged value of O3 is 42.27 ± 0.35 ppbv with increasing trend of 0.17% per year. SCIAMACHY data show that total column of CH4 is elevating with the rate of 0.41% per year with an annual mean value of 1787 ± 22 ppbv during the study period.

Salman Tariq, Zia Ul-Haq

Land Use/Cover Change and Impacts


Chapter 25. The Impact of Land Cover and Land Use Change on the Indian Monsoon Region Hydroclimate

The Indian Monsoon Region (IMR) has undergone notable land cover and land use change (LCLUC) in response to a dramatic increase in population and economic growth. While the changes in characteristics of LCLUC have been documented in various studies, the realistic representation of these changes within a dynamic hydroclimatic framework remains a challenge to the scientific community. This chapter highlights that representing LCLUC changes and feedbacks should be an integral component of short, medium, and long-range predictions over the IMR. Realistic representation of the land conditions can enhance model predictions at different scales. Yet, the LCLUC information is not well represented in atmospheric models, principally due to lack of details in land surface datasets and also due to the limitations of the model parameterizations. The need for developing gridded, high-resolution datasets and models that can ascribe to the changes and build off the sensitivity to the land changes emerge as a focus area. This chapter presents the nature of land cover feedbacks and their influence on the prediction of hydroclimatological extremes over the IMR. It is not intended as a comprehensive review, but more as a synthesis of contemporary studies that have addressed the issue of land surface responses and their feedback as part of land–atmospheric interactions over the region. Current understanding from studies on the impact of LCLUC over different scales of environmental processes and associated principles is also summarized with a particular focus on improving the hydroclimatic predictions over the IMR by considering coupled land–atmosphere interactions.

Dev Niyogi, Subashini Subramanian, U. C. Mohanty, C. M. Kishtawal, Subimal Ghosh, U. S. Nair, M. Ek, M. Rajeevan

Chapter 26. Decadal Land-Cover Changes in China and Their Impacts on the Atmospheric Environment

As the fundamental interface for land–atmosphere energy exchange and material cycle, land-cover changes play a pivotal role in climate change, biogeochemical cycle, and atmospheric composition. This study investigates the decadal land-cover changes in China since the early 1990s and their impacts on the atmospheric environment using a numerical model coupled with remote sensing datasets. In the recent decades, increased urbanization and afforestation occurred in China, which posed great environmental consequences. A typical urban heat island (UHI) is generated in China’s two urban agglomerations—the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region and the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region. The UHI effect, in turn, enhances turbulent mixing and modifies local circulations, i.e., initiates the UHI circulation, and strengthens the sea breeze and lake breeze circulations. The deeper urban boundary layer (200–400 m) and rising branch (0.2–0.6 m s−1) of UHI circulation in PRD are favorable for NOx dilution, thus weakening the daytime photochemical production and nocturnal chemical depletion of ozone (O3). As a result, urbanization causes a detectable decrease in daytime O3 (−1.3 ppb) and a nocturnal O3 increase (+5.2 ppb). Emissions of high-reactivity biogenic volatile organics (BVOCs) are highly dependent on forest cover, and could significantly impact the production of secondary pollutants. The total BVOC emissions in PRD increased twofold due to afforestation since the early 1990s, which tended to cause a 0.9–4.6 ppb increment in surface O3 over the downwind areas. The global environment is continuously changing, posing a substantial influence on regional air quality. Our future focus is to understand the potential environmental impacts of global changes through dynamic downscaling and coupling of global climate models, vegetation dynamics models, and regional air quality models.

Mengmeng Li, Yu Song

Chapter 27. Analyzing the Influence of Urban Growth on Thermal Environment Through Demographic, Environmental, and Physical Parameters in Bangladesh

Urban growth is the most evident aspect of anthropogenic impact on the earth system, replacing the natural physical characteristics of earth’s surface and thus influencing the thermal environment. The resulting thermal environment impact is especially observed in developing countries like Bangladesh. In this study, we assess, evaluate, and explore the growth of urban areas over Bangladesh for summer and winter seasons of 2003–2013 using Landsat-7 ETM+. We integrate the expected urban growth scenarios with the thermal environment through demographic, environmental, and physical datasets and also predict urban growth. We delineated urban areas over Bangladesh using Impervious Surface Area (ISA) with 90% accuracy and observed a 128% increase in urban areas during the 10 years. We used multivariate technique with satellite-derived land surface temperature, Surface Urban Heat Island Intensity (SUHII), Albedo and artificial heat flux in identifying the urban hotspots in various cities over Bangladesh. The results indicate an increase in urban areas in the first 5 years (2003–2008) by over 100% and in the next 5 years (2008–2013) by 200% mainly due to lack of urban planning policies. Our results indicate an enormous increase of 167% in Urban Heat Island Effect Ratio (UHIER) during the period. We also used advanced statistical analysis to assess the relationship between selected demographic (population), environmental (PM2.5, PM10, relative humidity, and air temperature) and physical parameters (Urbanization Index and Urban Density Cluster) and identified parameters which are most influencing to the thermal environment. Our results suggest the significant increase in UHIER by 2018 over major cities in Bangladesh. To reduce the influence of urban growth on thermal environment, we recommend mitigation measures useful for urban planners and decision makers to ensure safety and public health in Bangladesh.

Yogesh Kant, Saiful Azim, Debashis Mitra

Chapter 28. Ecosystem Carbon Stock, Atmosphere, and Food Security in Slash-and-Burn Land Use: A Geospatial Study in Mountainous Region of Laos

Slash-and-burn (S&B) agriculture is widely practiced as part of an important food production system in the tropical mountains of Southeast Asia. Since biomass burning is an essential part of S&B land use, its influences on atmospheric quality through aerosols and CO2 emissions are inevitable. Although the land use was previously sustainable and carbon neutral, the S&B ecosystems have become a significant source of atmospheric CO2 due to drastic land-use change in the past decades. Additionally, both the crop and labor productivity in S&B agriculture have been seriously affected by land-use change. This case study in Laos reveals the reality of the chrono-sequential change in land use and ecosystem management on a regional scale based on synergistic analysis of multi-disciplinary data. Not only the area of S&B cropping but also the frequency of biomass burning (and thus the duration of the fallow period) had a strong influence on the ecosystem’s carbon stock and, in turn, on the deterioration of land and labor productivity in crop production. Geospatial analysis on a regional scale based on the synergy of multiple data sources such as time-series satellite images, field surveillance, in-situ measurements, and on-site experiments play an important role for a better understanding of land-use change and atmospheric impacts. Since the indigenous people of this large area are highly dependent on S&B agriculture for their living, alternative S&B land-use and ecosystem management scenarios would have to improve their livelihood as well as carbon sequestration and ecosystem sustainability.

Yoshio Inoue

Chapter 29. Spatial Modeling of Land Cover/Land Use Change and Its Effects on Hydrology Within the Lower Mekong Basin

The Lower Mekong Basin is an economically and ecologically important region that is vulnerable to effects of climate variability and land cover changes. To effectively develop long-term plans for addressing these changes, responses to climate variability and land cover change must be evaluated. This research aims to investigate how the land cover change will affect hydrologic parameters both spatially and temporally within the Lower Mekong Basin. The research goal is achieved by (1) modeling land cover change for a baseline land cover change scenario as well as changes in land cover with increases in forest or agriculture and (2) using modeled land cover data as inputs into the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model to simulate the changes to the hydrologic system. The VIC model outputs were analyzed against historic values to understand to what degree land cover changes affect the hydrology of the region and where within the region these changes occur. This study found that increasing forest area will slightly decrease discharge and increase evapotranspiration whereas increasing agriculture area increases discharge and decreases evapotranspiration. These findings will benefit the Lower Mekong Basin by supporting individual country, as well as basin-wide, policy for effective land management for water resources management changes as well as policy for the basin as a whole.

Kel N. Markert, Robert E. Griffin, Ashutosh S. Limaye, Richard T. McNider

Chapter 30. Land–Atmosphere Interactions in South Asia: A Regional Earth Systems Perspective

Exchanges between the land and the atmosphere are complex and dynamic. Capturing these interactions provides a better understanding of the earth systems across multiple scales. Studies highlighting the energy budget partitioning and water cycle assessment have immensely contributed to defining better monsoon, weather and climate predictions as well as regional water vapor transport impacted by anthropogenic influences in South Asia. In this chapter, we provide examples of how the land–atmosphere interactions are influenced by changing soil moisture, evapotranspiration, water vapor transport, and planetary boundary layer depth over this region. Climate change adaptation requires the knowledge of how large-scale atmospheric and climate-induced forcings impact at a local scale. Therefore, proper physical understanding of the processes that influence the feedbacks between the vegetation, water, and atmosphere becomes essential for future management of natural resources and water management.

Venkataramana Sridhar, Prasanth Valayamkunnath


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