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Über dieses Buch

This book summarizes the key findings of a five-year interdisciplinary research project funded by the German Federal Ministry of Research and Education (BMBF). It serves as a typical case study for a rapidly growing and developing urban center – Da Nang City, which is surrounded by remote areas characterized by increasing migration and limited development. A number of German and Vietnamese universities and international institutions participated in the project, contributing their particular expertise to assess the data-scarce region under study, two provinces in central Vietnam with a combined area of ca. 12,000 km².

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Introduction

Abstract
In the scope of the German-Vietnamese research project “Land Use and Climate Change Interactions in Central Vietnam” (LUCCi) funded by the German and Vietnamese research ministries BMBF and MOST, a variety of feedbacks in a dynamically developing socio-ecological system were assessed during the period of 2010–2016. The study region, the Vu Gia Thu Bon river basin, provides manifold ecosystem services for the provinces Da Nang and Quang Nam and supplies the population with water, food and energy. It is exposed to numerous challenges as rapid hydropower development, urbanisation, industrialisation, and expanding tourism along the coasts of both provinces. Strategies for sustainable resource use were developed in the framework of the LUCCi project that can cope with the increasing pressure placed on the land and water resources in the region. Crucial local and national stakeholders who are entrusted with the management of the land and water resources were included from the start to ensure demand-oriented research and simultaneously to contribute to capacity development. The research results were made available to the province governments as well as relevant national and regional institutions. This book presents selected application-oriented results of the multifarious research project LUCCi, in which numerous German and Vietnamese scientists as well as international organisations participated. Especially the usability of the results for resource planning by the involved regional and national stakeholders was taken into consideration in selecting the contributions.
Alexandra Nauditt, Lars Ribbe

Biophysical and Socio-economic Features of the LUCCi—Project Region: The Vu Gia Thu Bon River Basin

Abstract
River basins provide the geographical working unit for natural resources managers, hydrologists and water managers as their boundaries obtain all the fresh water, which is potentially available in a region. The LUCCi research group dealing with river basin management has therefore systematically compiled and analysed the available information to give an overview on biophysical, institutional and socio-economic characteristics of the study region for stakeholders and researchers, and provides detailed information on the data sources and a state of the art on concluded studies in the study region with references. Here, we present a summary of the Vu Gia Thu Bon (VGTB) basin description. Further information is provided at www.​basin-info.​net and the Vu Gia Thu Bon River Basin Information Centre.
Viet Quoc Trinh, Alexandra Nauditt, Lars Ribbe, A. B. M. Firoz

Vu Gia Thu Bon River Basin Information System (VGTB RBIS)—Managing Data for Assessing Land Use and Climate Change Interactions in Central Vietnam

Abstract
The assessment of land use and climate change interactions requires and produces a lot of different types of data from several disciplines. In order to have a common and web-based platform to manage, share, and present such data in the context of an interdisciplinary international research project, the Vu Gia Thu Bon River Basin Information System (RBIS) was established. The modularly structured information system has a user-friendly interface with full read/write access for the management , linkage, analysis, visualization, and presentation of different types of data in the context of multidisciplinary environmental assessment and planning. Besides the management of metadata, different types of datasets can be managed (e.g., time series data, spatial geodata, documents). Standardized interfaces are provided to enable the exposure and exchange of data with other systems. Here the key features of the system are presented alongside with user related application guidance.
Franziska Zander

Forest Change and REDD+ Strategies

Abstract
In recent years the United Nations initiative on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+) program gained increasing attention in the policy arena, representing a valuable incentive for developing countries to take actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and at the same time promote sustainable forest management and improve local livelihoods . To design an effective REDD+ implementation plan at the local level it is crucial to make an in-depth analysis of the international and national requirements, analyse the forest change processes and related drivers at sub-national scale, and assess the local management options and constrains to ultimately select the appropriate policy mix and land management interventions . The present chapter first describes the state and historical changes of forests in Vietnam, identifies the direct and underlying drivers of deforestation and forest degradation at national scale, discusses the role of forests for climate change mitigation and indicates the key activities for reducing carbon emissions in Vietnam. Second, the main biophysical parameters and processes are assessed at sub-national scale for the Vu Gia Thu Bon river basin. The land cover and carbon stocks are mapped and quantified for the year 2010 and the land cover change and related carbon emissions are estimated for the period 2001–2010, allowing to model the land cover change and predict deforestation risks until the year 2020. Among the areas at higher risk of deforestation, the Tra Bui commune located in Quang Nam province is selected to design a sub-national REDD+ implementation plan in the third part of the chapter. The plan is based upon an in-depth analysis of the local context and land cover change dynamics, the local drivers of deforestation and a conducted stakeholder involvement process in the commune. Based upon this analysis, the last section provides recommendations about the local land management strategies that could be introduced in the commune and discusses the policy interventions are likely to enable their implementation.
Valerio Avitabile, Michael Schultz, Giulia Salvini, Arun Kumar Pratihast, Astrid Bos, Nadine Herold, Pham Manh Cuong, Vu Quang Hien, Martin Herold

Connectivity Conservation Management: A Biodiversity Corridor for Central Vietnam

Abstract
The Vu Gia Thu Bon (VGTB) watershed in Central Vietnam is enclosed by the foothills of the Annamite Mountains in the north, west and south. The Annamite Mountains are known for their elevated level of biodiversity , but the VGTB watershed faces increasing pressures from economic growth , urbanization , and agricultural expansion. This leads to an increasing loss and fragmentation of near-natural forest ecosystems by an extension of the road network and clearing of forests for agricultural land and plantations of exotic species. The main objective of this research is to identify priority areas for biodiversity conservation based on tree species distribution patterns, and to link these priority areas by a biodiversity corridor. Species distribution models show highest levels of potential tree species richness in the northwestern part of the watershed bordering Lao PDR, and in the highlands in the south at the border to Kon Tum Province. The protected area network covers a proportion of the areas of higher potential tree species richness, but leaves a gap in the northwestern part of the VGTB watershed. In order to close that gap, a new protected area should be established, and be connected to existing protected areas with stepping stones, small areas of elevated high potential tree species richness or with plantations of native tree species with high economic and ecological value. Awareness-building measures for both, biodiversity conservation as well as the use of native tree species for income generation have to be carried out to sensitize local communities.
Claudia Raedig, Hoang Ho Dac Thai, Udo Nehren

Rice-Based Cropping Systems in the Delta of the Vu Gia Thu Bon River Basin in Central Vietnam

Abstract
Despite high pressures for agricultural land conversion, increasing competition for water, and the relatively low net benefits of rice production, rice is still by far the predominant farm occupation in the Vu Gia Thu Bon basin in Central Vietnam . This study examined the reasons for such persistence by surveying and analyzing a comprehensive set of qualitative (planting and harvesting dates) and quantitative data (yields , labor and nonlabor inputs, prices) for all the crops present in the cropping systems of 113 farms in the region. The net benefit derived from rice production was on average 23 M VND ha−1, with a relatively low labor input of 144 man-days per ha−1. The net benefits generated by vegetable production are more than 9 times higher (ca. 215 M VND ha−1) with a labor demand of ca. 928 man-days ha−1. Despite the very high net benefits of vegetable production, in this region they do not translate into an equivalently high added value per ha and man-day. These values are ‘only’ nearly double than those for rice, and not much higher than those for watermelon, chili, and groundnut. The results indicate that farmers’ decisions for not rushing in diversifying production to vegetables are wise when looking at the high risks of vegetable production, shortage of on-farm labor resources, and high opportunity costs of nonfarm labor opportunities. Rice is a robust crop and a pillar of families’ food security, demanding low labor inputs. Under current conditions, farmers will most probably continue predominantly cropping rice. There is nevertheless the need to improve the rice system. Technical efficiency of rice production in the delta of the VGTB basin is 78 %, a low figure if compared to recent average estimations of 86 % for the Vietnamese Mekong and Red River deltas. The small scale of production, land fragmentation and irrigation challenges due to salinity intrusion are the main factors impacting on technical efficiency in the region.
Rui Pedroso, Dang Hoa Tran, Viet Quoc Trinh, Le Van An, Khac Phuc Le

Measuring GHG Emissions from Rice Production in Quang Nam Province (Central Vietnam): Emission Factors for Different Landscapes and Water Management Practices

Abstract
This study comprises greenhouse gas (GHG) emission measurements on rice fields in the Vu Gia/Thu Bon Basin in Central Vietnam , as part of an interdisciplinary research project. The experiments were conducted in the delta lowland (DL) and hilly midland (HM), over three seasons (summer–autumn in 2011 and 2012; winter–spring season in 2012) with two water management treatments namely continuous flooding (CF) and alternate wetting and drying (AWD) . GHG emissions were dominated by methane (CH4) emissions showing large difference among seasons, whereas nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions were negligible and irrelevant in the overall carbon footprint . However, temporal patterns were not conclusive over the entire observation period. The observed seasonal CH4 emission rates ranging from 83 to 696 kg CH4 per ha were relatively higher compared to other field studies and can, at least in part, be attributed to organic amendments applied in accordance to farmers’ practice. The practice of AWD reduced CH4 emissions significantly (P < 0.0001) in all seasons, corresponding in average to 71 % of the emissions from CF. On the other hand, AWD had no significant effect on N2O emissions. The average seasonal CH4 emission in the DL (420 kg ha−1) was also significantly higher than in the HM (206 kg ha−1). Compared with IPCC default values, this data set from Vietnamese rice fields indicates a higher emission level and Scaling factor for AWD. The average grain yield across all sites and seasons increased by 4 % (P < 0.0002) relative to CF with the practice of AWD.
Agnes Tirol-Padre, Dang Hoa Tran, Trong Nghia Hoang, Duong Van Hau, Tran Thi Ngan, Le Van An, Ngo Duc Minh, Reiner Wassmann, Bjoern Ole Sander

Hydrological and Agricultural Impacts of Climate Change in the Vu Gia-Thu Bon River Basin in Central Vietnam

Abstract
This paper summarizes some of the climate (change) impact modeling activities conducted in the Land use and Climate Change interactions in Central Vietnam (LUCCi) project . The study area is the Vu Gia-Thu Bon (VGTB) river basin in Central Vietnam, which is characterized by recurrent floods during the rainy season , but also water shortages during the dry season. The impact modeling activities, such as the validation of the models are hindered by the scarcity of hydrometeorological data and an unfavorable distribution of the observation network, i.e., station data is available only for the lowlands . In total, two different process-based and distributed hydrological models are applied in concert with climate change and land use projections . Based on that, the magnitudes and return periods of extreme flows are estimated. The modeling results suggest increases of extreme high flows due to climate change. A multi-objective agro-economical model was developed for a typical irrigation scheme in the region in order to optimize the area for cropping, irrigation-techniques and schedules. The model results suggest the irrigation technique Alternate Wetting and Drying, which has the potential to increase the benefits for the farmers and help to mitigate greenhouse gases at the same time. In addition, the regional-scale crop model GLAM is applied for groundnut under rainfed conditions, which is capable to identify regions suitable for cropping in the future. The paper further synthesizes recommendations for local stakeholders in Central Vietnam.
Patrick Laux, Manfred Fink, Moussa Waongo, Rui Pedroso, Giulia Salvini, Dang Hoa Tran, Dang Quang Thinh, Johannes Cullmann, Wolfgang-Albert Flügel, Harald Kunstmann

Impacts of Land-Use/Land-Cover Change and Climate Change on the Regional Climate in the Central Vietnam

Abstract
Nowadays, it is widely accepted that both elevated greenhouse gas (GHG) concentration as well as land-use/land-cover change (LULCC) can influence the regional climate dynamics. It is a matter of fact that changes in the land use/land cover are often ignored in long-term regional climate projections . Even worse, often an outdated (RCM default) LU map is applied for modeling. In the framework of the LUCCi project, we applied the Weather Research and Forecasting Model WRF in combination with an updated LULC map to study (1) the impacts of an improved and updated Land-Use Land-Cover map on the regional climate in the VuGia-ThuBon basin in Central Vietnam ; (2) the impacts separately of both the changed LU map and climate change (CC) on the regional climate; and (3) the sensitivity of land-use conversions in WRF simulations . It is found that the impacts of the outdated LU map exceed those of climate change, at least for the period 2001–2030. In addition, the deforestation scenario does not provide statistically significant signals of the most crucial surface climate variables, whereas the urbanization scenario provides evidence for a temperature signal (temperature increase) over the converted area, but no clear signal for precipitation is found.
Patrick Laux, Phuong Ngoc Bich Nguyen, Johannes Cullmann, Harald Kunstmann

Integrated River Basin Management in the Vu Gia Thu Bon Basin

Abstract
The Vu Gia Thu Bon River basin sustains important functions and services, which provide water, food, and energy resources for the people living in the basin as well as for people beyond the basin boundaries. Furthermore, the river basin system provides regulating services like flow attenuation, and various cultural and recreational services. During the last decades, significant infrastructure, like reservoirs, channels, water treatment, and distribution networks, was built to increase the benefits generated from the basin in a reliable and secure way. In order to maintain these functions many institutions are responsible to manage certain sectorial aspects of natural resources, often depending on each other to perform their tasks adequately. During the last decades an intensification of resources uses occurred and the trade offs between different sectors like hydropower, agriculture and urban water has increased—in particular during years or seasons which are characterized by climate extremes like droughts or floods . This situation calls for a more coordinated management approach leading to the collaboration of different sectors throughout the river basin. Providing the right information for decision support is a crucial element of river basin management. In this line, Vu Gia Thu Bon River Basin Information Center (VGTB-RBIC) was established by the research consortium making a reliable scientific database available for all different stakeholders as a first but crucial step toward a coordinated approach to river basin management.
Lars Ribbe, Viet Quoc Trinh, A. B. M. Firoz, Anh Thu Nguyen, Uyen Nguyen, Alexandra Nauditt

Land Use Adaption to Climate Change in the Vu Gia–Thu Bon Lowlands: Dry Season and Rainy Season

Abstract
Coastal areas of Central Vietnam are densely populated and characterised by an intensive use of land. Located in this region, the lowlands of the Vu Gia - Thu Bon (VGTB) river basin witness intensive ongoing changes in land use, hydrology and water resources management due to climate change and socioeconomic development. The VGTB lowlands feature distinctive dry and rainy seasons with accordingly human activities and hazards. Climate change and socio-economic development is influencing and intensifying hazards in both seasons. The two major hazards saltwater intrusions into the river system and fluvial floods are the subject of this chapter. Saltwater intrusions in the dry season are a risk for agriculture and water supply while floods in the rainy season are a risk for settlements and infrastructure in the rainy season. The dry and rainy season are analysed separately. Applicable measures are identified, which prevent an increase of risks and if possible reduce risk. GIS and hydraulic-numerical model based risk-assessment approaches are applied for the hydrological system of the VGTB lowlands in both seasons. The risks are evaluated for the current state and future scenarios. The investigated scenarios include impacts of climate change and land use change as well as regional and local measures. The key results for each season include the evaluation of the method and the identified measures.
Harro Stolpe, Nils Führer, Viet Quoc Trinh

Distributed Assessment of Sediment Dynamics in Central Vietnam

Abstract
Central Vietnam is located within the Southeast Asia monsoon . It is affected by extreme climatic phenomena, like Typhoon storm events. This combined with the deeply weathered bedrock, typical for subtropical regions, resulting in higher vulnerability for erosion and therefore resulting high sediment rates. Additionally, local human activities and the effects of global climate change amplify this higher vulnerability. The presented analysis contains the assessment of sheet erosion by means of the J2000-S eco-hydrological model, where the effect of climate and land use scenarios were analyzed. The results show that land use change has a higher effect then the climate chance on sheet erosion in the analyzed future period. Additionally, the landslide activity in the area was assessed, using a landslide inventory and bivariate statistical analysis. A landslide susceptibility map was the result of this assessment.
Manfred Fink, Christian Fischer, Patrick Laux, Hannes Tünschel, Markus Meinhardt

Sand Dunes and Mangroves for Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation in the Coastal Zone of Quang Nam Province, Vietnam

Abstract
Ecosystem-based measures to reduce the risk of coastal hazards and adapt to climate change have attracted increasing attention in science, policy, and planning. In the coastal zone of Quang Nam province in Central Vietnam , natural ecosystems such as coastal dunes and mangroves can serve as natural buffers against typhoons , storm surges, waves, and even small tsunamis and protect the shoreline from coastal erosion and sea-level rise . Apart from these protective ecosystem services, intact dune and mangrove ecosystems perform various other regulating services, such as carbon storage and sequestration and groundwater protection, as well as a variety of provisioning and cultural services. Moreover they support a high biological diversity, which forms the basis for secure livelihoods of coastal communities. However, important ecosystem functions and services have already been lost or diminished due to overexploitation and a lack of integrated coastal management approaches. In this chapter, we (1) provide an overview of the current distribution and status of dune and mangrove ecosystems in the coastal zone of Quang Nam province, (2) analyze the actual and potential ecosystem services of and threats to these ecosystems in selected study sites, (3) assess the awareness and preparedness of coastal communities to coastal hazards, and (4) discuss the potential for conservation, restoration, and sustainable use of coastal dunes and mangroves.
Udo Nehren, Hoang Ho Dac Thai, N. D. Trung, Claudia Raedig, S. Alfonso

Hydrological Drought Risk Assessment in an Anthropogenically Impacted Tropical Catchment, Central Vietnam

Abstract
Seasonal meteorological and hydrological droughts are a recurrent phenomenon in water-abundant tropical countries and are expected to become more frequent in the future. Unusual water shortage in recent years has severely affected societies living in South East Asia in general and Vietnam in particular. Preparedness, however, is absent and site-appropriate water management measures and strategies are not available. While drought-related research and water management in recent years have been addressed in water scarce sub-tropical regions, the US and Europe, more limited research has been focused on drought risk in tropical catchments. In this study, the drought characteristics of a large tropical catchment in Central Vietnam, the Vu Gia Thu Bon, were analysed in an integrated assessment framework. Daily precipitation and runoff time series for the VGTB catchment were analysed applying statistical methods to compare historical meteorological and hydrological drought, in addition to low flow frequency and seasonality. The role of tropical catchment characteristics, storage and climate variability in seasonal drought evolution were analysed by applying statistical analyses and the spatially distributed J2000 rainfall-runoff model. To assess anthropogenic impacts on hydrological drought, human interventions in the hydrological system due to hydropower development were quantified with the HEC-ResSim Reservoir operation model and the implications of low flows for salt water intrusion in the delta were simulated by the hydrodynamic Mike 11 model. It can be concluded that such an integrated model-data analysis which accounts for both landscape controls and anthropogenic impacts on the local hydrological system is a useful approach for drought management in tropical countries.
Alexandra Nauditt, A. B. M. Firoz, Viet Quoc Trinh, Manfred Fink, Harro Stolpe, Lars Ribbe

Conclusion

Abstract
This book summarizes key findings of a five-year interdisciplinary research project conducted by a consortium of researchers from Germany, Vietnam and international organisations together with stakeholders from the national and regional level in Vietnam. Compared to the state of knowledge at the beginning of the project, relevant advances could be achieved concerning the information needed for an integrated land and water management. In order to make full use of the results, a continuous process of science-policy dialogue was initiated which is followed up by the local research institutions and stakeholders. Next to the establishment of a River Basin Information Center in the Vu Gia Thu Bon River Basin (http://​www.​basin-info.​net/​river-basins/​vu-gia-thu-bon-information-centre-vietnam), in agreement with the Vietnamese government further river basins were identified to which the tools and knowledge developed in LUCCi should be transferred.
Lars Ribbe, Viet Quoc Trinh, Alexandra Nauditt

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