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Über dieses Buch

This book brings together a selection of the best papers from the nineteenth edition of the Forum on specification and Design Languages Conference (FDL), which took place on September 14-16, 2016, in Bremen, Germany. FDL is a well-established international forum devoted to dissemination of research results, practical experiences and new ideas in the application of specification, design and verification languages to the design, modeling and verification of integrated circuits, complex hardware/software embedded systems, and mixed-technology systems.



Knowing Your AMS System’s Limits: System Acceptance Region Exploration by Using Automated Model Refinement and Accelerated Simulation

Virtual prototyping of Analog/Mixed-Signal (AMS) systems is a key concern in modern SoC verification. Achieving first-time right designs is a challenging task: Every relevant functional and non-functional property has to be examined throughout the complete design process. Many faulty designs have been verified carefully before tape out but are still missing at least one low-level effect which arises from interaction between one or more system components. Since these extra-functional effects are often neglected on system level, the design cannot be rectified in early design stages or verified before fabrication. We introduce a method to determine system acceptance regions tackling this challenge: We include extra-functional effects into the system models, and we investigate their behavior with parallel simulations in combination with an accelerated analog simulation scheme. The accelerated simulation approach is based on local linearizations of nonlinear circuits, which result in piecewise-linear systems. High-level simulation speed-up is achieved by avoiding numerical integration and using parallel computing. This approach is fully automated requiring only a circuit netlist. To reduce the overall number of simulations, we use an adaptive sampling algorithm for exploring systems acceptance regions which indicate feasible and critical operating conditions of the AMS system.
Georg Gläser, Hyun-Sek Lukas Lee, Markus Olbrich, Erich Barke

Designing Reliable Cyber-Physical Systems

Cyber-physical systems, that consist of a cyber part—a computing system—and a physical part—the system in the physical environment—as well as the respective interfaces between those parts, are omnipresent in our daily lives. The application in the physical environment drives the overall requirements that must be respected when designing the computing system. Here, reliability is a core aspect where some of the most pressing design challenges are:
  • monitoring failures throughout the computing system,
  • determining the impact of failures on the application constraints, and
  • ensuring correctness of the computing system with respect to application-driven requirements rooted in the physical environment.
This chapter gives an overview of the state-of-the-art techniques developed within the Horizon 2020 project IMMORTAL that tackle these challenges throughout the stack of layers of the computing system while tightly coupling the design methodology to the physical requirements. (The chapter is based on the contributions of the special session Designing Reliable Cyber-Physical Systems of the Forum on Specification and Design Languages (FDL) 2016.)
Gadi Aleksandrowicz, Eli Arbel, Roderick Bloem, Timon D. ter Braak, Sergei Devadze, Goerschwin Fey, Maksim Jenihhin, Artur Jutman, Hans G. Kerkhoff, Robert Könighofer, Shlomit Koyfman, Jan Malburg, Shiri Moran, Jaan Raik, Gerard Rauwerda, Heinz Riener, Franz Röck, Konstantin Shibin, Kim Sunesen, Jinbo Wan, Yong Zhao

On the Application of Formal Fault Localization to Automated RTL-to-TLM Fault Correspondence Analysis for Fast and Accurate VP-Based Error Effect Simulation: A Case Study

Electronic systems integrate an increasingly large number of components on a single chip. This leads to increased risk of faults, e.g., due to radiation, aging, etc. Such a fault can lead to an observable error and failure of the system. Therefore, an error effect simulation is important to ensure the robustness and safety of these systems. Error effect simulation with Virtual Prototypes (VPs) is much faster than with RTL designs due to less modeling details at TLM. However, for the same reason, the simulation results with VP might be significantly less accurate compared to RTL. To improve the quality of a TLM error effect simulation, a fault correspondence analysis between both abstraction levels is required. This chapter presents a case study on applying fault localization methods based on symbolic simulation to identify corresponding TLM errors for transient bit flips at RTL. First results for the interrupt controller of the SoCRocket VP, which is being used by the European Space Agency, demonstrate the applicability of our approach.
Vladimir Herdt, Hoang M. Le, Daniel Große, Rolf Drechsler

Error-Based Metric for Cross-Layer Cut Determination

With the increase of system complexity in both platforms and applications, power modelling of heterogeneous systems is facing grand challenges from the model scalability issue. To address these challenges, this chapter studies two systematic methods: selective abstraction and stochastic techniques. The concept of selective abstraction via black-boxing is realised using hierarchical modelling and cross-layer cuts, respecting the concepts of boxability and error contamination. The stochastic aspect is formally underpinned by Stochastic Activity Networks (SANs). The proposed method is validated with experimental results from Odroid XU3 heterogeneous 8-core platform and is demonstrated to maintain high accuracy while improving scalability.
A. Rafiev, F. Xia, A. Iliasov, R. Gensh, A. Aalsaud, A. Romanovsky, A. Yakovlev

Feature-Based State Space Coverage Metric for Analog Circuit Verification

This chapter proposes a systematic and fast analog coverage-driven verification methodology which could increase the confidence in verification of today’s analog blocks. We define an appropriate coverage metric to score simulations and then minimize the simulation effort for achieving full state space coverage with an algorithm generating appropriate input stimuli. Our proposed method uses characteristic properties of a discretized representation of the state space such as the spatial distribution of eigenvalues, guiding the generation of short and purposeful stimuli. The experimental results show a significant speed-up with similar accuracy compared to the state of the art.
Andreas Fürtig, Sebastian Steinhorst, Lars Hedrich

Error-Free Near-Threshold Adiabatic CMOS Logic in the Presence of Process Variation

This paper provides the first analysis of process variation effect on the adiabatic logic combined with near-threshold operation. One of the significant concerns is whether reliable performance is retained with voltage scaling. We find that typical variations of process parameters do not affect error-free operation at the minimum-energy frequency. Monte Carlo simulations of a 4-bit full adder using ECRL logic with 0.45 V supply voltage show that in the presence of typical process variations, energy consumption of the circuit operating at 25 MHz increases by 10.2% in the worst case while a 100% error-free operation is maintained. The maximum operating frequency (208 MHz) is reduced to nearly half of the nominal value (385 MHz). To further improve the robustness of the adder against process variation, a bit-serial adiabatic adder is considered with an even lower energy consumption per cycle.
Yue Lu, Tom J. Kazmierski


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