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As one of the eighteen field-specific reports comprising the comprehensive scope of the strategic general report of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, this sub-report addresses long-range planning for development of large research infrastructures in China. They each craft a roadmap for their sphere of development to 2050. In their entirety, the general and sub-group reports analyze the evolution and laws governing the development of science and technology, describe the decisive impact of science and technology on the modernization process, predict that the world is on the eve of an impending S&T revolution, and call for China to be fully prepared for this new round of S&T advancement. Based on the detailed study of the demands on S&T innovation in China's modernization, the reports draw a framework for eight basic and strategic systems of socio-economic development with the support of science and technology, work out China's S&T roadmaps for the relevant eight basic and strategic systems in line with China's reality, further detail S&T initiatives of strategic importance to China's modernization, and provide S&T decision-makers with comprehensive consultations for the development of S&T innovation consistent with China's reality. Supported by illustrations and tables of data, the reports provide researchers, government officials and entrepreneurs with guidance concerning research directions, the planning process, and investment.

Founded in 1949, the Chinese Academy of Sciences is the nation’s highest academic institution in natural sciences. Its major responsibilities are to conduct research in basic and technological sciences, to undertake nationwide integrated surveys on natural resources and ecological environment, to provide the country with scientific data and consultations for government’s decision-making, to undertake government-assigned projects with regard to key S&T problems in the process of socio-economic development, to initiate personnel training, and to promote China’s high-tech enterprises through its active engagement in these areas

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Abstract

Abstract
Large research infrastructures constitute an important part of the national innovation system. In recent years, the Chinese government has greatly strengthened the support for the development of large research infrastructures, and expanded the support from the former “large scientific facilities” to “large research infrastructures”. In order to make important breakthroughs in scientific and technological frontiers and solve the strategic, basic and forward-looking technological problems in economic and social development and the security of the country, the Chinese government will invest in the construction of large facilities, including overall facilities, distributed facilities and research facilities integrated by many independent equipment systems, which provide necessary conditions required by the scientific and technological community and various sectors of the country to conduct scientific research and develop high technologies.
Hesheng Chen

1. Large Research Infrastructures and National Innovation System

Abstract
Large research infrastructures involve a very wide scope, whose definition is not only a scientific problem, but also a management one. By consulting various studies made in recent years, this report defines the national large research infrastructures as follows: The national large research infrastructures refer to the large facilities for scientific and technological research built with the investment made by the government and shared in their long operation by the community of science and technology in order to make important breakthroughs in science and technology, and solve the strategic, basic and forward-looking scientific and technological problems in economic and social development as well as the security of the country. These facilities constitute an integral part of the national infrastructures.
Hesheng Chen

2. Macro Thought on Development of China’s Large Research Infrastructures in the Next 50 Years

Abstract
The development roadmap of large research infrastructures in China in the next 50 years, including the determination of strategy and planning of the development, should be made on the basis of the following principles:
  • Conform to the macro goal of China to basically realize modernization in the middle of the 21st century and reach the level of medium-developed countries; embody the national policy of sustainable economic and social development; and to be compatible with the overall planning of national scientific and technological development and the planning of social development.
  • Reflect that the requirements of all scientific and technological fields on the research support capability are commensurate with their development roadmap.
  • Grasp the direction of development in science and technology in the world and ascertain the long-term requirements of the economic and social development of the country; predict the potential possibilities offered by new principles and new technologies; and make forward-looking deployment.
  • The overall development scale matches the level of national economic development and the government capability to make investment.
Hesheng Chen

3. Particle Physics, Nuclear Physics and Nuclear Energy

Abstract
Particle physics is a frontier subject which studies the smallest constituents of matter and the laws governing their interactions. It plays an important role in studying the origin and evolution of the universe and the formation and evolution of the celestial bodies. The Standard Model of particle physics has successfully described various phenomena appearing in particle physics experiments and correctly classified all known particles. However, the Standard Model is not the ultimate theory of particle physics and there are a lot of important questions to be answered by new physics theories beyond the Standard Model:
  • Higgs is the most important particle in the Standard Model, and it is also the origin of the mass of particle. However, it has not been discovered by far.
  • There are too many parameters in the Standard Model to be explained. For instance, why are there just three generations of quarks and leptons? Why are they so different in mass? Why does quark mixing angle occur?
  • The physical mechanism of the quark confinement.
  • The origin of the CP violation.
Hesheng Chen

4. Astronomy and Space Science

Abstract
New astronomical instruments have broadened our horizon from all aspects, thereby enabling us to observe the universe with higher sensitivity and angular resolution, full sky survey and full time observations in all electromagnetic bands, including radio, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-ray and gamma-ray bands. Important astronomical windows opened up by cosmic ray and neutrino observations and gravitational wave telescopes being built make it possible to observe the universe completely. New types of astronomical objects and phenomena are discovered constantly with those new capabilities brought by these new astronomical telescopes and observation instruments. Based upon astronomical observations, large scale numerical simulations, data analysis and theoretical studies allow to better understand these new phenomena and to explore new laws of astronomy, astrophysics and fundamental physics. Therefore the development of modern astronomy is mainly made of a series of new astronomical discoveries and their quantitative understanding; in this process the capabilities brought by these new astronomical telescopes and instruments play imperative roles. It is therefore clear that astronomy is a discipline of science driven by observations, just like physics—a discipline of science moved by experiments.
Hesheng Chen

5. Multidisciplinary Research Platform

Abstract
Nowadays, synchrotron radiation (SR) light sources are the most widely operated large scientific facilities in the world. Due to their outstanding features, such as continuous and broad frequency spectrum, highly collimated emission, high intensity and brilliance, polarization, time structure, high vacuum conditions and the almost unique possibility to calculate precisely the spectral emission at all wavelengths, as high-level multidisciplinary experiment platforms, the essential roles they play in the modern scientific and technological development are universally acknowledged by the scientific community, the society as well as the governments of all countries. Experimental researches based on synchrotron radiation technology involve many disciplines and a large number of applications. In addition, the synchrotron-radiation-based technologies have become indispensable tools in many frontier disciplines. For instance, the biological macromolecular structures are mainly solved by the synchrotron-radiation-based technologies. And the synchrotron radiation research in this regard is one of the fields in which the application of synchrotron radiation technology has developed most quickly and achieved most important results. Some Nobel Chemistry Prize winners have all greatly benefited from synchrotron radiation researches. Actually, synchrotron radiation light source has played an increasingly important role in many scientific disciplines, such as life sciences, physics, chemistry, materials science, information and technology, energy and environmental science as well as advanced manufacturing technology represented by microelectronics machining, and become a prerequisite for almost any future breakthrough in major theories and technologies.
Hesheng Chen

6. Life Sciences and Biotechnology

Abstract
Life sciences are a science which studies the nature and phenomena of life activities in living things, as well as the relationship between lives and their living environment. In the 1950’s, American biologist Watson and British physicist Crick established the double helix model of DNA, marking the birth of molecular biology. Since then, biological research has risen to the molecular level from the cellular level and entered the golden period of development. Bio-technology is an application science combining the latest achievements of modern bio-sciences with the latest engineering technology. Biotechnology, defined by the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development, is a technology that serves the community using micro-organisms, animals and plants as a reactor for processing materials in order to provide products, by means of natural science and engineering principles.
Hesheng Chen

7. Resources, Environment and Ecology

Abstract
With the rapid economic development, China faces increasing pressure on resources and environment. Traditional approaches such as experimental analysis, field monitoring and mathematical simulation are not enough to study complex environmental and ecological problems. The integration of multidisciplinary knowledge, large high-tech scientific facilities and large research facilities will provide an important means to break through research bottlenecks in solving complex ecological problems. It can be expected that, in the next 50 years, large scientific facilities and large research infrastructures will be crucial to make breakthroughs in the fields of ecology and environmental science.
Hesheng Chen

8. High-tech and Others

Abstract
High-tech is a kind of frontier science & technology which is based on comprehensive scientific research. It can bring about huge economic and social benefit. Nevertheless, it is a relative concept which has different meanings at different time, in different countries, or in different fields. Modern science and technology develop so fast that high-tech of today may no longer be high-tech tomorrow. In the 1950s transistor computers belonged to high-tech fields, integrated circuit computers take their place today, but tomorrow it may be replaced by optical integrated computers. A traditional technique in developed countries may still belong to high-tech fields in developing countries, e.g. automobile, aircraft manufacturing and so on. Therefore, different countries have different understanding of high-tech. A national high-tech roadmap should be made according to the scientific and technological level, the industrial manufacture level and economical level of the country.
Hesheng Chen

9. Proposed Policies and Measures

Abstract
This report describes the macroscopic ideas regarding the development of national large research infrastructures and analyzes the requirement of facilities from relevant scientific and technological fields in the view of scientific and technological personnel without taking great pains to study any specific projects. It is suggested that the departments concerned make a project-specific operable planning for the development of national large research infrastructures in the shortest time possible.
Hesheng Chen

Backmatter

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