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Leadership

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4. Überlegungen zur Ausgestaltung von Personalentwicklungsprogrammen

Ein Blick in den Verwaltungsalltag zeigt, dass die „Chefs in der Amtsstube“ über ihre Ausbildung hinaus qualifiziert werden. Führungskräfteentwicklung findet regelmäßig und flächendeckend statt. Diese Praxis ist zum einen das Ergebnis freiwilliger Leistungen von Verwaltungen. Sie erfolgt mit dem Ziel, Führungskräfte im Haus einfach „besser“ zu machen. Gleichzeitig ist sie direkte Folge des geltenden Tarif- und Beamtenrechts (§ 5 TVöD für den Bereich Verwaltung und Landesbeamtengesetze bzw. Laufbahnverordnungen). Beinah „klassisch“ sind beispielsweise Seminare zum Thema Kommunikation, zur Konfliktlösung oder zum Stressmanagement. Fortbildungsabteilungen und Studieninstitute bieten ganze Führungskräftereihen an (u. a. im Rahmen der Modularen Qualifizierung) oder vereinzelt Coaching. Hinzukommen Mitarbeitergespräche, Mitarbeiterbefragungen zum Führungsverhalten oder Potenzialanalysen. Auch sie werden genutzt, um Führungskräften Rückmeldungen zu geben und sie anschließend zu qualifizieren.

Christina Winners

3. Konsequenzen für die Anforderungen an Führungskräfte

Durch die Digitalisierung verändern sich die Anforderungen an die gesamte Belegschaft. Sowohl Fach- als auch Führungskräften werden neue Fähigkeiten und Verhaltensweisen abverlangt. Da Führungskräfte als Vorgesetzte, Vorbild und Multiplikatoren im Transformationsprozess eine zentrale Rolle spielen, ist davon auszugehen, dass die „Kompetenzsprünge“, die von ihnen gefordert werden, besonders groß ausfallen; ihr Selbstverständnis verändert sich substanziell. Insofern dürften auch die Trainingsmaßnahmen, die ggf. angeboten werden, um sie bei diesen Sprüngen zu unterstützen, entsprechend umfangreich ausfallen. Aus Personalentwicklungssicht (Budget- und Effizienzgründe) ist es deshalb zweckmäßig, die neuen Anforderungen an Führungskräfte zunächst genau zu beschreiben, wobei der Begriff Führungskraft hier vom Mitglied des Verwaltungsvorstandes bis zur Teamleitung reicht.

Christina Winners

Designing an Experience Ecosystem on Campus

This paper summarizes an inclusive pedagogical experience from the perspectives of design educators and students. It is a case study of a collaborative capstone course at an established design program at a major university and a narrative of a sponsored project to redesign a service/experience-driven ecosystem on campus. Non-linear journey of interdisciplinary teams showcases how contextual experts from diverse background were able to embrace unfamiliar challenges. The participants in this study include senior level undergraduate students from various majors.The author will discuss inclusive pedagogical examples from a 14-week capstone studio course that was defined by three key design phases: Design Intent and Opportunity, Conceptualization, and Implementation, each employing its own relevant tools, methodologies, and design approaches. This collaborative design development course inspired participants to engage in design learning from a holistic, user-centered, and interdisciplinary approach.

Scott Shim

Envisioning the Future and Going Back: A Human-Centered Strategy to Develop the Styling of a Sports Car

Developing a vehicle means uncertainty because the competitiveness of global market implies investing high sums in advance without knowing if the final solution will be successful after its launch. Therefore, automotive styling must be well executed to reduce management risks and adopting a Human-Centered approach at the early stages of the process is one of the best strategies to avoid negative outcomes. In particular, the research used the Vision in Product Design, a strategic model to envision the concept in the future to anticipate future trends or upcoming wishes. However, since ViP generates a prediction because its context factors belong to the future, the research would risk of not completely matching costumer expectations because of future uncertainty. Therefore, the research pushed the intent of the vision backward, in a mediated context, where the character of the vision was merged with the real expectations of people gathered in the current context.

Gian Andrea Giacobone, Giuseppe Mincolelli

Strategic Pathways for Interdisciplinary Design Education

Pathways for understanding critical components of interdisciplinary design education are necessary in the expanding universe of design. As the design of interactive products, environments, systems, and services expands, the shift has been profound for an academy historically immersed in product design education. New disciplines think and work differently. Facilities are often outdated and are not well-designed or equipped for interactive learning. Some collaborative partners are overly bureaucratic, isolated, and often have low budgets. Understanding the critical components of interdisciplinary design education is key to the development of new and more effective models. The author draws from over four decades of experience in education conducting interdisciplinary product design studies for industry.

William Bullock

A Holistic Approach to Inclusive Mobility Under Resilience and Sustainability Goals: A Pilot Project in Brazil

Today’s societies are dependent on increasingly complex and interdependent safety-critical systems with often poorly understood vulnerabilities. If their provision of service is cut off or drastically reduced, the dependent activities will either fail or perform at a lower level. Transport systems are a good example of such propensity to natural and man-made disruptions. Due to their complexity, uncertainty, and safety criticality, Mobility offers a high number of opportunities for research and innovation, particularly in the present technological era. Thus, objectives like disaster risk reduction, sustainable development strategies, and sustainable transport, are nowadays included as well. The holistic approach is based on the principle of promoting inclusive mobility without creating any negative impact in other areas of each targeted community, thus requires an integrated perspective of the work towards inclusion under safety, sustainability and resilience conditions.

Magaly Romao, Anabela Simoes

Chapter 3. Transaction Management

In the first step of the E2E M&A Process Design, the Embedded M&A Strategy aligned with the overarching corporate and SBU strategies was defined. Based on this framework of the Embedded M&A Strategy a distinguished shortlist of suitable M&A targets with a strong financial, strategic, Business and Culture Design fit have been distilled. The Transaction Management, as the follow-on module of the E2E M&A Process Design, is focused on a specific transaction with a selected target company or merger partner. Core parts of the Transaction Management are the valuation of the target company (Standalone Value) and the potential synergies (Integrated Value), the Due Diligence of the target company which should identify the risks and upsides of the potential transaction, as well as the blending of the Standalone Business and Culture Designs and the Redrafting of the Joint Culture and Business Designs according to the Due Diligence outcomes. Supplementary parts of the Transaction Management as the negotiation of a share or asset purchase agreement, the acquisition financing, and the Purchase Price Allocation (PPA), will be not discussed in detail. (These parts will be incorporated in the second edition).

Thorsten Feix

Chapter 4. Integration Management

The history of M&A is littered with transactions which collapsed under the weight of integration issues and culture clashes. The Integration Management has to address these challenges as the third primary E2E M&A Process Design module which complements the M&A Strategy and the Transaction Management. The term “Integration Management” instead of Post-Merger Integration is used by purpose, as the E2E approach demands that integration issues are thought about from the very beginning of a transaction to avoid typical M&A pitfalls at a later stage. The Integration Management consists of four submodules: The Integration Strategy, based on the originally intended transaction rational and targeted synergies, provides a sketch of how the integration should be tackled. It includes as well the targeted Joint Business Design (JBD) and the intended transition to the Joint Culture Design (JCD). The Integration Masterplan (IM) builds upon the Integration Strategy and breaks it down into specific integration-modules, -initiatives and workstreams. Besides, the IM defines the dedicated culture transition program, defines the Integration-Project House (IPH), assesses the integration capabilities and establishes a suitable integration toolkit, including Integration Scorecards. The Integration Masterplan has to be mirrored and integrated with the Synergy Management and supplemented by a transparent and continuous communication flow. The JBD and JCD are the guiding principles for the Transition Management which takes care of the short-, mid- and long-term implementation of the Integration Masterplan. The IPH and change agents make this transition happen, but also top-management guidance and commitment are mandatory for a successful integration. Last not least, the Integration Monitoring and Controlling intends an early identification of potential gaps between actual and projected integration performance, and defines suitable counter-measures, if necessary. It closes with a summary of the lessons learned to professionalize the inhouse M&A capabilities and redefines integration levers to scale the full value potential of the JBD and JCD even beyond the integration horizon.

Thorsten Feix

Chapter 5. Synergy Management

Synergies are the holy grail of any transaction, as they define, together with the transaction premium paid, the value generated by an M&A initiative. Surprisingly, the concept of synergies is still a very vague concept. Synergies will be in the following understood as the net present value of additional Free Cash Flows created by a transaction which goes beyond the standalone values of the acquirer and the target. In essence, synergies are a surplus concept. The key target of the Synergy Management along all the primary modules of the E2E M&A Process Design is to capture these synergies. Therefore, Synergy Management by itself is an End-to-End process, which supports any of the primary M&A processes: Within the Embedded M&A Strategy, the Synergy Management has to identify (Synergy Diagnostics) and map the portfolio of potential sources of synergies (Synergy Pattern) by the combination of the acquirer’s and the target’s SBDs. Besides, a Blue Print how those synergies could be scaled (Synergy Scaling Approach) within a JBD has to be drafted. Additionally, a first rough valuation, timing and evaluation of the likelihood of the synergies are paramount at this early stage, as the synergies and the standalone value of the target define the upper boundary of any indicative purchase offer. The identified synergies have to be verified by the Transaction Management, as the transaction value add is based on “real $” and not “power point $”. The Due Diligence serves as a proof-of-concept of the Synergy Pattern and the Blue Print of the Synergy Scaling Approach. Applying the 10C JBD, the early synergy estimates could be broken down into detailed synergy levers. These more detailed synergy values have then to be feed-back into the update of the valuation. Finally, Synergy Management is a centerpiece of the Integration Management. This holds especially true as the premium is paid already at closing, but the synergies have to be captured within the integration process. For any transactional value-added and integration success the synergy realization, tracking and controlling is therefore of essence. Additionally, a feedback loop and learning ecosystem for the optimization of the Synergy Management is part of a long-term M&A capability approach.

Thorsten Feix

Chapter 6. M&A Project Management & Governance: The M&A Playbook

M&A initiatives are typically highly complex: Internal capabilities might be supplemented by external expertise, for example, by insourcing consulting or investment banking services. Cross-border deals involve multi-country settings with the risk of culture clashes. Besides, the combination of two companies with different origins is per se an endeavour. Nevertheless, transactions are in the end also simply projects: The starting point of a dedicated M&A project within the Enbedded M&A Strategy phase is as soon as a specific target is chosen to be in detail investigated, typically triggering an indicative offer. The end point is the post-mortem report of the Integration Management. Each transaction has to be orchestrated by a fast, robust and high quality M&A Process Management. On a higher, tacit knowledge level, the M&A Process Management builds a bridge between the early stage diagnostics of M&A capabilities up to the institutionalized fostering of the in-house M&A knowledge after every transaction. As discussed in Chap. 3 , transactions have foremost a significant impact on the acquirer’s financials, valuation and strategy. This triggers a significant C-level exposure. Project Governance, Compliance and an orchestrated Process Management with clear-cut milestones and board approvals are therefore mandatory. New vibrant ecosystems and business strategies revitalizing corporate portfolios will challenge the M&A department environment of the 20s. A canvas of likely necessary M&A capabilities and potential designs of the future M&A organization is therefore part of this chapter. Additionally, digital solutions and new technologies, like big data, machine-learning algorithms or AI will revolutionize the M&A market, capabilities and tools. The final subchapter tries to give an outlook on how these technologies might be applied to improve speed, quality, robustness and efficiency of M&A transactions in the 20s.

Thorsten Feix

Chapter 2. Embedded M&A Strategy

Taking a holistic view, an Embedded M&A Strategy is an integral part of the corporate strategy and the business unit strategies of the acquiring company: On the level of corporate strategy, M&A is a tool to innovate or restructure corporate portfolios and to increase shareholder value. On the level of business unit strategies, M&A may be used as a strategy tool to get access to new products, services, markets or capabilities and to realize value potentials. Corporate and strategic business unit strategies should frame the M&A approach, as M&A is an important but just one of a set of alternative growth and value creation options for a company. Additionally, the corporate strategy is the reference point for the definition of the Transaction Rational of a potential acquisition or merger and the intended M&A targets. Based on a comprehensive strategy review, an Embedded M&A Strategy defines the detailed strategic targets to be achieved by transaction initiatives, frames the corporate finance part of potential acquisitions, sketches value creation targets, including the intended synergies, decides on the preferred external growth design, selects the assessment criteria for the profiling of the ideal target company and the Fit Diamond assessment. The E2E M&A Process Design also intends to Frontload two mission-critical integration issues into the M&A-Strategy: On the one side by Diagnostics of the Standalone Business Designs of the target company and the acquirer and by drafting of a Blue Print of the intended Joint Business Design, on the other side by Diagnostics of the Standalone Culture Designs of the target company and the acquirer and by drafting of a Blue Print of the intended Joint Culture Design. This Frontloading of Business and Culture Design issues intends to increase the likelihood of integration success. Once such a consistent and detailed M&A Strategy is defined, potential target companies could be evaluated, selected and integrated into a long-list of potentially attractive targets. Based on the Fit Diamond, meaning a more detailed strategic, financial, synergistic, Business Design and Cultural Gap assessment, the long-list of target companies will be boiled down to a short-list of highly attractive potential transactions, which serve as a starting point for a dedicated M&A initiative.

Thorsten Feix

From Global to Local: A Multilevel Approach to the Local Implementation of Climate Policies in Japan

Since the 1992 Rio Summit, various multilateral agreements have been made to tackle climate change including the UNFCCC, Kyoto Protocol and Paris Agreement. Despite the pledges to reduce emissions at the international level, the 2019 UN Emissions Gap Report reveals that the world’s emission gap has been increasing continuously. This study investigates how the international framework has been incorporated domestically in Japan in the context of historical environmental governance. The research objectives are twofold: first, it provides an overview of domestic legislations that incorporate multilateral climate agreements at the national and subnational levels. Second, the state of local implementation is assessed by reviewing government-disclosed data and policy documents. The concept of multilevel governance is used to guide the legislative review and the analysis of local implementation. Mitigation effort is analysed based on the establishment of action plans and emission reduction targets as per the Global Warming Law. For adaptation, the establishment of action plans and local climate change adaptation centers are examined in accordance to the Climate Change Adaptation Act. The study finds that Japan’s legislative framework and historical foundation are in favor of local implementation and prefectural leadership is observant. Area of potential improvements such as setting numerical total reduction target at the prefectural level and strengthening municipal implementations are discussed. Studies to understand cross-jurisdictional relationships, impacts of local climate actions, translation of NDCs into subnational goals and conceptualization of climate policy involving energy policy are suggested for future research in the closing chapters.

Hitomi Roppongi

Political Corporate Social Responsibility and the Role of Companies. Evidence from Novo Nordisk

In recent decades, corporate social responsibility (CSR) has received increasing attention by academics, civil society, media, and regulators. An emerging and less investigated version of CSR is Political CSR (PCSR). PCSR has been defined in a number of different ways and each definition has highlighted different aspects of this phenomenon. Several studies have highlighted that, under conditions of globalization, companies can assume a political role by influencing and cooperating with governments and institutions in changing the institutional environment in which they operate. This chapter specifically aims to analyze the political role taken on by corporations to fill regulatory gaps due to weak or insufficient social and environmental standards and norms, and thus to encourage socially and environmentally responsible conduct, by increasing governments’ and institutions’ interest in CSR and in its communication. The empirical approach used to explore PCSR is a case study. The focus of our research is on Novo Nordisk A/S, a multinational corporation recognized internationally for its early commitment to integrating sustainability into its culture and business practices. Using Scherer and Palazzo’s framework of five characteristics that define political CSR (i.e. governance model, self-regulation, responsibility beyond liability, moral legitimacy, and deliberative democracy), we demonstrate that Novo Nordisk exhibits those characteristics and well describes the changing role of corporations as political actors.Our study contributes to the literature on political CSR, supplementing previous studies and taking part in the understanding of how and why a company can change its role as a political actor. Since the political conception of CSR is still in an early stage of development, our study contributes to operationalizing this concept with reference to a well-known company.

Stefanía Carolina Posadas, Lara Tarquinio, Michele A. Rea

Sustainable Use of Indigenous Ecological Knowledge: A Case Study for Implementing the Nagoya Protocol

Sustainable development focuses on social and human, natural and economic factors. By recognizing and protecting Indigenous ecological knowledge each of these factors is addressed. Many Australian government programs recognize that Indigenous communities hold knowledge critical to the conservation of biological diversity and natural resource management. In research commissioned for the New South Wales Office of Environment and Heritage in 2013, the Indigenous Knowledge Forum proposed a legislative ‘Competent Authority’ framework for ‘Recognising and Protecting Aboriginal Knowledge Associated with Natural Resource Management’. The Authority would provide the governance framework for administering a legal regime covering the creation, maintenance and protection of community knowledge databases. The Garuwanga Project is about finding the best legal structure of governance for Indigenous Australians to manage their traditional knowledge and culture, including their ecological knowledge, and enable Australia to comply with the Nagoya Protocol. The aim is to provide the communities with a path to sustainable development and capacity building. This project addresses concerns over the form, independence and funding of such an Authority, as well as local Indigenous representation, by facilitating Aboriginal Community engagement in identifying, evaluating and recommending an appropriate Competent Authority legal structure. Most competent authorities around the world are government-based organizations or departments, however, Aboriginal communities have expressed great concern about such institutions having any form of control over their traditional knowledge. Accordingly, what is unique about the Garuwanga Project is the proposal for a competent authority that is independent of the government. This paper will report on the governance model proposed by the Garuwanga Project in its Discussion Paper together with the preliminary outcomes of the consultations with Aboriginal communities across Australia.

Natalie Stoianoff

Summary and Conclusions

This chapter provides an overview of the main findings and the related conclusions of the 34 chapters in total included into the five parts of general aspects and five parts of specific aspects.

Volker Mauerhofer, Daniela Rupo, Lara Tarquinio

Mainstreaming Ecosystem Services as Public Policy in South East Asia, from Theory to Practice

Ecosystem Services (ES), a pro-conservation paradigm often linked to a Western planning and development approach, has been applied in Asia but has yet to be mainstreamed by policy-makers and practitioners for decision-making within the region. In this chapter, we explore notable achievements, as well as barriers, to mainstreaming ES within the environmental public policies of Southeast Asia. A detailed case study examination of four Southeast Asian nations (Singapore, Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam) revealed that inclusion, or even consideration, of ES in public policy has been uneven throughout the region, ranging from essentially no consideration to quite sophisticated ES policy underpinnings; and even within a country there can be considerable difference in ES uptake. In general, we conclude the concern that ES concepts are too western-centric have been overcome in Southeast Asia, although some barriers to the mainstreaming of ES into public policy still faces barriers. The principal barriers common across Thailand, Cambodia, and Vietnam are related to mandate and policy fragmentation and insufficient human and finance capacity. On the other hand, Singapore has successfully included ES concepts within it planning structure due to a number of factors, including a less fragmented policy-making approach, public-private partnerships and buy-in, and visionary leadership. Singapore’s economic status also provides some flexibility to ES policy implementation. Interestingly, however, Singapore has not relied on monetization approaches to support implementation of ES concepts. Finally, we recommend potential ways forward for the three not-yet-so-successful nations by highlighting the roles of academies, government, and major international agencies, (e.g. World Bank (WB), Asian Development Bank (ADB) or Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA)) in furthering efforts to mainstream ES in policy-making.

Ho Huu Loc, Kim N. Irvine, Asan Suwanarit, Pakorn Vallikul, Fa Likitswat, Alisa Sahavacharin, Chansopheaktra Sovann, Le Song Ha

NGOs as Loudspeakers: Potential Role of NGOs in Bridging the North-South Gap in International Environmental and Sustainable Development Law Making Process

There is a gap in the international law-making forums in how north and south collaborate and contribute to the development of international laws and policies. In the field of environmental law and sustainable development, this affects the potential obligations and the commitments that the states make under international agreements. Therefore, in addition to the states, the non-state actors are increasingly becoming an important voice in balancing the scales of international politics and international law-making. The objective of this research is to bring out the need to incorporate the southern concerns through equality: which encompasses representation of southern concerns at the international law-making forums by the use of NGOs. The research involves qualitative analysis of data and international legal instruments. Third World Approaches to International Law (TWAIL) is used as a lens to analyze the north-south dimensions in international law. The research provides for justification and rationale for legitimizing the NGO participation in international environmental law and sustainable development in order to make it more participatory, equitable and just. The chapter argues that such an approach would reflect the move away from state-centric governance towards a more democratic and inclusive international governance and law-making regime. Therefore it would add to the existing legal literature on north and south dimensions in international environmental law and sustainable development law.

Kokila Konasinghe

Towards a Low/Zero Carbon Society for the Asia-Pacific Region: Policy and Legal Development for Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) in Japan

The Paris Agreement came into force on 4 November 2016. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)’s latest report on 8th Oct 2018 also announced that the agreed Paris targets on reducing emissions would not be enough without setting larger and more ambitious targets after 2030 and maximising the capacity of a best mix approach including renewable energy, nuclear power and Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS). There has been wide discussion about CCS considered as one of the significant approaches to mitigating a large amount of CO2 from the global atmosphere. Japan, as a developed country, is now facing a challenge for meeting its mid and long-term goals for reducing GHG emissions, due to the limited energy sources (e.g. nuclear and renewable energy) after the Great Tohoku Earthquake in 2011 and a trend of relying on fossil fuel energy sources (coal and gas). This study aims at identifying a number of key approaches to developing the existing CCS policy and legal framework in Japan to commercialise CCS deployment, based on ongoing research. This paper has addressed a number of key developments: maximising a best mix technological solution to mitigating the GHG emissions in Japan including the role of CCS (i.e. Carbon Capture Utilisation and Storage – CCUS), setting specific targets for CCS and technological roadmap; considering two scenario options for a legal framework so called ‘regulatory-based model’ and ‘public-work model’; and utilizing the role of SEA and EIA which could be applied as the useful tools to conceptualize, review and improve the existing policy and legal framework. It further emphasises a need for a comprehensive framework at the regional level and attempts to address its key development areas to be considered, in order to realise a low/zero carbon society in the Asia-Pacific region.

K. Yanagi, A. Nakamura

Integrating Sustainability in Governance and Legal Framework for a Sustainable Builtscape in Kenya: Towards a Global Approach

This paper evaluates the adequacy of Kenya’s subsidiary legislation to support a transition towards enforceable sustainable construction regulations. Informed by the Green Legal Theory and Legal Theory of Sustainable Development it provides an international comparison among Kenya and United Kingdom legislation in their implementation of legal principles of sustainability in the construction industry. It particularly examines in this way the level of fusion of sustainability in laws governing the construction sector in Kenya. The paper establishes a lack of a sustainable construction strategy and that the Kenya Government is yet to make sustainability a core subject in the construction industry operations. Sustainability is therefore not a living element in the legal framework governing the construction sector in Kenya. The fragmented nature of the Kenya industry has impacted leadership and governance consequently left sustainable construction for voluntary uptake. The paper outlines findings from the literature review related to Kenya’s rule of Law and makes policy recommendations as well as other tangible solutions for a holistic integration of sustainability in the construction industry in Kenya. As a proactive measure, embracing sustainable development now will keep emissions of emerging economies on the low in the face of future growth and development.The paper champions the use of regulations to enforce and promote provisions of sustainability in the construction industry in Kenya towards meeting the National Green Economy Strategy Implementation Plan.

Ruth Onkangi, Yvonne Getugi

Preliminary Study of the Implications of 3D Printing on the Construction Supply Chain

Construction projects face several challenges, such as budget overruns, project delays, rework, and waste of materials. Most of them are caused by lengthy and complex supply chains involving multiple entities, processes, and interactions. Studies suggest that technologies like robotics, 3D printing, and artificial intelligence have the potential to reduce the complexity of traditional supply chains. In the context of 3D concrete printing, researchers have focused on the robotic systems and suitable construction materials. However, limited attention was focused on the impact on the construction supply chain (CSC). Although studies in healthcare and aviation investigated the implications of new technologies in their supply chains, the outcome cannot be directly applied to the CSC. In addition, studies that assessed the impact of new technologies on the CSC are limited and mostly qualitative. This study addresses this gap by developing a methodology to simulate the implications of 3D printing on the CSC. The methodology adopted contains four elements: 1) Develop supply chain networks, b) Identify input parameters c) Simulate the supply chain networks, and d) Analyze and discuss results. Results from this preliminary study indicate 15.8% and 52.6% lesser entities in CSC-2 and CSC-3, respectively, when compared to CSC-1; a 0.2% and 28.2% decrease in overall effort in CSC-2 and CSC-3. respectively, when compared to CSC-1; and an overall cumulative performance increase of 18.5% and 51.6% in CSC-2 and CSC-3, respectively, when compared to CSC-1. Findings from this study can help construction professionals to understand the implications of 3D printing in the CSC and to assist in easier adoption into the industry. However, caution should be exercised when generalizing to other CSC scenarios or the entire construction industry.

Ayyagari Ramani, Borja Garcia de Soto

Chapter 5. Institutions, Norms, and Networks

Structures, normativenormative system systems, and institutions are things with sufficient fixity over time and sufficient firmness to permit them to be regarded as social entitiessocial entities. This chapter considers the ontological status of higher-level social entities. Institutions and normative systems are social configurations that have enduring properties that are largely independent of the individuals whom they encompass. They affect the behavior of individuals within them, and they affect the outcomes that individuals achieve through their efforts. Further, they are causally influential in large processes of social change and social stability. Institutions work through the creation of rolesroles, incentivesincentives, motivations, and culturalculture frameworks to coordinate the behavior of participants within their scope. We might define a norm as a socially embodied and individually perceived imperative that such-and-so an action in a given context must be performed in such-and-so a fashion. The chapter considers some of the aggregative processes that serve as microfoundations for entities like institutions, cultures, and normative systems.

Daniel Little

Chapter 1. Ontology and Government

What kind of things do we need to hypothesize when we refer to “government”? A government is made up of actors—individuals who occupy roles; who have beliefs, interests, commitments, and goals; and who exist within social relations and networks involving other individuals both within and outside the corridors of power. How are the actors who make up government tied together through constraints, actions, institutions, values, incentives, norms, identities, emotions, and interests? What forms of social causation and influence serve to constitute the organizations and institutions of government? Recent work in organizational sociology has provided new tools for describing social arrangements within organizations on the basis of which organizations function. Current studies of organizations also provide a basis for understanding the importance and sources of dysfunction within government and other ensembles of organizations. This chapter lays the ground for developing an extensive theory of the social realities that constitute a modern government.

Daniel Little

The Contested Practice of Networking in Healthcare Management

Networks have been celebrated for some time as vital to the operation of fluid, post-bureaucratic and knowledge-based organisations. However, much of the literature on governing networks prioritises research into formal networks and pays rather less attention to issues of informal and emergent networking. This is often accompanied by a structural-functionalist bias in network research, as networks are ascribed with a self-evident purpose which may be measured and evaluated. The consequence is a neglect of the meaning and practice of networking, as membership, position and participation in networks are taken for granted. We seek to address this gap by exploring, ideographically, the meaning ascribed to informal networking among healthcare managers, and various tensions which result. Using qualitative data from a three-year study of UK healthcare organisations, we explore practices of networking across three defined managerial groups—functional, general and clinical. Our findings highlight the challenges facing attempts to govern such networks.

Paula Hyde, Damian Hodgson, Simon Bailey, John Hassard, Mike Bresnen

Professional Pastoral Work in a Kenyan Clinical Network: Transposing Transnational Evidence-Based Governmentality

The Foucauldian concepts of governmentalityGovernmentality and pastoral powerPastoral power have been used to explain the way health professionals internalise evidence-based practices in health care generally and clinical networks more specifically. However, we know little about the work, practices and process involved in developing and implementing an ‘evidence-based governmentality’ outside the West, particularly in Low and Middle Income Counties (LMICs), where governmentalityGovernmentality often has a different transnational character. We explain the development and implementationImplementation of a Western transnational evidence-based governmentalityGovernmentality in a clinical networkNetworks in Kenya, using a decentred analytical approach. We highlight the essential work of medical professional ‘pastors’, with experience of both health care in Kenya and evidence-based medicineEvidence-based medicine (EBM) in Western High-Income Countries, in transposing this governmentalityGovernmentality into health care in a LMIC in a way improving clinical care.

Gerry McGivern, Jacinta Nzinga, Mehdi Boussebaa, Mike English

Space and Place in Network Governance: Putting Integrated Care into Place

The improved integration of health and social care organisations has become a prominent public policy and management narrative, premised on the ideal of networks governance. In promoting a vision of seamless coordination across professional and organisational boundaries, what is not often considered is how projects of integrated care are formed in relation to contested understandings of space and place. This chapter presents qualitative data gathered during an evaluation of an integrated care project that took place between 2012 and 2015 in a metropolitan borough in the North of England. Regional reform plans were shaped around policy and managerial imperatives for more joined-up, integrated and resource-efficient forms of care delivery. Findings focus on how the integrated care project involved reconceptualising place and space to create new localities, places of work and hierarchies of service provision. This rationalised reformation of space interacted with both embedded meanings and understandings of localities and neighbourhoods, as well as the everyday spatial practices of health and social care work. It is suggested that rather than able to construct new cross-boundary social relations based on to a rationalised model of service provision, projects of integration are tightly entwined with both existing attachments to place and the way place is enacted in health and social care practice.

Simon Bishop

Decentring Networks and Networking in Health and Care Services

It is widely proclaimed with live in a networked society, which for many, is made possible through the proliferation of information communication technologiesTechnology that make possible new and diverse forms of inter-connected social, cultural and economic activity (Castells 2011).

Mark Bevir, Justin Waring

Buddies and Mergers: Decentring the Performance of Healthcare Provider Partnerships

Inter-organisational partnerships such as mergers and buddying are being promoted as a way to improve the performance of hospital and community services in the English NHS. The purpose of this chapter is to critically reflect on such approaches to public sector improvement with a decentred analysis of three inter-organisational collaborations across NHS providers. Through its aim to move beyond techno bureaucratic understandings of partnership structures and functions, the chapter reveals how situated agents navigate complex and contradictory narratives of quality and service improvement in the context of increasing cost constraints and efficiency savings.

Ross Millar, Russell Mannion, Robin Miller

Tensions Between Technocracy, Scientific Knowledge and Co-production in Collaborative Health and Care Networks

Since the late 1990s, a narrativeNarratives of evidence-based decision-making or evidence-based practices has increasingly guided the modernisation and improvementImprovement of UK health and care services. Rather than decisions being based on the conventions of professional practice or the ideologies of government, the expectation is that decisions from macro policy-making through to micro service delivery should be based on the best available evidenceEvidence of ‘what works’.

Robert Vickers, Bridget Roe, Charlotte Overton

Analysing the Micro Implementation of Health Care Reforms: A Decentred Approach

The network governance narrativeNarratives of public managementManagement reform sponsored by post New Public ManagementNew Public Management (NPM) (NPM) authors (Pollitt and Bouckaert in Public management reform: A comparative analysis, 3rd ed. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2011; Christensen and Lsgreid in Transcending new public management: The transformation of public sector reforms. Ashgate, Aldershot, 2007) promoted more integrated and systemic approaches to the delivery of public services designed to address the fragmenting effects of earlier NPMNew Public Management (NPM) reforms (Ferlie et al. in Health Services Management Research 30: 61–71, 2016). The different streams of governanceGovernance have created what Jones (Jones in Decentring health policy, Routledge, Oxon, 2018) terms a complex sedimented governanceSedimented governance architecture. While the NPM approach emphasises managerial authority and top-down implementationImplementation, network governance works through collaborationCollaboration and partnershipsPartnership. In this binary theoretical field, the decentred theoryDecentred theory of governanceGovernance offers a different perspective that focuses on how ‘people see the world’ (BevirBevir, Mark and Rhodes in A decentered theory of governance: Rational choice, institutionalism, and interpretation (UC Berkeley Working Papers), Berkeley, University of California, 2001). In this paper we use a bottom-up decentred lens to understand how local actors perceive reforms and use their agencyAgency to make sense of the changes in the delivery of stroke services.

Juan I. Baeza, Alec Fraser, Annette Boaz

Networking for Health, Networking for Wealth: A Study of English Health Innovation Policy in Practice

There is an observable trend in English health policy that emphasises the productive potential of the National Health Service (NHS) to generate economic wealth whilst also treating ill health.

Jean Ledger

Open Access

Chapter 8. Mapping the Business Value of the Internet of Things

The impacts of enterprise investments in technological infrastructure for the Internet of Things (IoT) go well beyond the technical domain and require significant changes in an enterprise’s operations, strategy and approach to market. This chapter presents a framework for mapping the business value of IoT investments which aims to support managers in their decision-making process by providing an overview of how specific resources need to be linked together in order to generate business value. The presented framework is also used as a point of reference for identifying current research gaps which may represent avenues for future research.

Pierangelo Rosati, Theo Lynn

7. Power and Politics: Taxation, Social and Labour Market Policies in Argentina and Chile, 1990–2010

Delamonica, Moudud and Pérez Caldentey analyse recent attempts to construct progressive taxation, social and labour policies in the context of unequal power relations and struggles for social justice in Argentina and Chile. As elsewhere, employers tended to oppose such policies, using various formal and informal mechanisms to push back against them. The authors argue that power relations between state and business are shaped by the political cohesiveness of the latter, that is, the ability of firms to act in concert to politically promote their own policy agendas. At the same time, power struggles also include workers and social movements who exert pressures on the state for egalitarian policies. A key difference between Chile and Argentina is the high level of business cohesiveness in Chile.

Enrique Delamonica, Jamee K. Moudud, Esteban Pérez Caldentey

6. Democratic Deepening and State Capacity: Taxation in Brazil and India

Changes to citizenship regimes help explain differences in tax structure in Brazil and India. Citizenship regimes change by mobilizing new collective identities, articulating substantive demands, and institutionalizing group linkages to public life. When excluded groups mobilize and gain access, they provide new sources of state legitimacy, allowing states to expand their capacity, for example in tax. Changes to tax can be evaluated in terms of levels of revenues, degrees of progressivity, and the universality of application of tax across sectors and regions. Since the 1970s in Brazil and India, excluded groups gained access to citizenship regimes and deepened democracy, but differences in collective identities, demands, and mechanisms of linkage played out in differences in state capacity.

Aaron Schneider

1. The Politics of Domestic Resource Mobilization for Social Development: An Introduction

At a time when the development community is grappling with the challenge of raising the required investment for attainment of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), countries’ mobilization of their own domestic resources for development is receiving ever-increasing attention. Hujo and Bangura present key issues and trends related to domestic resource mobilization for social development, the conceptual framework for the research, and the structure and contents of the volume. An integrated political economy analysis of financing and expenditure policies is used. The authors argue that understanding the politics of domestic resource mobilization, processes of contestation and bargaining, and key relationships and institutions are all crucial for creating a transformative fiscal compact for sustainable development.

Katja Hujo, Yusuf Bangura

13. The Politics of Domestic Resource Mobilization for Social Development: Conclusions

Hujo presents three overarching conclusions of the research. First, domestic resource mobilization (DRM) is a political process of contestation and bargaining, marked by power asymmetries, and shaped by historical legacies and the present economic and political context. Second, changes and reforms in resource mobilization policies impact relationships among state, civil society, donors and business actors. Third, upgrading both domestic revenue institutions and service delivery requires not only technical capacity building but also political consensus building. The chapters presented in the volume suggest four recommendations for policymakers: create inclusive resource bargains with links to social policy, diversify the financing mix in favour of sustainable instruments, support national bargains with global bargains and create an enabling environment for DRM through public policies.

Katja Hujo

5. Colonial Legacies and Social Welfare Regimes in Africa: An Empirical Exercise

Mkandawire identifies three types of welfare regimes in Africa based on the insight that tax and expenditure regimes are closely associated. The author highlights historical legacies in current welfare policies using cluster analysis to demonstrate that today’s welfare regimes in Africa have been strongly determined by the ways in which different countries were incorporated into the colonial economy. Many current social welfare reforms are taking place in what he refers to as labour reserve economies, and are generally internally rather than aid-driven. He stresses the importance of thinking of social expenditure in relation to domestic resource mobilization, and argues that the focus on aid and social expenditure has tended to obscure this important aspect of welfare regimes in Africa.

Thandika Mkandawire

12. The Politics of Resource Bargaining, Social Relations and Institutional Development in Zimbabwe Since Independence

This chapter traces the evolution of domestic resource mobilization in Zimbabwe since independence in 1980. It adopts an historical-comparative approach to explore changes in the balance of forces among actors, and institutional constraints associated with the formulation of successive resource mobilization strategies. Three case studies of divergent resource mobilization innovations underscore the complexity of challenges faced by a government whose actions are shaped by uneven state capacity and weakened policy autonomy. The chapter concludes that the relative strength of established business interests have enabled business actors to continue to wield significant power and influence, while diminished state capacity, declining political legitimacy and a chronic state fiscal crisis have fuelled social contestation over resource mobilization.

Richard Saunders

9. Domestic Resource Mobilization for Social Development in Bolivia (1985–2014): Protests, Hydrocarbons and a New State Project

Paz Arauco examines the economic conditions and political processes underlying the mobilization of domestic resources for social development in Bolivia during a period marked by profound transformations in state-society relations. Protest movements and large-scale social mobilizations called for reclaiming state ownership of natural resources, indigenous and regional empowerment and an economic alternative to neoliberalism. On the fiscal side, nationalization of the hydrocarbon sector by the government of Evo Morales, the country’s first indigenous president, generated positive economic and distributional outcomes. Bolivia’s dependence on foreign resources for funding its social contract ended, ushering in a period of sustained growth and lower rates of poverty and inequality. The author concludes by identifying future challenges.

Verónica Paz Arauco

11. The Political Economy of Resource Mobilization for Social Development in Uganda

This chapter analyses how political economy factors affect revenue raising and social spending priorities in Uganda. The authors employ a theoretical framework based on the political settlement approach and fiscal contract theory, focusing on three arenas of revenue bargaining: tax reform legislation, the performance of revenue agencies, and social policy making. The chapter discusses the challenges to mobilizing resources for social development in Uganda. Revenue bargaining with citizens is limited, and hence compliance is low. On the spending side, social development concerns compete not only with other legitimate public policy areas for limited resources, but also with the allocation of resources for political purposes. These conditions make for a weak fiscal contract between the Ugandan state and Ugandan citizens.

Anne Mette Kjær, Marianne S. Ulriksen

10. Nachhaltigkeit und Stakeholderengagement

Als Stakeholder werden generell alle Parteien (Einzelpersonen oder Gruppierungen) bezeichnet, die von den Unternehmensaktivitäten betroffen oder an ihnen beteiligt sind, ein Interesse daran haben oder möglicherweise Einfluss darauf nehmen können. Es wird häufig auch von Interessens- oder Anspruchsgruppen gesprochen. In einem erweiterten Selbstverständnis der Unternehmen und ihrer Wertschöpfung gewinnen zusätzliche Stakeholder an Bedeutung, denn es gilt auch ökonomische, soziale, ethische und ökologische Interessen und Erwartungen relevanter Stakeholder im Unternehmensumfeld zu kennen und sie weitestgehend in die Entscheidungsfindung des Managements einzubinden.

Katja Mayer

Chapter 3. Ecosystem-Based Integrated and Participatory Watershed Management

The chapter describes an integrated and participatory watershed management approach that involves multiple stakeholders in decision-making processes that provides managers (a) opportunities to exchange knowledge, build awareness, and integrate different sectors; (b) build consensus on priorities and aspirations; (c) enable local community to set agenda and outcomes; and (d) build institutions to work for collective actions. Different options were tested under this integrated approach enabling inclusive participation of local community and government agencies enhancing relevance, effectiveness, and sustainability of activities with good outcomes. The approach was implemented in four settlements situated within the Shivapuri Nagarjun National Park, Nepal. The protected area (PA) focuses on habitat protection and management, and wild animals co-exist with indigenous peoples’ settlements within the Park boundaries. The three-year pilot work indicates high feasibility for upscaling the approach. The major findings are the following: (a) well-organized and aware buffer zone communities are better environmental stewards to conserve the biodiversity and co-manage the socio-ecological production ecosystems; (b) the buffer zone community if equipped with knowledge and skills can improve their livelihoods and support habitat improvement; (c) new generation of integrated watershed management approach is accepted due to its flexible and adaptive approach; and (d) incentivized and enabling mechanisms and tools are necessary to address historical grievances of the communities and reduce park-people conflict. It was also found that capacitated and empowered people are better conservation partners. The prerequisite is the access and benefit sharing rights of local communities need to be recognized and respected.

Mohan Prasad Wagley, Madhav Karki

Chapter 1. Opportunities and Advances to Mainstream Nature-Based Solutions in Disaster Risk Management and Climate Strategy

There has been tremendous advancement around the world in terms of conceptualisation, research, implementation and policy uptake for Nature-based Solutions (NbS) to address and reduce the severity of disaster risk and climate vulnerability. There has been growing momentum in ongoing international policy dialogues to understand, include and facilitate implementation of NbS. This book includes scientific articles and study reports drawing from research-based knowledge and experience by professionals from the diverse fields of science, policy and practice to enrich the existing knowledge base on effectively implementing NbS especially highlighting its potential in using ecosystems and ecosystem services for climate change adaptation and reduction of disaster risk. Some of the highlighted evidences in this book are from mountains, wetlands as well as urban built environments. The thematic and cross-cutting chapters that the book comprises share scientific evidence that further support and emphasise the prospective ability of NbS to create co-benefits that include environmental, economic and social benefits. NbS has the potential to help achieve and localise goals and targets proposed in international agreements related to biodiversity conservation, disaster risk reduction, climate change adaptation, and mitigation to name a few. Apart from an introduction of NbS and its application in disaster risk management and development of climate change strategy, the present chapter also offers a synopsis of the chapters in the book.

Shalini Dhyani, Madhav Karki, Anil Kumar Gupta

Chapter 8. Forest Landscape Restoration as a NbS Strategy for Achieving Bonn Challenge Pledge: Lessons from India’s Restoration Efforts

Bonn Challenge is an ambitious global restoration pledge that was launched in 2011, with the nature-based solutions (NbS) strategy of forest landscape restoration (FLR) as its underlying principle. India has one of the largest pledges from Asia with the aim of bringing 13 million hectares of degraded land into restoration by the year 2020, and an additional eight million hectares by 2030, and thus should maintain a leadership position in South Asia on Bonn Challenge and landscape restoration. Government of India (GoI) and IUCN have prepared the first country progress report towards the Bonn Challenge pledge in 2018 which showed that India has already brought 9.8 million hectares into restoration. This report is the first progress report from any Bonn Challenge country and is also unique as it includes restoration efforts undertaken by the government, NGOs and the private sector. Although the government was the majority contributor (94.4%), the efforts of NGOs (3.6%) and private companies (2%) are important as they have the technical expertise to guarantee success. Three best practices of landscape restoration from across different ecosystems of India have been detailed here so that they may act as learnings for future restoration efforts. Lessons learnt from past restoration efforts have informed the design of a flagship project on FLR launched in five Indian States by GoI and IUCN, which will maintain India’s leadership on Bonn Challenge across South Asia.

Anushree Bhattacharjee

Chapter 19. Permeable Pavements as Sustainable Nature-Based Solutions for the Management of Urban Lake Ecosystems

Permeable pavement systems (PPS) are becoming integral parts of the urban green infrastructure (UGI) planning approaches for the implementation of nature-based solutions (NbS) especially in rapidly developing regions. Global research has demonstrated that UGI is quite essential to regulate and establish the hydrological and ecological functions of urban aquatic ecosystems such as lakes. At a micro-scale level, design of storm water management systems requires detailed planning, as urban flooding has the potential to affect a huge population dwelling in the cities often without any warning. Such events cause drastic changes in the hydrological statuses of urban lakes, by gradually decreasing their natural resilience over a period. An associated risk with the degradation of urban lake systems pertains to their immense contributions in maintaining the ambient temperature profiles. The loss of the urban lake systems will directly lead to a substantial rise in the ambient air temperature and enhanced heat island effect. PPS can offer successful NbS to improve the resilience of the lake systems. PPS would also prove to be instrumental in mitigating the urban heat island effects by intercepting the excessive run-offs, increasing green water collection and storage, as well as by maintaining close-to-natural flow regimes in the case of urban lakes. Such micro-scale NbS offered by the design and implementation of PPS can offer huge environmental, social, and economic benefits in the long run. PPS can also offer direct benefits towards regulating the lake services and can assist in addressing the sustainable development goals for the lake ecosystems in the urban set-up, which are under stress due to various anthropogenic detrimental activities.

Harini Santhanam, Rudrodip Majumdar

5. Wertschöpfende Innovationen als Ausweg aus der Kostenfalle im Gesundheitswesen

Das Kernproblem des Gesundheitswesens sind steigende Kosten und damit seine Finanzierbarkeit. Der wachsende Anteil alter Menschen an der Gesamtbevölkerung wird dieses Problem in Zukunft noch verschärfen. Ein Blick auf das Verhältnis von Gesundheitskosten einerseits und die von Patienten wahrgenommene Qualität der Gesundheitsversorgung andererseits erlaubt die Schlussfolgerung, dass die vorherrschende bürokratische Regulierung mit Sparprogrammen und Leistungskürzungen der letzten 20 Jahre als weitgehend gescheitert gelten kann. Aus diesem Grund suchen Wissenschaftler und Praktiker weltweit nach kreativen Lösungen. Den Schlüssel könnten wertschöpfende Innovationen (Value Innovations) sowie Führungsprinzipien liefern, die eine Alternative zur traditionellen Führung durch Direktiven und Leistungsdruck darstellen. Zur Implementierung sind neue Managementkonzepte notwendig. Chan Kim und Renee Mauborgne nennen diese Ansätze Blue Ocean Strategy und Blue Ocean Leadership. Im marktwirtschaftlichen Bereich der Gesellschaft gibt es bereits zahlreiche Beispiele für die erfolgreiche Anwendung dieser Konzepte. Nun finden sie Eingang ins Gesundheitswesen. Dieser Beitrag skizziert die Kerngedanken dieser Ansätze und beschreibt Beispiele für die praktische Umsetzung.

Waldemar Pelz

Chapter 5. The Transformation of Agricultural Production System in Line with “Resource and Ecologically Sound Agriculture”

Transforming the agricultural development mode and accelerating the transformation of the “resource and ecologically sound agriculture” production system means transforming an extensive agricultural production mode, which features high consumption, low output, and high pollution, in accordance with the objective requirements of accelerating the transformation of the economic development mode and promoting the construction of a “resource and ecologically sound society”. It means relying on scientific, technological, and institutional innovation to improve resource utilization and protect the ecological environment, promoting the transformation of traditional agriculture into modern “resource and ecologically sound agriculture” by popularizing resource-conserving and eco-friendly technologies and thereby realizing the common development of people and nature as well as the sustainable use of resources, demonstrating its economic, social, ecological, humanitarian, and circulatory function, producing harmonious economic, social, ecological, human, and source-saving benefits. The final objective is to establish the “resource and ecologically sound agriculture” production system with low input, low energy consumption, low pollution, and high output. The production system includes a “resource and ecologically sound agriculture” industrial system, the agriculture standardization production system with guaranteed quality of agricultural products at its core, the system of agricultural non-point sources pollution prevention and control with the core of ecological environment protection, the system of disaster prevention and mitigation by means of the construction of irrigation and water conservation, and the protective system of biological species resources through biological germplasm resources protection.

Wensheng Chen

Chapter 6. The Transformation of Commercialized Rural Service System with Taking Agricultural Informatization as a Breakthrough

As the world has stepped into the information age from an industrial one, the information wave characterized by computer multimedia technology, optical fiber, and communication satellite technology has swept the globe. Similarly, modern information technologies are permeating the field of agriculture. And the combination of technology and information resources will greatly alter the appearance and production lifestyle of rural areas. It is crucial to find a breakthrough in building a modern commercialized rural service system from rural informatization, aiming to accelerate the transformation of the agricultural development mode and to remold traditional agriculture, which means China must establish a rural information service network system, platform, and mode.

Wensheng Chen

Chapter 3. The Transformation of China’s Agricultural Development with Multiple Goals Under Resource and Environmental Constraints

In the development of human society, each transformation in the development mode could be considered as a new hallmark of human civilization and economic development, as well as an internal catalyst for economic structure changes. China has relatively low resources per capita because of a huge population. Therefore, it is a pressing task for China to accelerate the transformation of agricultural development to build up a new agricultural pattern featuring “low input, low energy consumption, low pollution, and high output” under the direction of constructing a “resource and ecologically sound society” and thereby realizing the multiple goals of the sustainable development of a national economy, which consist of ensuring national food security, environmental protection, resource conservation, an income increase for farmers, and agricultural efficiency.

Wensheng Chen

Chapter 7. The Institutional Innovation of the “Resource and Ecologically Sound” Transformation of Agriculture

Institutional economics holds that institutions play an important role in the development of agriculture. On the one hand, institutions act as an endogenous variable together with other elements to promote the development of the agricultural economy. On the other hand, institutions function as an exogenous variable to guarantee, stimulate, block, or induce other factors. From the perspective of the entire development process of agriculture, the development mode corresponding to each stage of agriculture is supported by corresponding institutions. Every transformation of the agricultural development mode is inseparable from institutional innovations, because it provides not only the necessary incentives and restraint mechanism for agricultural production businesses, but also the appropriate institutional environment for agricultural development.

Wensheng Chen

Rural Transformation Through Savings and Credit Cooperative Societies in Moshi District, Tanzania

This chapter analyzes and documents the contribution of Savings and Credit Cooperative Societies (SACCOS) in facilitating rural transformation in Moshi District, Tanzania. The study involved 150 respondents composed of management and ordinary members of SACCOS. Data were collected through questionnaires and documentary review methods. Results indicated that SACCOS play an important role in facilitating rural transformation by providing financial services in rural Tanzania where most people were not served by the formal financial institutions. The study confirmed SACCOS’ usefulness in increasing the material welfare of its members in terms of living standards, guaranteed income, enhancement of skills and knowledge, employment as well as leadership and governance. It was further found that SACCOS had effect in transforming rural areas in terms of special loan schemes, rural customer size, direct rural investments, and rural income generation programs. There is a positive significant relationship between SACCOS and rural customer size, direct rural investments, and rural income generation programs. It is therefore recommended that cooperative practitioners including Moshi Co-operative University (MoCU), Savings and Credit Co-operative Union League of Tanzania (SCCULT), Tanzania Federation of Co-operative (TFC) and Tanzania Co-operative Development Commission (TCDC) should make more campaigns and educate rural people on the purpose and benefits of a SACCOS and let many join SACCOS.

Neema P. Kumburu, Vincent Pande

Fostering Rural Development and Social Inclusion in East Africa: Interrogating the Role of Cooperatives

Cooperatives are autonomous organizations of people built on internationally recognized principles and core values. There are various types of cooperatives in East Africa largely dominated by the Agricultural Marketing Co-operatives (AMCOS). For decades, cooperatives have been fighting against inequalities by promoting members’ socio-economic development, democracy, and increasing people’s control over local economies. They also provide other opportunities such as inputs, and better negotiation position. Despite these efforts, rural poverty and inequality in East Africa is still high. This chapter presents a review of literature on the role of cooperatives in reducing rural poverty and enhancing social inclusion in East Africa, using Tanzania, Kenya, and Uganda as case studies. These three countries present good cases because, despite having a large population of people and cooperatives, their people still suffer from abject poverty. In this study, it has been established that, cooperatives are an organ for rural development in whichever form and model and can contribute to rural development whether they are weak or strong. This chapter promotes the use of Integrated Co-operative Model (ICM), which has proved to be effective in linking the rural poor in terms of production, marketing support, and financial services. It recommends member-based education to be given priority especially on how co-operatives can work in an ICM. Training is also needed on member’s roles and responsibilities, knowledge of production, marketing and management. Likewise, it recommends a positive government intervention on punishing the criminals who misused the cooperative funds.

Mangasini Katundu

Introduction

In the last two decades, some efforts have been made to examine agricultural transformationAgricultural transformation (e.g., Goetz et al. 2001) or rural transformationTransformation (Rauch et al. 2016) in a given context. However, exploring agricultural transformationAgricultural transformation in connection to rural transformation and development has not received in-depth investigation.

Evans S. Osabuohien

Beyond the Farm Gate: Can Social Capital Help Smallholders to Overcome Constraints in the Agricultural Value Chain in Africa?

The agricultural sector is typically the biggest employer of labour in most African countries, yet it is also typically the most under-capitalised and most neglected by policymakers. While a number of studies have highlighted the positive impact of innovations on farm productivity, increased productivity does not necessarily lead to improved income or profit. For many smallholders, the most consequential, and often the most ignored, constraints exist beyond the farm gate in the value chain. These constraints include the lack of information and technological capacities for post-production processing and packaging, the challenge of quality requirements and delivery for high-valued markets, lack of connections to established market actors, and weak transportation networks. This chapter, therefore, reviews the existing knowledge, and proposes a framework that illuminates the potential of social capital to help smallholders overcome constraints in the agricultural value chain. As well as setting out a new research agenda, this chapter aims to contribute to the design and implementation of more effective interventions.

Oluwaseun Kolade, Oluwasoye Mafimisebi, Oluwakayode Aluko

Socio-Cultural Factors and Performance of Small-Scale Enterprise in Agro-Allied Manufacturing Firms in Nigeria

Since the collapse of the oil boom of the 1970s, there has been a dramatic increase in the incidence of poverty and unemployment in Nigeria. This arises in part from the dwindling performance of the agro-allied manufacturing sector where a properant majority of the poor are employed. This study examines the influence of socio-cultural factors on the performance of selected small-scale agro-allied manufacturing firms in the SouthWestern Nigeria. Also, the study identifies the existing socio-cultural factors capable of influencing the performance of small-scale agro-allied enterprises. The study made use of both primary data, which were purposively sampled, with the administration of questionnaire on 438 small-scale agro-allied enterprise owners/managers. The areas of coverage included Lagos, Ogun, Oyo, Osun, Ondo, and Ekiti State. The data were analyzed using binary logistic regression model. The finding of the study revealed that there was significant relationship between socio-cultural factors and small-scale agro-allied firms in Nigeria. The result also revealed that religious beliefs, burden of extended family, ostentatious life style, and social spending exerted significant influence on the firms investigated. The study concluded that small-scale agro-allied manufacturing firm is multidimensional in nature as it is largely driven by socio-cultural phenomena.

Alidu O. Kareem, Temitope F. Jiboye, Oluwabunmi O. Adejumo, Michael O. Akinyosoye

Youth (Un)employment and Large-Scale Agricultural Land Investments: Examining the Relevance of Indigenous Institutions and Capacity in Tanzania

Africa’s agricultural transformation through large-scale agricultural land investments (LALIs) aims at increasing production; create employment opportunities, and enhance infrastructure development. After years of ‘experimentation’ and incentives to investors to boost this transformation process, the expected transformation has not translated adequately to increased job opportunities for the active population, particularly the youth. This study engages the Living Standard Measurement Study-Integrated Surveys on Agriculture (LSMS-ISA) to provide empirical insights to this disconnect. Using the Tanzania case study, the study shows that the occurrence of LALIs has not effectively delivered on its expectations of employment creation for the youths mainly influenced by the framework and capacity of indigenous institutions. The chapter presents some recommendations on how informal institutions and local capacity can be harnessed to ensure that LALIs create youth employment opportunities in Tanzania.

Evans S. Osabuohien, Uchenna R. Efobi, Ciliaka M. Gitau, Romanus A. Osabohien, Oluwasogo S. Adediran

Chapter 2. Two Centuries of Country Risk, 1816–2016

This chapter investigates the international business environment as well as the most salient threats to foreign investment since 1816. I examine four distinct periods: the era of Pax Britannica (1816–1914) in Sect. 2.1; the years 1914–1945 in Sect. 2.2; the Cold War (1945–1991) in Sect. 2.3; and the globalization years (since 1991) in Sect. 2.4. A greater emphasis is placed on the postwar decades.

Norbert Gaillard

Chapter 3. Taxonomy of Country Risk

This chapter investigates the numerous forms that country risk may take and also provides illustrations of them. Seven broad components of country risk are scrutinized in turn: international political risks; domestic political and institutional risks; jurisdiction risks; macroeconomic risks; microeconomic risks; sanitary, health, industrial, and environmental risks; and natural and climate risks. Each of these risks consists of various “subrisks” that have specific features. Their effects may be direct or indirect (or both) and may become manifest in the short, medium, or long term. These “subrisks” may be latent or constitute a shock that affects all or only some investors. For instance, environmental risks are much more likely to affect foreign bondholders of corporate debt, shareholders, and especially direct investors—corresponding to type-4, type-5, and type-6 country risks (CR4, CR5, and CR6)—than to affect exporters, importers, and foreign bondholders of sovereign debt, which correspond to type-1, type-2, and type-3 country risks (CR1, CR2, and CR3).

Norbert Gaillard

Managing Human and Artificial Knowledge Bearers

The Creation of a Symbiotic Knowledge Management Approach

As part of the digitization, the role of artificial systems as new actors in knowledge-intensive processes requires to recognize them as a new form of knowledge bearers side by side with traditional knowledge bearers, such as individuals, groups, organizations. By now, artificial intelligence (AI) methods were used in knowledge management (KM) for knowledge discovery, for the reinterpreting of information, and recent works focus on the studying of different AI technologies implementation for knowledge management, like big data, ontology-based methods and intelligent agents [1]. However, a lack of holistic management approach is present, that considers artificial systems as knowledge bearers. The paper therefore designs a new kind of KM approach, that integrates the technical level of knowledge and manifests as Neuronal KM (NKM). Superimposing traditional KM approaches with the NKM, the Symbiotic Knowledge Management (SKM) is conceptualized furthermore, so that human as well as artificial kinds of knowledge bearers can be managed as symbiosis. First use cases demonstrate the new KM, NKM and SKM approaches in a proof-of-concept and exemplify their differences.

Marcus Grum

Chapter 7. Paths of Decline and Renewal: The PFLP and Leftist Trajectories Across Time

This chapter examines the trajectory of two leftist organisations within the Middle East that experienced dilemmas and challenges similar to the PFLP’s. Its focus is on how the relinquishment or adherence to the elaboration of a counterhegemonic, leftist platform for national liberation affected the experience of Marxist movements and parties. The first parallel drawn is between the PFLP and the Egyptian communist movement. Attention is focused on the Egyptian communists’ relations with the Free Officers’ Movement (FOM) before and after the July 1952 coup. As Egyptian communists went through phases of collaboration and contrast with the ruling FOM, their relation presented some similarities with the opposition-integration dilemma experienced by the PFLP. The Egyptian communists’ decision to merge into Nasser’s Arab Socialist Union represents the ultimate choice for integration with the post-colonial, nationalist regime, despite enduring years of harsh repression. Afterwards, this chapter deals with the ideological and organisational evolution of the Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK). Unlike the PFLP, the PKK was able to formulate and embody a revolutionary, leftist case for Kurdish self-determination, emancipating from all nationalist, separatist paradigms. This allowed the PKK to pursue deep changes in accordance to historical challenges while adhering to a revolutionary platform that continued to mobilise mass support. These parallel examinations, while proving the validity of concepts elaborated throughout the book, further clarify how individual agency interrelates with external factors in producing political marginalisation.

Francesco Saverio Leopardi

Chapter 3. Imagining an “Axis of Resistance”: The PFLP’s Foreign Policy in the Mid-1980s

This chapter covers the same years addressed in the previous one but focuses on the regional and international projection of the PFLP’s policies. The formation of an opposition coalition on the Palestinian level corresponded to a realignment along Syrian confrontational positions on the regional one. Internationally, the identification of the USSR as privileged partner responded to the need to counterbalance the US increasing popularity among the PLO leaders. This chapter explains the reasons behind the PFLP’s realignment with Syria, illustrates the role of ideology in supporting such shift and assesses the impact of contradictions between PFLP and Syrian interests. In this process, this chapter underlines the role of regional policies in fostering policy fluctuation as the PFLP shifted from alignment with Damascus to military confrontation with its Palestinian proxies. Moreover, this chapter explores the PFLP’s attempt to forge closer ties with the USSR. What is stressed is the impossibility of building a strategic relationship due to long-standing divergences, the historical Soviet posture towards the Palestinian national movement and Moscow’s new orientations under Gorbachev. This further undermined the credibility of the PFLP’s foreign policies already seriously questioned by Damascus hegemonic ambitions.

Francesco Saverio Leopardi

Chapter 2. Out of Beirut: Years of Split

This chapter explores the PFLP’s response to the unprecedented crisis of the PLO that followed the expulsion from Beirut and the end of the Palestinian quasi-state in Lebanon due to the 1982 Israeli invasion. The focus is on the internal split that the PLO experienced between 1982 and 1987 and that entailed the outbreak of the opposition-integration dilemma for the PFLP. Virtually deprived of the military option, the PFLP aimed at building a radical opposition coalition, alternative to Arafat’s diplomatic strategy and his leanings towards a US-sponsored peace process. As the national movement fragmented over the PLO leadership strategy, and the split within Fatah itself took the shape of military confrontation, the PFLP’s line fluctuated between its contrasting priorities: opposing and rejecting Arafat’s orientations while refusing the open armed rebellion led by Syrian-backed Fatah mutineers. This chapter shows the ineffectiveness of the PFLP’s agency in standing up to the PLO leadership as contradictions undermined its agenda. Moreover, it highlights the first step of the PFLP’s marginalisation vis-à-vis Arafat’s imposition of majority rule over the PLO and the strengthening of his position thanks to victory over Fatah rebels.

Francesco Saverio Leopardi

Chapter 1. Introduction

This introductory chapter illustrates the core arguments adopted in this book to examine the decline of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) as main political expression of the Palestinian Left. After specifying the relevance of the PFLP’s decline for the overall condition of Palestinian politics, this chapter introduces the concept of “opposition-integration dilemma”, namely the underlying dynamic that interacted with additional sources of tension, affecting negatively the PFLP’s political agency. The chronological scope is also addressed as 1982 is identified as the year in which such dilemma broke out and started to induce policy fluctuation in the PFLP’s action, undermining its political effectiveness and popularity. The PFLP’s conduct during the 2006–07 Hamas-Fatah conflict represented the conclusive step in its declining trajectory. This chapter also provides a concise discussion of the relevant literature as well as a note on the sources and methodology employed. A historical prologue describes the PFLP’s ideological and organisational background, paving the way for the analysis of its agency during its declining period. A section is also dedicated to the PFLP’s action towards seminal developments in Palestinian political history before 1982. This allows to highlight the emergence of those tensions that would later mark negatively the PFLP’s agency, first and foremost its bid to challenge Fatah leadership while maintaining integration into the Palestinian hegemonic bloc.

Francesco Saverio Leopardi

Chapter 8. Conclusions

This conclusive chapter provides a summary of the main arguments illustrated throughout this book. The goal is to show how the fundamental dynamics affecting the PFLP’s agency remained relevant throughout the period studied while interacting with the specificities of each different phase. This allows also to restate how the book contributed to academic literature on the Palestinian national movement by virtue of its original focus on the PFLP. This conclusion also outlines the implications of the points made throughout the volume for the understanding of the current situation of the PFLP and of the whole Palestinian Left. This conclusive chapter also points out the significance of the book, in terms of arguments, themes and methodology, to the debate on Palestinian political historiography and to studies approaching leftist national liberation movements but also opposition forces in state and non-state contexts.

Francesco Saverio Leopardi

Chapter 6. The Al-Aqsa Intifada and After: Resurfacing Contradictions and Ultimate Marginalisation

This chapter tackles the years that asserted the PFLP’s marginalisation within the context of the Al-Aqsa Intifada, beginning in 2000, and the evolution of the Hamas-Fatah split between 2006 and 2007. In covering the Al-Aqsa Intifada, this chapter outlines the PFLP’s fluctuations and loss of relevance in relations to the dynamics marking the second Palestinian mass uprising, such as militarisation, Palestinian political fragmentation and growing Fatah-Hamas polarisation. The final part of this chapter approaches the PFLP’s efforts to integrate the post-Intifada and, more significantly, the post-Arafat political scenario. After fully accepting the Oslo institutions, testified by its participation in the 2005 presidential and the 2006 parliamentary elections, the PFLP struggled to maintain an active role in the heightened competition between Hamas and Fatah. In the conflict that followed Hamas’ victory in the 2006 elections, the PFLP oscillated between the two sides, ultimately demonstrating the primacy of integration into the PLO/PNA framework above other priorities. Ultimately, this chapter points to the PFLP’s inability to disengage from a dysfunctional institutional framework as the main liability still determining its ineffective “internal” opposition. In conclusion, this chapter questions the actual role of the PFLP within the Palestinian national movement, casting serious doubts on a revival of the Palestinian Left within the framework of its traditional, main representative.

Francesco Saverio Leopardi

Chapter 5. The Advent of the Peace Process: From Rejection to Acceptance of the “Palestinian Versailles”

This chapter tackles the first decade of the peace process era. Its first sections discuss the PFLP’s predicament in relation to the 1991 Gulf War and the downfall of the USSR as well as its shortcomings in attaining genuine ideological and organisational renewal during its landmark Fifth National Congress. Subsequently, the chapter addresses the PFLP’s response to the 1993 Oslo accords and the implementation of the PNA’s state-building process. Such response took the form of a renewed coalition building effort with all Palestinian factions opposed to the accords. As the goal was to delegitimise the Oslo peace process, what is stressed is the PFLP’s interest in acting on the institutional level and the tensions that this produced with Islamist coalition associates. This chapter describes two levels of policy fluctuation: a macro-level, namely the PFLP’s shift from rejection to acceptance of the new political order and institution; and a micro-level as the PFLP’s line appeared inconsistent due to the tensions emerging with other opposition factions. Ultimately, this chapter demonstrates the predominance of institutional integration over opposition priority as the latter entailed a stronger dissociation from traditional Palestinian platforms.

Francesco Saverio Leopardi

Chapter 4. The First Intifada: Initial Opportunities, Final Marginalisation

This chapter covers the first half of the First Palestinian Intifada (1987–90) as well as the preceding entrenchment of the PLO factions in the Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPT). For the PFLP, the different and more favourable political balance existing among the Palestinian factions in the OPT as well as the recovered unity of the PLO was a valuable chance to invert its marginalisation process and reassert its role within Palestinian politics. This chapter shows how several sources of pressure returned to cripple the PFLP’s effort, so that, despite a certain positive pragmatism, it ultimately continued to swing between clashing thrusts. For instance, the opposition to Fatah’s “concessions” in its diplomatic strategy and the concern for the maintenance of PLO unity resurfaced, renewing the opposition-integration dilemma. The analysis of the PFLP’s conduct during the uprising also evidences the emergence of new sources of tension for its agency. The appearance of the “inside-outside divide” and the rise to prominence of the Islamist radical alternative are some of the sources of pressure behind the PFLP’s fluctuations during this phase.

Francesco Saverio Leopardi

Chapter 5. The Warwick University Group Chat: Where Reputation Is Placed Ahead of Safeguarding?

This chapter moves the debate on online harassment from the previously dominant focus on school-age children and teenagers to examine a case of digital harassment and abuse at a UK university. Online harassment in adulthood is not as well recognised in academic and policy arenas with relatively little research to date as greater attention has been given to online identity theft, scams and online fraud. However, there has been considerable public and media attention recently on university students, online harassment and hate crime in the UK with a highly influential social media storm surrounding the online group chat case at Warwick University early in 2019 in which male students had been communicating about female students in a sexually aggressive and violent manner. The online group chat named “Fuck women disrespect them all” initially sparked a social media storm when the story broke but incited a further and more dramatic social media with the hashtag #ShameOnYouWarwick after details of the poor handling of the case came to light with hundreds of comments appearing on social media which in turn fed further press headlines and media coverage.

Andy Phippen, Emma Bond

Chapter 6. Conclusions: What Happens When People Only Hear Echoes of Their Views and No-One Knows What a Fact Looks Like

Social media storms can be shown to have very real impact upon organisational process and social and cultural change. They can move opinion away from policy and provide opportunity for different viewpoints to be explored away from the mainstream narrative. They are neither a good or bad thing, they are simply a technological facilitation of the zeitgeist. However, they are clearly here to stay, and organisations ignore them at their peril.

Andy Phippen, Emma Bond

Linguistic Summaries Generation with Hybridization Method Based on Rough and Fuzzy Sets

In this paper authors propose a new algorithm for linguistic data summarization based on hybridization of rough sets and fuzzy sets techniques. The new algorithm applies rough sets theory for feature selection in early stages of linguistic summaries’ generation. The rough sets theory was used to reduce on significant way, the amount on summaries obtained by others algorithms. The algorithm combines lower approximation, k grade dependency and fuzzy sets to get linguistic summaries. The results of proposed algorithm are compared with association rules approach. In order to validate the algorithm proposed, authors apply both qualitative and quantitative methods. Authors used two databases in order to validate the algorithm; theses databases belong to “Repository of Project Management Research”. The first database is associated to personality traits and human performance in software projects. The second database is associated to analysis of revenue assurance in different organization. Considering quantitative approach, the algorithm proposed, obtains better results than the algorithm based on association rules; while regards execution time, the best algorithm was the algorithm based on association rules, because rough sets theory was high time-consuming technique.

Iliana Pérez Pupo, Pedro Y. Piñero Pérez, Rafael Bello, Luis Alvarado Acuña, Roberto García Vacacela

Kapitel 8. Formulierung, Bewertung und Auswahl von Marketingstrategien

Der Leser kennt die inhaltlichen Facetten, die bei der Formulierung einer Marketingstrategie zu berücksichtigen sind. Der Leser kennt innerhalb der verschiedenen inhaltlichen Facetten einer Marketingstrategie die grundsätzlichen Gestaltungsoptionen. Der Leser kennt die wichtigsten Portfolio-Modelle zur Unterstützung der Formulierung von Marketingstrategien und kann diese kritisch bewerten. Der Leser kennt die wesentlichen Kriterien, anhand derer die Bewertung und Auswahl einer Marketingstrategie erfolgen sollte.

Christian Homburg

Improving Collaboration in Industry 4.0: The Usage of Blockchain for Knowledge Representation

With the introduction of Industry 4.0 in many industrial environments, many changes are going to take place in the manufacturing processes. Blockchain can help the collaboration between organisations, by improving and leading the way for a decentralised future, where transactions can happen much faster while ensuring that a more knowledgeable and demanding consumer has its expectations fulfilled. In this work we propose a model that uses blockchain and multi-agent systems to help represent an organisation in a network of entities, as well to create a system that is capable of handling entity transactions and provide a way of improving decision-making by enabling decisions to be done faster in a rapidly changing environment.

Pedro Pinheiro, Ricardo Santos, Ricardo Barbosa

Chapter 5. Greenness

The iron and steel industry is the fundamental industry for China’s economic development. Becoming a powerful country in iron and steel industry is the dream of many generations of iron and steel practitioners in China. China’s iron and steel industry has experienced a development out of nothing and grew from small to large, from weak to strong, making a major contribution to China’s economic development. At the same time, the iron and steel industry is also a major source of energy, resource consumption, and pollutant emissions. The environmental protection in the iron and steel industry has been highly valued and concerned by the government for a long period.

Xinchuang Li

Chapter 12. Diversification

Reviewing the history of the development of diversified industries in China’s iron and steel industry, we can see that it has experienced three important historical stages which can be summarized as the Enterprise-run Society Stage, the Main Business-focused Development Stage, and the New Leap-forward Development Stage in chronological order.

Xinchuang Li

Chapter 7. Quality Focus

Quality focused development, which means attaching importance to brand building and product quality improvement, is an important guarantee for an enterprise to achieve sustainable development. Quality is the cornerstone of brand building, service is the guarantee of brand promotion, innovation is the source of brand continuation, and culture is the essence of brand promotion.

Xinchuang Li

Chapter 8. Standardization

The metallurgical industry has always been at the forefront of industrial standardization. In the period from 1950s to 1970s, the standard system was initially established by referring to or adopting the standards of the former Soviet Union. In the period from 1980s to 1990s, the Japanese and American standards were adopted and the products were based on Japanese standards and the methods were based on American standards.

Xinchuang Li

Chapter 4. Reduction

The connotation of the reduction of the iron and steel industry means: China’s economic development has entered into a new normal, with the economic growth showing medium and high speed, the industrial structure moving toward mid-to-high end and the shifting to new economic growth drives the consumption intensity of steel products per unit of GDP tends to decline, and the total steel consumption has entered a declining zone after the peak arc zone.

Xinchuang Li

Chapter 9. Differentiation

Adopting a differentiation strategy, providing distinctive products and services, and winning the trust of customers are the important development directions for iron and steel enterprises in the future, especially for small- and medium-sized ones.

Xinchuang Li

Is Data Protection a Relevant Indicator for Measuring Corporate Reputation?

Over the last few years the importance of reputation has grown both for individuals and organizations, especially because of the Internet and social media platforms. Considering the value of data and information, corporate reputation also passes through companies’ ability to protect sensitive customers’ data. When compromised, after a cyberattack or a data breach, one of the most important risks for a company is the loss of customers’ trust and the negative impact for future business. Therefore, privacy and security data should be considered as a priority for organizations to safeguard trust and business. In literature, models measuring reputation consider several dimensions, such as leadership, vision, corporate social responsibility, emotional attractiveness. In this paper we analyse the relationship between cyber-threats and reputation and, on the basis of models available in literature, we discuss the possibility of including data protection among indicators for measuring corporate reputation.

Isabella Corradini, Enrico Nardelli

Understanding and Enabling Tactical Situational Awareness in a Security Operations Center

Cybersecurity operations are highly complex, requiring the coordination of specialized skills across multiple teams to successfully execute missions. Command and control within security operations centers is dominated by fragile mental models, demonstrating a need for systems that reinforce shared situational awareness across the organization. In this paper, we present the results of our research to: (1) define the needs associated with tactical cyber situational awareness; and (2) evaluate the usability and utility of a prototype tactical situational awareness dashboard. We found that incident tracking, tasking structure, execution timeline, and resource health constitute the essential aspects of tactical cyber situational awareness. Evaluations of prototypes suggest that three visualizations are well suited for conveying this information. We believe these results generalizable and will enable the development of tactical situational awareness capabilities in Security Operations Centers across public and private enterprises.

Ryan Mullins, Ben Nargi, Adam Fouse

Digitale Ökosysteme

Etablierten Bankern fehlt manchmal die Leidenschaft für den Blick nach „außen“, kombiniert mit einer überhöhten Wahrnehmung der eigenen Wichtigkeit ist das dann oftmals keine gute Mischung. Es ist für mich nicht nur notwendig, sondern auch sehr inspirierend, hochgradig daran interessiert zu sein, wie sich die Welt weiter entwickelt. Nur, wenn wir verstehen, was gesellschaftlich, politisch, kulturell und natürlich wirtschaftlich vor sich geht, gelingt es, gesellschaftlich relevant zu bleiben.

Peter Bosek

Wachstum & Skalierung

Es hat mich sicherlich geprägt, dass in meiner Familie schon immer ein großes Interesse an wirtschaftlichen Themen geherrscht hat und darüber auch viel im Familienkreis diskutiert wurde.

Ramin Niroumand

Digitale Transformation

Mein Methoden-Know-how durfte ich in meinen Jahren bei McKinsey lernen. Meine Mentoren Michael Ollmann und Cornelius Walter haben mir beigebracht, immer vom Kunden aus zu denken und ein tragfähiges Netzwerk zu knüpfen. Meine Maxime seither: „Strategie ist nicht alles, aber ohne Strategie ist alles nichts“.

Markus Pertlwieser

Chapter 4. The Invisible College

The scholarly literature suggests that think-tanks are research institutions with material interests aiming to influence public policy processes and research. Despite such ideological partiality, their works are regarded as legitimate forms of knowledge because they are associated with the rituals of research.This chapter examines the roles and functions of think-tanks within the policy development processes and explores how their ideas are transferred to policy-makers. The chapter continues and introduces four South African-based think-tanks that focus on security. These are the South African Institute of International Affairs, the Institute for Security Studies (ISS), the Brenthurst Foundation, and the Centre for International Policy Studies. To contextualise each think-tank, this chapter explores their historic developments.

Mohamed Natheem Hendricks

Chapter 5. Expertise, Epistemes and the Construction of a Suspect Community

South African-based security think-tanks have been pivotal in the securitisation of Islam and Muslims in Africa. They have imported a Western security agenda into the local security discourse by associating Islam and Muslims with violence and terrorism.Security think-tank experts have drawn their insights from epistemic networks that have their roots in Terrorism Studies and Counterinsurgency. These networks have been sponsored by the United States government from the 1970s.This chapter argues that South African security experts have introduced and appropriated a particular Western narrative on the origins of contemporary terrorism into African security discourses. In order to increase their credibility, they created a local node within a global terrorism epistemic network.

Mohamed Natheem Hendricks

Chapter 6. Writing Insecurity: Representations of Muslims and Islam in the South African Print Media

National newspapers have been pivotal in the securitisation of Muslims as they have transferred the security priorities and policy agendas of the West into South Africa. Consequently, they have endorsed the discourse that construct Islam as an existential threat to Western civilisation and African society.In support of the ‘Global War on Terror’, the press propagated that South Africa has become a sanctuary for ‘Islamic terrorists’ and that ‘Islamic terrorism’ was a bigger threat to South Africa than the ‘white right-wing’. Such declarations of securitisation moves by non-institutional voices encouraged policy makers to introduce emergency measures to stop the security threat.

Mohamed Natheem Hendricks

Chapter 7. Conclusion

The chapter concludes this book which unveiled the continuous practices and complicated processes involved in the securitisation of Islam in Africa. The unique contribution this publication makes to the scholarly literature is its use of securitisation theory to analyse the construction of Islam as a threat in Africa by security think-tanks and national newspapers. In doing this, this publication constitutes part of a growing body of academic literature that uses securitisation as an analytical framework to conceptualise how security has been constructed.Theoretically, it widens securitisation theory by identifying think-tanks and the press as securitising actors. This exposes the power-practices of institutions that are often viewed as neutral observers in relation to security.

Mohamed Natheem Hendricks

Chapter 1. Prolegomenon: The White Widow—The Kenyan Westgate Mall Attack

This chapter analyses the DStv Carte Blanche documentary, The Kenyan Attack, which was aired on 29 September 2013. A theme in this documentary is that the South African Muslim community poses a security threat because they are associated with terrorism and provides sanctuary to Islamic terrorists.In the documentary, a former US Secretary of State declared that al Shabab recruited Somalis in South Africa for suicide attacks. This is securitisation. This declaration needed no substantiation since she had the assumed power and authority to state this as ‘fact’. Thereafter the appropriate securitising agencies, the media and security ‘experts’, transferred ‘knowledge of the threat’ to relevant audiences.

Mohamed Natheem Hendricks

Chapter 3. Conceptualising Securitisation

This chapter conceptualised and problematised securitisation theory through a review of the relevant literature. Securitisation theory conceives of security as an intersubjective rhetorical practice which, through the act of uttering security, brings a new social order into existence that provides justification for extraordinary measures to urgently stop the declared threat. But, uttering ‘security’ is a political act which is influenced by multiple environmental factors. The architects of securitisation theory propose that the utterances of ‘security’ is limited to state representatives employing their institutional voices to make securitising moves. However, this publication confirms that non-institutional voices, such as think-tanks, experts and the press, also have the capacity to make securitising moves.

Mohamed Natheem Hendricks

The Global Constrains of South African Automotive Industry and a Way Forward

Global competitiveness is a very important part of any nation, particularly the south African automotive industry were the customers demand is constantly changing and radical decisions are needed in order for the organization to stay floating among the big auto players in the world. This justifies the fact that a decision support model is eminent for the success of the South African automotive industry and growth of the country’s economy.

John M. Ikome, O. T. Laseinde

Pink Ocean Strategy: Democratizing Business Knowledge for Social Growth and Innovation

In a constantly and rapidly changing world, innovation and organizational sustainability keep on being redefined. The integration of Blue and Green Ocean strategies can deliver social innovation and impact directly the lives of millions of people globally while assuring the needed organizational sustainability and profitability. This approach introduces the Pink Ocean Strategy concept, which cares about human life, integrity and dignity to booster innovation efforts. The new Pink Ocean Strategy is executed through the Company Democracy Model, the model for people, to embrace anyone who has and can share data, information, knowledge as well as wisdom creation for the good of the society, community and the humanity. The paper presents the six stages of the Company Democracy Model adjusted to navigate organizations into Pink Oceans, the overall strategic management framework, the pre and post conditions of each stage and the expected results per stage, enables this navigation to Pink Oceans.

Evangelos Markopoulos, Maria Barbara Ramonda, Lisa Marie Carolin Winter, Haseena Al Katheeri, Hannu Vanharanta

Playful Approaches to Entrepreneurial Competencies in University Teaching: Introducing the 4Cs Model

A playful approach used as part of a teaching method in any university subject enhances university students’ entrepreneurial mindset and working-life skills. Playfulness has become more accentuated, and playful approaches in the working-life context have been studied, for example, within management and organizations. In university teaching, playful learning contributes to students’ problem-solving skills, creativity, foresight, as well as their ability to see things that do not yet exist. These skills are linked to entrepreneurial competences, such as creativity, vision, tolerance of uncertainty and ambiguity. We collected our data through participatory observation in a workshop organized for teachers and researchers at a business school. The workshop utilized playful artifacts as tools for idea generation and to support embodied and spatial co-creation and presentation. The findings indicate that playfulness is useful in teaching an entrepreneurial mindset and attitudes, offering first-hand experiences, invoking emotions, and sharing them with others.

Riikka Franzén, Katriina Heljakka, Lenita Nieminen

5. Wissensorientierte Gestaltung des Unternehmens (Digitalisierung)

Wir leben in einer sich digitalisierenden Welt. Der Prozess ist noch nicht abgeschlossen und wird es vermutlich nie sein. Anhand verschiedener Prognosen und Studien (Brynjolfsson & McAfee, Gartner und eigene Überlegungen) wollen wir aufzeigen, was passiert und was weiter auf uns zukommen wird.Unternehmen haben die Aufgabe, sich selbst zu gestalten, aber es gibt keine Vorlage, wie. Ausgehend von einem Beschreibungsmodell für Unternehmen auf der Basis des Business Model Canvas von Osterwalder und Pigneur sollen in diesem Kapitel Ideen und Tendenzen der Digitalisierung in den verschiedenen Komponenten des Modells aufgezeigt werden, die die Grundlage für die Selbstgestaltung von Unternehmen bilden. Von der Produktgestaltung bis zur Gestaltung des Bewertungssystems (Kosten) müssen viele Komponenten parallel gestaltet werden, wobei alle Einzelkomponenten miteinander verbunden sind und in ihren Abhängigkeiten gedacht und geplant werden müssen. Jedes einzelne Unternehmen ist davon betroffen und sollte seine Position im Prozess der Digitalisierung bestimmen und umsetzen.

Rolf Franken, Swetlana Franken

11. Steigerung der Innovationsfähigkeit von Unternehmen

Angesichts der immer spezifischer werdenden Kundenbedürfnisse in gesättigten Käufermärkten, steigender Wirtschaftsdynamik und zunehmend kürzeren Produktlebenszyklen können nur diejenigen Unternehmen langfristig erfolgreich sein, die in der Lage sind, auf Dauer schneller als ihre Konkurrenten neue Produkte, Prozesse und Geschäftsmodelle zu implementieren. Die Innovationsfähigkeit eines Unternehmens wird daher zunehmend bedeutender. Studien belegen, dass die Innovationsfähigkeit eines Unternehmens sowohl durch persönliche Faktoren wie Kreativität, Lernfähigkeit und Motivation von einzelnen Menschen als auch durch organisatorische Faktoren wie Ressourcen, Strukturen, Kultur und Führung beeinflusst wird. In diesem Kapitel werden die vielfältigen Einflussfaktoren auf die Innovationsfähigkeit von Unternehmen mit praktischen Beispielen ihrer Gestaltung diskutiert.

Rolf Franken, Swetlana Franken

Chapter 6. Case Study 2: Communist Panic

This second case study examines communist panic, the second of three case studies exploring historical patternsMoral panicspatterns of moral panicMoral panics and their relationship to scapegoatingScapegoating. It outlines the construction of communist panic as such according to the analytical criteria nominated in the theoretical section of this research project, looking at the self-interested framing of the crisis from which it derived by those responsible for the panic itself, before examining the use of moral panic constructed around communist mythology as the basis for crisis leveraging and scapegoatingScapegoating.

Ben M. Debney

Chapter 7. Case Study III: Terrorist Panic

This chapter examines terror panic, the third and final of three case studies exploring historical patterns of moral panic and their relationship to scapegoating. It explores terror panic as a concept according to the analytical criteria nominated in the theoretical section of this study, focusing on the self-interested framing of crisis by those responsible for the panic, before exploring the use of moral panic constructed around terrorist conspiracy theory as the basis for crisis leveraging and scapegoating. The case study concludes by examining the underlying economic and social forces driving the construction of terror panic and whose interests it ultimately served. It summarises the material presented in the case study against the analytical criteria in preparation for comparison against the first and second case studies in the conclusion to the study itself.

Ben M. Debney

Chapter 5. Case Study I: Witch Panic

This first case study examines witch panic, the first of the three case studies exploring historical patternsMoral panicspatterns of moral panic and their relationship to scapegoating. It outlines the construction of witch panic as such according to the analytical criteria nominated in the theoretical chapter of this study, looking at the self-interested framing of the crisis from which it derived by those responsible for the panic itself, before examining the use of moral panic constructed around witch mythology as the basis for crisis leveraging and scapegoating.

Ben M. Debney

6. Aesthetics of Memory, Witness to Violence and a Call to Repair

This chapter considers the aesthetic, emotional and narrative dimensions of victims’ trauma testimonies and explores new interpretive domains opened up by unique moments of communal responses to trauma testimony that emerged at the Truth and Reconciliation Commission hearings. In the first section of the chapter, I focus on how body language and other forms of symbolic expression can communicate a matrix of complex intersecting memories of traumatic experience in a way that reveals a deeper truth about the past that may not be articulable in verbal language. The second part of the chapter reflects on the question of the “legitimacy” of the voice of living witnesses, and shows the crucial role that those present at the site of trauma can play in providing a communal response to trauma testimonies. The opposite of this kind of response, denial, is also analysed as “reformative narratives”, which I advance to describe the discursive strategies that sustain denial among perpetrators and beneficiaries of apartheid privilege. In this section, I present an artistic response to trauma testimony as an example of acknowledgement and recognition of the pain of the Other in the aftermath of historical trauma. I argue in the final section, that restoring human bonds among the wounded and the victimisers and their descendants requires engagement of what I have referred to as “reparative humanism”.

Pumla Gobodo-Madikizela

14. Monuments of Historical Trauma as Sites of Artistic Expression, Emotional Processing and Political Negotiation

In recent decades an aesthetic “memory boom” has unfolded in the arts, as well as in the world of museums, that reflects a transnational and transcultural response to the memory imperative “never again” first powerfully articulated in the aftermath of the Shoah. This imperative gave rise to the development of new genres such as memorial museums. This chapter focuses on different aesthetic responses, constructed in the aftermath of state-sponsored violence, such as official national memorials and museums, as well as on artistic interventions in public spaces that do not carry the weight of official governmental approval. It focuses on examples from Argentina, Cambodia, the United States, Germany, and Rwanda to highlight some of the significant similarities and differences in terms of the aesthetic and affective quality of the mnemonic media being employed, the messages these media carry, and the responses they invite from visitors.

Andrea Bieler

11. How Shall We Talk of Bhalagwe? Remembering the Gukurahundi Era in Matabeleland, Zimbabwe

Bhalagwe is a remote, rural valley synonymous with the worst of post-independence violence in Matabeleland, Zimbabwe. In 1984 it was a detention camp used to torture and kill those believed to support “dissidents”, meaning ZAPU, the rival political party to Robert Mugabe’s ruling ZANU-PF. Since 2018, Bhalagwe has physically embodied the contestation of memory, and of whose victims and whose heroes have a right to be commemorated, and by whom. Almost out of the public eye, the construction followed by the demolition of three rival memorials at Bhalagwe has viscerally epitomised this struggle. Similarly, exhumations and reburials have provided material triggers to recovery of memory, as well as intergenerational transfer of both trauma and history. Tensions between imaginaries of the past, empirical “facts” and common, more embellished versions of histories challenge “historical truth” and are explored for what they indicate about the hopes of marginalised groups for the future.

Shari Eppel

Can Political Connection and Corporate Social Responsibility Affect the Information Disclosure Quality?

Higher information disclosure quality of enterprises plays an important role in promoting capital marketization reform and optimizing financial service system. However, the research on how government-enterprise relationship and social responsibility affect the behavior choice of information disclosure is not sufficient, especially whether the fulfillment of corporate social responsibility can exert moderating effect on outward information disclosure quality under the existing social relations is still unknown. This paper takes the A-share mainboard listed companies of China’s Shenzhen stock exchange from 2011 to 2016 as samples, and studies the relationship between political connection, corporate social responsibility and information disclosure quality based on the unique property rights differences of Chinese enterprises. It is found that, political connection is negatively related to information disclosure quality, while corporate social responsibility is positively related to information disclosure quality. The better the enterprise’s social responsibility performance, the weaker the negative correlation between political connection and information disclosure quality. And further analysis shows that compared with state-owned enterprises, non-state-owned enterprises have a stronger negative correlation between political connection and information disclosure quality. Social responsibility performance of both types of enterprises can improve information disclosure quality. Meanwhile, social responsibility performance can also effectively suppress the negative impact of political connection on information disclosure quality.

Yuxian Jiang, Xiang Xiao, Xiaofei Chen

Interpretive Structural Modelling of Factors Influencing Enterprise Transformation

In this article, nine influence factors of enterprise transformation are identified and analyzed. With the development of enterprise transformation activities, the nine factors become either the enablers or the obstacles. To explain the reason for choosing these nine factors, exhaustive literature review is done. With the help of expert opinions, influence factors are determined. ISM modeling is used to arrange these factors in order of priority. Result analysis shows that the influence factors for transformation practices can be divided into three categories: surface direct factors, middle dynamic factors and deep guiding factors. Main factors influencing enterprise transformation vary in different environments. The study shows that enterprise leadership group must have clear overview of the market environment and the industry environment, contrive definite intent and path, and guide to success.

Ming Bai, Xu Ren

Empowering Leadership Fosters Service Employees’ Job Crafting

Based on conservation of resource (COR) theory, we explore the influence of empowering leadership on service industry employees’ job crafting. Multi-level data were collected employees nested within work teams in the service industry. Our findings suggest that empowering leadership is positively associated with job crafting via psychological availability. Moreover, perceived organization support significantly moderated the positive relationship between empowering leadership and job crafting. The present study reveals the cross-level effects of empowering leadership and provides practical suggestions to foster employees’ job crafting in organizations.

Yunshuo Liu, Ming Guo, Lili Hu, Long Ye

Comparative Study on the Regulation Modes of Chinese and American Pharmaceutical Industries

This paper studies the policy regulation of the pharmaceutical industry in China and the United States. The main points of this paper is analyzing the formative factors of these regulation modes. There is multiple similarity when the two countries were founded. Then, as time goes on and they have embarked on different paths of development and established completely different regulation model. This paper illuminates the formation reasons about these regulation modes by analyzing the historical and social background of two countries.

Lu Yu

The Effect of Mentoring Relationship on Engagement of Skilled Talents

This paper, based on Social Learning Theory and Job Demands-Resources Model, discusses the influence of mentoring relationship (including vocational mentoring and social support) on the engagement (including job engagement and organization engagement) of skilled talent, from the perspective of interpersonal relationship and psychology. 151 skilled talents were selected as the research objects for investigation and analysis. The results show that the impact of mentoring relationship on engagement is positive and significant, in which the vocational mentoring dimension has a slightly higher impact on the skill worker’s job engagement than the social support dimension; social support dimension has a slightly higher impact on organization engagement. The research results enrich the mechanism of engagement, and put forward feasible suggestions for enterprises to improve the engagement of skilled talents.

Fengzhan Xiao, Long Ye, Ming Guo

Using Factor Analysis to Evaluate the Classification Reform Result of State-Owned Geological Exploration Units

When Chinese state-owned geological exploration units are undergoing classification reform, the key to success is to identify the right direction of reform through proper categorization. While such reform is often affected by random application and administrative order, the development capability of geological exploration units lacks sufficient scientific evaluation, which reduces the accuracy of classification reform. As the pure competitiveness theory fails to accurately evaluate the development capability of geological exploration units, this work constructs different development capability evaluation index systems for three types of state-owned geological exploration units, and uses factor analysis to calculate the development capability of sixty state-owned geological exploration units. The evaluation index system of development capability constructed in this paper is specially set for different types of geological exploration units with different natures, which provides a new evaluation method for the classification reform of state-owned geological exploration units.

Zhimin Zhang, Xue Wang

Energy Performance Contract Financing Mode Based on Network Joint Guarantee

The difficulty in financing small and medium-sized energy service company is one of the obstacles to the smooth development of energy performance contract. Based on the characteristics of energy performance contract, this paper introduces the network joint guarantee loan, demonstrates the advantages of this mode in the field of energy performance contract in China at the present stage, and analyzes the income distribution of energy service companies under the network joint guarantee loan through the modified Shapley value algorithm. It is shown that this mode not only improves the income of energy service companies, but also transforms the contribution and risk taken by companies in their cooperation into income. Therefore, this financing mode is one of the favorable modes for energy service companies to choose.

Luyao Feng, Jingjuan Guo, Ying Li

Cultural Risk Research on Overseas Merger and Acquisition of Chinese Petroleum Enterprise

Cultural risk is one of the major risks of Chinese oil companies’ overseas merger and acquisition. The root cause of cultural risk lies in cultural differences. Differences in the political factors, laws and regulations, religions, business environment, business rules, and corporate culture of host countries will inevitably lead to the emergence of ethnic cultural risks, commercial cultural risks, and corporate culture during overseas merger and acquisition. Due to the different characteristics of state-owned oil companies and private oil companies, the main types of cultural risks faced in overseas mergers and acquisitions are also different. “Western model”, “Central Asian model” and “Middle East model” are the most common overseas merger and acquisition models of oil companies. Using SWOT risk analysis method, the impact of various cultural risks and the appropriate strategies can be analyzed and developed. The degree of cultural risk in different modes can be assessed to provide reliable strategies or overseas merger and acquisition of oil companies based on the analytic hierarchy process (AHP).

Fengxu Hu, Yongmei Cui

Open Access

Chapter 12. Standard-Setting in Water Use and Sustainable Development: A Comparative Critical Analysis of Grey Water Recycling in the Tourism Sector

In the current global context, countries try to align their actions with the objective of better management of natural resources. Tourism, as one of the most significant economic sectors in the world economy, has complex implications for the sustainable use of natural resources. Focusing on one particular resource and considering the use of water in tourism, this chapter seeks to understand the extent to which standards and regulations apply to the sustainable use of water in the hotel industry. The chapter is based on an analysis of primary and secondary data relating to the tourism sector in an exploratory and comparative analysis of the tourist hospitality areas of two major cities: Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) and Berlin (Germany). Results broadly show that tourists use more water than regular citizens do in comparable activities and highlight that recycling systems are the future of water use in major hotels. However, the existence of standards does not appear to have any strong or direct relationship to present activities aimed at sustainability in this context.

André Coelho, Alexandre Domingues, Maria Cândida A. de M. Mousinho, Cassia Saretta

Chapter 14. Climate Change and Energy Policies: European Union-Scale Approach to a Global Problem

The goal of this research was to examine the relationship between climate change and energy resources within the scope of the European Union by using static panel data method and Root Mean Square Error methodologies for the period of 1990–2018. As more specifically, the purpose was to evaluate the effects of the consumption in nonrenewable and ecological energy resources on CO2 emissions. Under the related purpose, the variables of CO2 emissions, which have the greatest impact on the climate change parameter among the greenhouse gases; oil, natural gas, coal, nuclear energy, hydroelectric energy, wind energy, geothermal energy, solar energy and biomass energy related to energy parameter were used. According to the findings of the unit effective fixed effects model; it was concluded that coal, natural gas and oil consumption increased CO2 emissions while ecological energy consumption decreased CO2 emissions. Oil consumption was the most influential variable on CO2 emissions. Root Mean Square Error findings indicate that the variable which has the highest effect on CO2 emissions is geothermal energy consumption; and the lowest effect variable is the consumption of oil energy.

Guller Sahin, Fatih Volkan Ayyildiz

Chapter 12. Access and Limitations to Clean Energy Use in Nigeria

The energy situation in Nigeria has always been a paradox. Despite having abundant energy resources in the country, widespread energy poverty is faced by the citizenry. About 60% (74 million) are not served with electricity, while another 94% (171 million) do not have access to clean energy. In a bid to cushion the effect of energy poverty, households and business enterprises in Nigerians relied on the constant use of generators, which is not eco-friendly, is costly and harmful to human health. The study adopted a think-through thematic methodological analysis, which involves the mapping of the country’s potential clean energy sources. Thematic literature reviews were integrated to investigate the clean energy experience in the country. Taking into consideration the geopolitical classification of the country, interviews were conducted to examine the energy conditions in the country and the limitation to the maximization of clean energy within their locality, as well as the perception of its acceptability within the country. Study findings show that the main factors limiting the use of clean energy in Nigeria are exorbitant costs of installation and maintenance, inadequate investment in the energy sector; non- involvement of the private sector, and the subsidies granted to generators of energy from fossils.

Ayobami Abayomi Popoola, Bamiji Michael Adeleye

2. ERP – Enterprise Resource PlanningERP

Der ERPERP-Teil behandelt ausführlich die strategischen Ziele einer ERP-Implementation. Er wird vervollständigt durch Themenbereiche wie ERP-Template Entwicklung und Rollouts, Total Cost of Ownership und Organisational Changemanagement. Ein ausführlicher Abschnitt über Organisational Readiness behandelt Best-Practices-Qualitäts- und Prozessmodelle.

Klaus-Dieter Gronwald

Workplace Design and Ergonomic Analysis for Workers with Disabilities

It is generally known that an appropriate workplace design has long-term consequences on worker and can prevent musculoskeletal discomfort, improve productivity and work efficiency, reduce production costs and optimize human well-being. Worker is actually the center of production system and is the employer’s most important resource. To achieve an optimum balance between the workers’ and the company’s interests a systematic approach to the workplace design is very important. The benefits of well-designed jobs, equipment, and workplaces are numerus and can be summarized in improved productivity, safety, health, and increased satisfaction for the employees.Although the literature in the field of ergonomic workplace design is extensive, there is a lack of expert knowledge regarding workers with disabilities and ergonomic workplace design for these workers. The aim of our research was therefore to address this defectiveness and to propose corresponding modes to overcome exposed problems.

Natasa Vujica Herzog, Borut Buchmeister

Effect of Air Quality Alerts on Intended Behavior Change

In 2015, Air pollution caused 8.8 million premature deaths worldwide and has reduced life expectancy by 2.9 years [6]. The increasing impact of wildfires and other emissions will lead to more days and locations with poor air quality. This research references and builds on previous work on how visual anchoring within the Air Quality Index (AQI) Alerts rating affects intended behavior change to ultimately protect against adverse health outcomes. Additionally, this study examines how past behavior and personality may impact future behaviors. Results show a significant effect of past behavior change specifically on intent to wear a face mask (t = −2.069, p = 0.0413). However, no effect of behavioral change was found between the two AQI Alert visuals presented as well as no effect between dominant or passive personality. As air quality continues to decrease worldwide the importance of understanding AQI Alerts on resulting behavior change becomes more critical.

Megan Peaslee, Josh Nelson, Ellen Reed, Lukas Sexton

Chapter 2. Religious Fundamentalism and the Neoliberal Turn

The book takes as its starting point that there are different types of economic globalization and that the neoliberal version is a result of the contradictions within the interventionist type of globalization which was prevalent from the 1930s to the 1970s. The crisis of the interventionist form of globalization presented itself also as a crisis of the secular settlement and was used by counter-hegemonic elites who often relied on religious “frames” to gain power. It is this context that explains why much of the religious resurgence was a reactionary right-wing form of religious resurgence. Neoliberal globalization is thus not only a reflection of market but also of religious business fundamentalism whose key objective was to dismantle the overbearing state. The neo-Gramscian interpretation of religion which finds its parallel in the cultural approach in religious studies and the constructivist approach in International Relations theory classifies this as a specific type of religious activism here labeled as fundamentalist or reactionary conservative. The approach however also leads us to expect that there are more progressive religious activists on the front lines of the resistance to neoliberal globalization. Hence, Religions in the International Political Economy is ground-breaking in that it points to the multifaceted way religious activism is imbricated in the facilitation and contestation of neoliberal capitalism and in its development of a typology of religious activism.

Sabine Dreher

Chapter 3. Business Fundamentalism and US Hegemony

This chapter outlines how religious fundamentalism has shaped the hegemonic country. The hegemonic country determines global rules and decision-making processes, prints the reserve currency, controls the leading economic sectors, and comprises a large share of the global economy. Internal changes impact foreign policy; deciphering them is therefore a precondition for understanding world politics according to theories of hegemonic change. This chapter focuses on two such policy shifts. The first is the change from Keynesianism to neoliberalism, and the second is toward increased military intervention and Islamophobia. The chapter locates the origin of neoliberalism in a form of “business-oriented Christianity” that emerged in the 1930s to fight the interventionist New Deal state, while the increased use of military force and the creation of “Islam” as the enemy have been enthusiastically supported by the current evangelical right. Both profoundly transformed the global political economy through increased inequality, economic instability, and the War on Terror.

Sabine Dreher

Chapter 4. The Spirit of Capitalism and the Question of Development

This chapter discusses Max Weber’s argument of an elective affinity between religiosity and capitalism. Indeed, with regard to evangelicalism or Pentecostalism, scholars propose that there is a causal link between the expansion of global capitalism and the diffusion of specific variants of evangelicalism since the 1970s, which has transformed Latin America. As a result, Catholicism is now in decline in the region. However, within Hinduism and Islam we likewise observe forms of religiosity compatible with and conducive to free market capitalism and neoliberal globalization. The revival of folk religions in China is equally tied in with the development of the market economy. This religiosity is in stark contrast with key assumptions of post-developmentalism, the dominant approach in development studies. The last section shows how charities and religious non-governmental organizations provide market-friendly approaches to poverty, inequality, and development.

Sabine Dreher

Chapter 5. Toward Multipolarity Through Religious Nationalism?

Some scholars argue that a shift toward multipolarity and a more legitimate form of global governance is inevitable in a situation of hegemony, as states will seek to balance singular power centers. The question is: On what basis do national elites create successful counter-hegemonic projects that can challenge entrenched national (secular) elites and their rent-seeking alliances? It is in this context that a religious form of nationalism has been used to develop new alliances among elite fractions and new hegemonic projects, using neoliberal reforms to undermine entrenched power structures. This can be observed in the Middle East with Islamic fundamentalism where the Turkish case is paradigmatic, in India with the right-wing nationalist Hindutva project and in Latin America where the new protestant elites upset traditional power structures as the Bolsonaro election shows. Multipolarity and the idea of decolonization are therefore often aligned with religious and authoritarian nationalisms that seek to revive classical imperial projects such as the Ottoman Empire discussion in Turkey shows.

Sabine Dreher

Chapter 8. Global Imaginaries: From the Economy of Death Toward an Economy of Life?

Despite the building of walls and restrictive migration policies, migrants are on the move and are creating their own everyday political economy and transnational spaces. Everyday political economy as an approach seeks to highlight how the global economy touches the ground and how local activists address it. Transnational social space is a concept from migration theories seeking to explain the cross-border spaces created by migration processes. Both concepts allow us to shed light on the development of global religious imaginaries among religious activists, such as Global Pentecostalism or Meccanomics. Some contrast the neoliberal economy of death with an economy of life. Religious thought is here used to imagine another world based on economic democracy, community, reciprocity, and recognition of the land and Pacha Mama (Mother Earth).

Sabine Dreher

Chapter 8. The Increasing Importance of Green Bonds as Instruments of Impact Investing: Towards a New European Standardisation

This chapter analyses the principal characteristics of Green Bonds, a particular financial instrument of Impact Investing that is showing a rapidly growing market and that can offer new possibilities for investors who consider important Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) considerations. The author wants to point out the main critical aspects that characterise Green Bonds, regarding both the lack of clarity about what makes a bond green and the presence of too many ways of assessing the bond greenness. The work notices that an answer to these needs is now coming from the European Institutions, showing how their recent actions—the High-Level Expert Group (HLEG) Final Report and the European Commission (EC) Action Plan on Financing Sustainable Growth (2018)—are filling up the existing gaps, representing important steps towards a new European standardisation.

Maria Cristina Quirici

3. Grundmodelle menschlichen Informations- und Kommunikationsverhaltens

Information und Kommunikation sind essenzielle Bestandteile des menschlichen Daseins. Sowohl in der Unternehmenswelt als auch im Privatleben zeigt sich eine rapide wachsende Vielfalt an Formen und Medien der Information und Kommunikation und deren ständig steigende Bedeutung. Zum Verständnis dieser neuen Entwicklungen ist es sinnvoll, sich anhand von theoretischen Modellen die zahlreichen verschiedenen Aspekte von Information und Kommunikation vor Augen zu führen, auch um zu verstehen, warum Kommunikations- und Verständigungsprobleme in Unternehmen entstehen und wie diese gehandhabt werden können. Gerade vor dem Hintergrund zunehmend dezentraler, modularer und virtueller Organisationsstrukturen stellt sich dies als zunehmend relevante Anforderung dar. Ähnliches gilt für den Umgang und das Management von Wissen sowie die Gestaltung von Vertrauen. Im Zuge der technologischen Dynamik, aber auch der Auflösung existierender Grenzen stellen sich hier ganz neue Herausforderungen, auf die ebenfalls in diesem Kapitel eingegangen wird.

Arnold Picot, Ralf Reichwald, Rolf T. Wigand, Kathrin M. Möslein, Rahild Neuburger, Anne-Katrin Neyer

8. Der Mensch in der grenzenlosen Unternehmung – Neue Anforderungen an Mitarbeiter und Manager

Wie in Kap. 1 gezeigt, ändern der organisatorisch-technische Wandel, der Wertewandel und die rasanten Entwicklungen im Bereich der Künstlichen Intelligenz die vielfältigen Aufgaben der Menschen in der grenzenlosen Unternehmung. Historisch gewachsene organisationale Strukturen ändern sich durch die digitalen Technologien mit einer bisher noch nicht dagewesenen Radikalität und Geschwindigkeit. Traditionelle Strukturen der Arbeitswelt, u. a. Arbeitszeiten, Arbeitsorte, Qualifikationen und berufliche Bildung, Kompetenzen und Hierarchien werden in Frage gestellt und müssen in geeigneter Form weiterentwickelt werden. In Zukunft werden die durch die Künstliche Intelligenz ermöglichten unterstützenden Tätigkeiten die Aufgaben der Manager stärker unterteilen und Führung stärker in den Vordergrund rücken. Dieser Wandel muss sich in den Kompetenzen und damit verbunden auch in der Personalentwicklung widerspiegeln.

Arnold Picot, Ralf Reichwald, Rolf T. Wigand, Kathrin M. Möslein, Rahild Neuburger, Anne-Katrin Neyer

New Chromatic Planning Strategies for Urban Furniture

This paper presents a new approach to different typologies of settlements or cities, when creating urban chromatic plans to urban furniture, improving their visibility and readability. The applied methodology may take different steps, depending on whether it is an old settlement, a newly built neighborhood, or an unfinished project whose color plan hasn’t yet been defined. Usually, ancient urban spaces don’t have chromatic plans, being their buildings constructed at different periods, with a large chromatic range. On modern neighborhoods, the buildings are relatively homogeneous, which makes it easier to create an effective chromatic strategy. Considering the construction of a population cluster under development, it is easier to decide the color scheme for its urban furniture, because the choice of colors meets the same criteria of the architecture and may be included in the general project. Therefore, we aim to demonstrate that the elaboration of Urban Furniture Chromatic Plans must take different strategies according to the place specifications.

Margarida Gamito, Fernando Moreira da Silva

Women’s Entrepreneurship in Bosnia and Herzegovina

This chapter depicts a glance picture of women entrepreneurship in Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H). Followed by introductory notes of the chapter, further, it is discussed the historical overview of women entrepreneurship, the current state of the women entrepreneurship in the country, as well as the entrepreneurial ecosystem of entrepreneurship pertaining to women. In a nutshell, final words are provided in this chapter.

Ramo Palalić, Emil Knezović, Azra Branković, Azra Bičo

Women’s Entrepreneurship in Slovenia

This chapter focuses on women entrepreneurship in Slovenia. The importance of women entrepreneurs is discussed. Their characteristics are described. Results of a survey on characteristics of women and men entrepreneurs are reported. The results give an answer to the research question: what are characteristics of women entrepreneurs in Slovenia? The study focused on some characteristics of women’s entrepreneurs, predominantly demographic and sociological. We contributed to knowledge about women entrepreneurship by providing some new insights on the characteristics of women entrepreneurs. Women entrepreneurs tended to be educated with work experience, and they have an important impact on the Slovenian economy.

Jasna Auer Antoncic, Bostjan Antoncic, Robert D. Hisrich

Women’s Entrepreneurship in Croatia

This chapter is dedicated to women entrepreneurship in the Republic of Croatia. Considered from a historical perspective or its current challenges, women entrepreneurship distinguishes itself as a vital part of the national economy. On their path to becoming entrepreneurs, women are faced with numerous obstacles and are motivated by various factors. By discovering and committing to analyze these problems and motivations, we are able to provide support programs, which will be effective in further developing women entrepreneurship.

Mihaela Mikic, Maja Has

Women’s Entrepreneurship in North Macedonia

This chapter provides insights into women entrepreneurship in the Republic of North Macedonia. The chapter begins with an overview of North Macedonia and then presents an evidence-based current state of women entrepreneurship. The chapter continues with government and other policies, initiatives, and activities for facilitating women entrepreneurship. In the end, an outlook toward the development of women entrepreneurship in the future is presented.

Veland Ramadani, Esra Memili, Léo-Paul Dana, Visar Ramadani

Women’s Entrepreneurship in the Former Yugoslavia: Toward the Future

This chapter comprehends briefly women’s entrepreneurship, and it gives a concise and understandable review of each chapter’s material. In this chapter, all ex-Yugoslavian countries are revised separately in terms of women’s entrepreneurship, its status, and its future perspectives. Additionally, authors provided the final words on this topic with an extension of possible steps recommended as the future research.

Ramo Palalić, Léo-Paul Dana, Emil Knezović

15. Conclusion: Understanding Victimisation and Effecting Social Change

This concluding chapter reminds the reader that the central focus of this book has been to acknowledge and pay tribute to the role of activism in the development of victimology as an academic discipline. The chapter also reminds the reader of the key features of the book as a whole and that our aim has been to critically examine the range of complex and competing factors that have impacted upon and altered the criminal justice landscape in terms of how victims of crime are perceived. Furthermore, this concluding chapter identifies and summarises the key themes emerging from the volume. It synthesises the commonalities and reviews some of the key enduring features emerging from the chapters that precede it. As editors and authors, we then make some forward looking and informed yet speculative assessments, about victimology as a thriving academic discipline and activist movement. In our efforts to prioritise the safeguarding of victims and survivors and prevent further harm and victimisation, we set out what we see as some of the obvious and immediate areas that must be given precedence on an agenda for reform. The chapter thus concludes with our own past- and future-looking assessment of victimology as an academic discipline and an activist movement.

Pamela Davies, Jacki Tapley

4. Gender-Based Violence: Victims, Activism and Namibia’s Dual Justice Systems

This chapter examines the two separate justice systems Namibia inherited at the point of independence in 1990. This country’s dual justice systems are outlined: the formal statutory system and an informal or traditional system. The authors explain that, in a bid to protect its traditions and customary law, the constitution now recognises both systems, making improving the response to women violated by GBV challenging. Victims of GBV may encounter either the criminal or traditional justice system, or neither, according to, inter alia, local conventions. A coalition against gendered and sexual violence is discussed and their multi-media campaigning, which encompasses a variety of activities and events including a ‘Mini-Skirt’ protest, marches and vigils. The authors explore how activists have been important in advocating for such improvements and highlight where responses have fallen short. Moreover, the authors argue that implementing justice in Namibia cannot be effectively understood based on European norms, but by comprehending the legacy of colonialism and colonial law, and the challenges of maintaining the connection between the modern state and traditional community law.

Kate Mukungu, Ndumba J. Kamwanyah

11. Partnerships and Activism: Community Safety, Multi-agency Partnerships and Safeguarding Victims

This chapter focuses on multi-agency partnerships as a means of exploring the ways in which activism manifests in safeguarding victims. The author critically reviews twenty-first century pluralised multi-agency approaches to tackling crime, preventing harm, ‘responsibilising’ perpetrators and supporting victims, drawing on a case study example: Tackling serial perpetrators of domestic abuse through Multi-Agency Tasking and Co-ordination (MATAC) and the subsequent Domestic Abuse Whole Systems Approach (DAWSA), both pioneered in the North East of England, the United Kingdom, to reflect on developments in community safety. New partnerships such as these appear less wedded to the traditional criminal justice paradigm that has so far failed so many victims of domestic abuse and more committed to a holistic approach. The spur to recent developments in the policing of domestic abuse is seemingly a complex mix of political—including diverse feminist-influenced—drivers pushing for change. A key message from this chapter is that healthy scepticism from partners means that collaboration is hard work, but can be effective in preventing victimisation and supporting victims. Stakeholders from charities and statutory bodies alike are finding ways of working, such that they are ‘critical allies’ in the drive for change.

Pamela Davies

Chapter 12. Determinants of Productivity of Rwandese Food and Beverage Processing Sector: Do Tax Incentives Matter?

This study discusses the main determining factors of capacity utilizationCapacity utilization in the food and beverage manufacturing industriesBeverage manufacturing industries which are likely to be positively affected by tax incentivesTax incentives. It uses data from the manufacturing industry comprehensive survey carried out by the Rwandese Ministry of Trade and IndustryRwandese ministry of trade and industry (MINICOM) in 2013–14. The model it uses is derived from an augmented Cobb–Douglas production functionCobb douglas production function. The key findings of the study are: (i) in the food processing industry the main factors which undermine firms’ capacity utilizationCapacity utilization are shortage of raw materials, lack of specialized technologies, poor tax administrationTax administration and standards; (ii) in the beverage manufacturing industryBeverage manufacturing industry, drivers of capacity utilizationCapacity utilization are firm experience (age) Age and its material-intensive characteristics. Four factors harm the capacity utilizationCapacity utilization of beverage manufacturing firms—oversize in terms of fixed assets, lack of working capital, standards and insufficient demand. Thus, policymakers in Rwanda need to focus on non-tax measures to boost the food and beverage processingFood and beverage processing sectors.

Etienne Ndemezo, Jean Bosco Ndikubwimana

Chapter 13. Tax Incentives and Growth of SMEs in Rwanda: A Case Study of Small and Medium Enterprises in Nyarugenge District

This study analyzes the effect of tax incentivesTax incentives on the growth of SMEsSmall and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Rwanda taking SMEsSmall and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Nyarugenge as a case study. It uses both qualitative and quantitative research approaches. The population is 49,000 SMEsSmall and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) from agricultural, industrial, service, and tourism sectors operating in Nyarugenge district. The study uses a sample of 136 SMEsSmall and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) using Silovin and Yemen’s formula of sample size by using the simple random and purposive sampling techniques. The dataset is analyzed using descriptive statistics and a multiple regression analysis is used for explaining the relationships between the variables. The results show that 75.7% of the respondents knew the tax laws and 78.7% knew the tax incentivesTax incentives available to SMEsSmall and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). The results further show that wear and tearWear and tear, loss carried forwardLoss carried forward, and value-added tax (VAT)Value Added Tax (VAT) refunds are tax incentivesTax incentives available to Rwandan SMEsSmall and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) as evidenced by 100%, 94.1%, and 95.6%, respectively, of the respondents receiving the benefits. The study also shows that there is a strong, positive, and significant relationship between tax incentivesTax incentives and the growth of small and medium enterprisesSmall and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Rwanda as the coefficients of correlation are 88.8% of R-squareR-square. This means that only 11.2% of the variations in the growth of SMEsSmall and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) is outside the tested variables. The study concludes that tax incentivesTax incentives are the key to sustainable growth of SMEsSmall and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). Hence, the government should design policies that specifically address issues related to SMEsSmall and Medium Enterprises (SMEs)’ sustainable growth.

Daniel Twesige, Faustin Gasheja, Jonas Barayendema

Chapter 10. Determinants of Entrepreneurship Sustainability Among Family Businesses in Rwanda: Case of Small and Medium Family Businesses in Kigali

Most of the businesses in Rwanda are family owned and managed. These businesses fall in the category of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs)Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). They face a lot of challenges including in their initiation, management, and lifespan, leading to most of them collapsing leaving many people jobless. Given that this study is an exploratory research, it uses a combination approachCombination approach composed of positivismPositivism. The study’s sample is 49,000 SMEsSmall and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) registered on the Rwanda Revenue Authority (RRA)Rwanda Revenue Authority (RRA) portal in Nyarugenge district. However, the study targets the managers/owners of these businesses. It uses simple random samplingSimple random sampling to select the respondents. It did the Chi-square testChi-square test to test for the determinants of entrepreneurship sustainabilityEntrepreneurship sustainability among family businessesFamily business. The results show a significant association between training and mentorship in entrepreneurs involving familyFamily entrepreneurship members in the management, good family relationships, financial discipline, educationEducation levels, innovationsInnovation, and business sustainability. The results also show that there is no significant relationship between financial resources and a business’ sustainabilityBusiness’ sustainability and that although the educational levels are significant for a business’ sustainabilityBusiness’ sustainability, these do not contribute much to its sustainability. The key factors that determine a business’ sustainabilityBusiness’ sustainability are innovationsInnovation, involvement of family members in the management, training and mentorship of entrepreneurs, good family relationships, and financial discipline.

Alexis Uwamahoro, Daniel Twesige

Chapter 1. Introduction and Overview

“At the heart of Rwanda’s capital sits the Kigali Convention Centre, a $300m monument that lights up the night with the national colours of blue, yellow and green. It symbolizes modernity and prosperity in a country that has bounced back from a genocideGenocide in 1994 when perhaps 500,000 people, mostly Tutsis, were killed. As impressive as the skyline are Rwanda’s economic statistics. In the past decade the economy has expanded by 8% a year. The share of people classified as poor has fallen by seven percentage points since 2011, to 38% in 2017,” The Economist (August 17, 2019).

Gouranga G. Das, Rukundo Bosco Johnson

Chapter 9. Enabling Mobile Microfinance: Opportunities and Challenges

Sudan is a country with rich endowment of natural resources yet remains a low-income and food-deficit country, and despite the efforts exerted by the government to reduce poverty, the country is still unable to mitigate poverty. Today the infrastructure gap in developing countries is large and continues to hinder efforts for poverty alleviation. Technology advance on the other hand has dramatically linked the world, increased communication is making the world without barriers or boundaries and information spread freely. This international interconnectedness has revolutionized countless industries, including microfinance. This chapter studies the challenges and opportunities in Sudan’s microfinance system in its attempt to achieve a pro-poor allocation of financing that is expected to lead to a more inclusive pattern of growth. The study looks at the setting of access to microfinance in Sudan, assesses the demand and supply, and highlights the main constraints and opportunities for the future. The study used structured survey to collect primary data. The highest ranked opportunities cited for mobile banking are provision of an efficient electronic channel for cross-selling, reduction of operational costs, increase in customer outreach, and most importantly financial inclusion of the poor. The challenges include internal technological constraints, lack of adequate staff capabilities, and complicated regulations. These results give strong implication for policy and microfinance providers to exert more efforts to adopt mobile microfinance to enhance the financial inclusion and alleviate poverty.

Abdelrahman Elzahi Saaid Ali, Khalifa Mohamed Ali

Chapter 4. Contribution of Islamic Microfinance Studies in Achieving Sustainable Development Goals

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) aim to eradicate extreme poverty by 2030 and reduce at least half the proportion of men, women and children of all ages living in poverty in all its dimensions according to national definitions. This chapter reviews extant empirical studies in the area of Islamic microfinance in orderto analyse the contribution of Islamic microfinance to SDGs by mapping research direction on the SDGs. The studies are categorized based on the discussion on research paradigm, countries being researched, methods employed and results that lead to action for achieving MDGs and SDGs. It finds that the studies under review mostly employ poststructuralism and interpretivism paradigm with countries being researched are mostly Bangladesh, Malaysia and Indonesia. Finally, the chapter offers insights on future research aiming to promote the achievements and issues faced in the implementation of SDGs.

Murniati Mukhlisin, Luqyan Tamanni, Toseef Azid, Rifka Mustafida

Chapter 2. Empowering the Poor and Enhancing Financial Inclusion from a Multidimensional Perspective

Traditional economic thinking assumes the poor will want to earn their way out of poverty, but studies show that poverty makes people feel powerless and helpless and subjects them to extraordinary levels of stress and anxiety, which makes favorable decision-making difficult. The poor lack the institutional framework which, in the more prosperous and advanced economies, enhances decisions toward affluence. A multidimensional approach to achieve financial inclusion and empower the poor is discussed in this chapter. Five key areas are listed that need to be developed in order to secure a just and prosperous future for all: financial literacy and access to financial services; income and wealth redistributive instruments; development of micro, small, and medium enterprises (MSMEs); a sound legal and enforcement system; and an adequate metric set to measure effectiveness, performance, and progress of such initiatives. This chapter includes behavioral issues in financial decision-making and suggests a behavioral approach to strategy implementation.

Hazik Mohamed

Chapter 13. Achieving Sustainability in Sudan Through Microfinance and Mobile Banking

This study attempts to apply significant knowledge economy drivers of information and communications technology (ICT) to the implementation of mobile banking (M-bank) in order to increase the outreach for Sudanese microfinance. Access to financial service is key for economic development and poverty alleviation. Microfinance is one way of fighting poverty in Sudan. Despite initial results showing the positive impact of microfinance on livelihoods of low-income people, around 8 million Sudanese remain excluded from microfinance services. One potential remedy for the limited outreach of microfinance lies in the utilization of modern technology such as the use of M-banking technology by microfinance service providers (MFPs). This chapter examines the factors that influence the adoption of M-banking by the microfinance sector in Sudan. Hypotheses are guided by the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) and technology-organization-environment (TOE) models. Primary data was collected from MFPs and microfinance customers using questionnaires and interviews.

Elsadig Musa Ahmed, Anwar Ammar

Chapter 14. Success Factors of the i-Taajir Micro-Entrepreneurship Model: Lessons for Islamic Banks and Muslim Universities

There has been increasing interest in Islamic financial inclusion from scholars as well as from practitioners in the industry. Several models have been proposed for empowering the poor, particularly women. The recent FinTech revolution has created more opportunities for financial inclusion of the youth. The roles of universities in the development of financial inclusion have largely been theoretical with few exceptions like the University of Houston in Texas and Gontor University in Indonesia. The former has a microfinance unit that offers zero interest loans, while the latter creates businesses on the campus exclusively for its students and staff. This chapter focuses on the i-Taajir program, which began operations in 2018, whose uniqueness and rich experience has not been documented. Firstly, it is a synergy between CIMB Islamic CSR funding and expertise from the International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) Centre for Islamic Economics. Secondly, it involves IIUM students as field trainers, monitors and project evaluators as a cost-cutting measure and risk-mitigating strategy. Thirdly, i-Taajir offers four financing modes: Qard Hasan embedded with Tabarru’ Fund for sustainability, Murabahah to the purchase orderer, Musharakah Mutanaqisah working capital and Mudarabah. Fourthly, its success factors are benchmarked against its grassroot approach; value loaded training programs; over 95% repayment rate; cheap pricing on the asset side, which does not vary with time; clear graduation target and bridging the gap between theory and practice.

Mustafa Omar Mohammed, Mohamed Aslam M. Haneef, Norma Md Saad, Rafe Haneef

Chapter 9. Fintech and Financial Inclusion in Pakistan: An Exploratory Study

Fintech has the potential of promoting financial inclusion in terms of secured digital payments, financing, InsureTech, and investments through crowdfunding and P2P lending to unserved or less served businesses, start-ups, and segments of the population. Fintech is deployed using the latest technologies such as big data analytics, clouds, Internet of Things, blockchain, and artificial intelligence to provide highly secured, instant, easy-to-access, easy-to-use, low-cost, and finally more customer-centric financial services and products. For Fintech to boost Islamic financial inclusion, shariah compatibility in the applications is necessary. Empirical evidence shows that Pakistan is a highly financially exclusive country. This study provides an overview of financial inclusion and digital finance status in Pakistan, a comparative analysis of information and communication technologies (ICT) environment, and Pakistan’s performance in ICTs. This study elucidates the potential of Fintech applications and proposes a pragmatic scheme to develop a Fintech ecosystem capable of achieving the goal of financial inclusion in Pakistan.

Hassnian Ali, Rose Abdullah

Refugees at Sea in a Hostile World

In a world where hundreds of refugees are drowning at sea and thousands are being turned away at the border, the question arises not only as to why so many nations have become unwelcoming to refugees early in the twenty-first century, but as to whether national conduct violates international, regional, and national laws relating to refugees. To explore this question, this chapter not only describes the laws that are applicable to persons qualifying as refugees, but also seeks to set those laws in an historical context dating back millennia, with special emphasis on the experiences during and after World War II that gave birth to the laws now being flouted by so many nations. The chapter focuses on Europe, the crucible that largely gave rise to modern refugee law and one of the major locations of the current refusals to fulfil those laws. Special emphasis is given to Italy as one of the frontline states most deeply challenged by the ongoing refugee crisis.

Joseph W. Dellapenna

‘Thieves, Shady Deals and Murder’: Water Theft, Buy-Backs and Fish Kills in the Murray Darling Basin of Australia

Effective water management in the Murray Darling Basin of Australia has proved challenging. Water theft, problematic water buy-backs by the Commonwealth and fish kills, particularly those in the Menindee Lakes, have exposed weaknesses in the implementation and application of key legislation and governance instruments such as the Water Act 2008 (Cth) and the Murray Darling Basin Plan. Meanwhile, Basin health has continued to suffer. A more pro-active, multi-pronged approach to governance, particularly in relation to monitoring, compliance and enforcement would be advantageous as would greater transparency in the application of science-led or evidence-led research. Improvements in these areas are likely to better serve ecological integrity objectives.

Janice Gray

The Political Economy of Managing Without Growth

Political economy includes the principles of the social sciences of economics, political science and sociology that apply to economic systems in political regimes. This chapter describes the political regimes of democracy and oligarchy in terms of their principles, institutions and purposes. Political economy is defined and analyzed to show that the implicit purpose of oligarchies requires a much higher rate of economic growth than democracies regire. Since World War II, Canadian governments established economic growth as a paramount policy objective. It is argued that this objective is central to a political regime of oligarchies and that Canadian governance has de facto been oligarchic. The results have been an excessive rate of economic growth, a substantial increase in economic inequality and degradation of the nation’s environment all of which are inconsistent with the common good of democracy. Democratic outcomes can be achieved with a much lower rate of economic growth than has been the case in Canada especially since 1979. An example of policies of political economy for achieving democratic outcomes in Canada is taken from environmental economist Peter Victor’s book Managing Without Growth. Victor shows how the rate of Canada’s economic growth over a 30-year period could be reduced by 50% and at the same time, the incidence of poverty would be reduced by 50% while greenhouse gas emissions would be reduced by 31%.

Peter Venton

Opportunity Within Failure: Can the Global Pact for the Environment Learn from Responsibility to Protect?

The Global Pact for the Environment is a legal initiative that seeks to promote significant change to international environmental law and governance. Initial efforts to gain state acceptance through United Nations processes have faltered. This chapter considers what can be learnt from the emergence and acceptance of the doctrine of ‘responsibility to protect’, that could inform future efforts to pursue either the Global Pact or other more transformative legal initiatives. The main finding is that the history of ‘responsibility to protect’ has much offer civil society in the search for transformative approaches to state sovereignty in an age of collapsing ecological integrity.

Prue Taylor

Readiness and Maturity of Manufacturing Enterprises for Industry 4.0

Industry 4.0 is perceived as an industrial concept which requires incorporation of both value-adding business divisions and value-added chain applying emerging technologies to provide digital solutions. However, there is still a lack of knowledge and understanding of this concept, especially about its implementation, project outcomes and investment costs. Thus, we aimed to analyze maturity models as they show current state of enterprises and their path to pursue to implement Industry 4.0 strategy. In order to achieve it, their dimensions and characteristics were deeply investigated. We referred to their maturity indexes what allowed us to propose to use Rough Set Theory to maturity assessment of enterprises.

Beata Mrugalska, Anna Stasiuk-Piekarska

Factory Change Agent Combining Lean Manufacturing Concept and Environmental Management in Construction Production

The contemporary business environment is expected to cope with the pressures for organizing the production to go beyond developing a good product. The enterprises have to shorten product life cycles, extend product diversity and react to their production volume variance by continuous adaptation and improvement of their production processes. The promising approach seems to be lean management which can reduce wastes from its production through environmental practices. The paper presents an analysis of the convergences of lean manufacturing and environmental management which are fulfilled by factor change agent. It demonstrates the positive impact of these concepts in better use of resources and elimination or reduction of generated waste. Its efficiency is shown in the analysis of indexes such as earnings before deducting interest and taxes (EBIT) and earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA).

Krzysztof Sterna, Magdalena K. Wyrwicka, Beata Mrugalska

Dynamic View of Human Elements Design and Projection of Human Factors in Critical Task Operation Using Bayesian Networks

Accidents occur due to the release of hazard energy along a network of human factors (HF) until unwanted occurrences. To avoid the hazard energy to propagate, interventions are implemented in the project phase, based on the organizational and technological human elements. This paper presents a dynamic relationship of HF and an assessment of the barriers efficiency to avoid energy passage. The methodology involves analysis of the operational context, Bayesian Network and analysis of the hazard energy accumulated. The database of technological and operational information, management and operator’s discourse suggests a validated network with the results of the task and indicators of production and safety. By the application of this exercise, based on the real case of a chemical industry, hypothesis are suggested in relation to the HFs existing, which confirms the indirect probability of accidents and that disaster is almost impossible, although failures, deviations and low operational control are evident.

Salvador Ávila, Jade Ávila, Lucas Pereira, Elvis Renan Fagundes Lima

Linkage Between Gamification and Moral Organisational Climate

Moral organisational climate is directly related to employee motivation, retention and efficiency of work because it has a common goal and reveals the main moral values of an organisation, relations among employees, and formal recognition and enhances what is so important for Y and Z generations, tech lovers, who usually are defined as very dynamic individuals seeking interesting work, good atmosphere and interpersonal relations. In this context, gamification as one of modern methods has become an increasingly more popular human resource management instrument in practice. Gamification tends to increase engagement in an organisation and motivation and improve teamwork, interpersonal relations and work efficiency. Despite that, it is still a relatively new phenomenon and science lacks the empirical evidence of the usefulness of this concept in human resources management, and especially of the linkage between gamification and moral organisational climate. The aim of the paper is to identify the linkage between gamification and moral organisational climate. Mixed research methods were applied for this research: content analysis was used to identify gamification elements applied and their nature; and quantitative study was chosen for the evaluation of the linkage between gamification and moral organisational climate.

Lina Girdauskiene, Asta Savaneviciene, Olga Denisova

Chapter 1. Will Robots Replace You?

At the dawn of civilization, in the forests of Siberia, a small tribe was engaged in discussion of great importance to themselves and mankind. It was winter. As the humans argued, wolf dogs ate scraps of discarded food. Smaller than wolves, they had been domesticated and were perfect for pulling heavy loads without overheating. But a few of the larger wolf dogs seemed able to pick up the scent of the large bears better than humans could. Some of the tribe wanted to breed and train these wolf dogs for hunting. Other hunters who were widely known for their olfactory skills might have been concerned that their specialty, their craft, was threatened by the more sensitive canine olfactory system.

Peter Matthews, PhD Steven Greenspan

REPAIRER Reporting System User Analysis for SMS Compliance in Aviation Maintenance

To resolve the issue of human error in maintenance the REPAIRER reporting system is revisited as it has great potential by combining a human factors analysis with a risk management safety reporting mechanism. It is also timely as a human factors centered safety reporting method like the REPAIRER could now be feasibly implemented through the new mandatory FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) FAR 121 requirement to use SMS (Safety Management System) pillars and through the new FAA MxHF human factors training. With the current FAA support in place and the ever growing need to add human factors to combat human error in aviation maintenance, the REPAIRER model would seem attractive to many aviation maintenance organizations. To illustrate this, the researchers’ intention is to take the REPAIRER model to a point of hypothetical use in an aviation maintenance organization to gain an understanding of its potential benefits. To accomplish this, a thorough look at the economic gains were first identified in the form of cost savings through safety and less accidents, but then also in the form of possible efficiency gains. The REPAIRER was then looked at as a tool to achieve employee motivation and gain a just culture. The last area of the REPAIRER added value was the ease of implementing it into various types and sizes of organizations.

Mark Miller, Bettina Mrusek

Lack of Authority, Failure of Leadership–Burden of Not Being Led

The purpose of this research is to scrutinize the difference between autocratic leadership and absence of leadership. We utilized simple division between autocratic leader and laissez-faire leader in order to find out how these stereotypical leaders’ are affecting the followers. Typically, autocratic leadership is situated to be bad leadership approach and follower’s freedom is emphasized. Cognitive constructivism and empowerment of followers are embracing the freedom and followers own responsibility. However, the question for best approach for leadership is too complex to be answered with easy solutions. Real world cases rarely fit to ideal models. In this article, we analyze how these two types of extreme ends in leadership behavior affect the followers’ feeling of certainty. We show how these approaches affect to followers by analyzing open answers with a mix method design with both quantitative and qualitative analysis.

Tero Reunanen, Eyal Eckhaus

“Millennipreneurship” vs Entrepreneurship: Exploring Emerging Dynamics in Entrepreneurial Competencies Among Generational Cohorts

As part of the ongoing debate on ideal entrepreneurial competencies, this study seeks to introduce a generational dimension that explores how the generation an individual belongs to could be influential in determining their entrepreneurial competence. In its submission, this paper critically discusses the unique attributes of millennials in on how distinct they are in terms of personality traits from older generations (Baby Boomers and Generation X). The study reviews the literature on entrepreneurial competencies to map them to the personalities of various generational cohorts. The study then makes propositions as to why millennials possess unique entrepreneurial competencies that make them superior entrepreneurs than their predecessors. The findings of this study have significant implications for future research and practice as it offers a more defined basis for examining the competencies of entrepreneurs.

Reginald Arthur, Olivia Anku-Tsede, Michael Gyensare

Leadership and Corporate Culture as Key Factors for Thriving Digital Change

Digitalization, artificial intelligence (AI) and in particular increased availability of data enables companies to develop new or changed business models and generate additional revenues. In order to use these potentials successfully, the implementation of hybrid business models and new technologies often also requires a change in the existing management and corporate culture. Nevertheless, many companies neglect to accompany technological changes by developing the skills of managers and employees. Therefore, the Institute of Applied Industrial Engineering and Ergonomics conducted a Germany-wide online survey of specialists and executives (n = 178) to analyze the status quo and the requirements for personal development and leadership of companies from the German metal and electrical industry [1, 2].

Martina Frost, Tim Jeske, Nicole Ottersböck

Systematic Competence Building as a Success Factor for Establishing Hybrid Business Models

The article describes a dialogue-oriented concept for analyzing future competence requirements for establishing new business models. The concept has been tested within three German small and medium enterprises. Based on the results it is possible to develop strategies for building up skills the enterprises will need in future. In this context, it should be noted that competence gaps on the customer side can counteract the successful establishment of new business models. A consideration of this aspect as well as possible solution approaches, which were compiled in workshops with three pilot enterprises, will be presented.

Nicole Ottersböck, Martina Frost, Tim Jeske, Veit Hartmann

Correlations in Time Management and Organizational Commitment

Time is the most important resource for leaders. People’s productivity, and hence organizations’ performance are heavily related to their time usage. Therefore, especially leaders should have conscious awareness towards their conscious awareness towards time. Employees’ commitment and engagement are one of the key contributors to organizational performance and its competitive advantage. It has many positive effects, both for workers and for their organization. Employees who identify to and are committed to their organization are likely to want to exert more effort on its behalf leading to improved productivity, quality, profitability and customer satisfaction. This article presents research of correlations between time management and organizational commitment of leaders in larger organizational change. Phenomena are scrutinized separately from both point of views and as combined. Analysis shows that there are significant correlations in all analyzed point of views. Future research aspects are also issued in this paper.

Tero Reunanen, Jarno Einolander

Safety Management in Accordance with Industry 4.0 Requirements: Analysis and Evaluation of the Level of Digitalization in the Slovak Companies

Digitalization of industrial companies brings a lot of advantages for their management in the global entrepreneurial environment. Shortening of new product development, communication with customers already in their design phase, ‘early’ prevention of potential errors and discrepancies in processes, online status monitoring of important devices etc., enable to introduce effective management and meeting the stakeholders’ needs. However, these advantages are conditioned by applying the suitable tools for processing and evaluating data in core processes of an organization. Industry 4.0 (I4.0) is a general term specifying the level of automation and digitalization implementation at the management of industrial as well as public activities within the advanced society.Protection of human in work environment in the EU has been implemented as Frame Directives for 30 years. Protection of property – intellectual property, its importance in today’s environment grows exponentially with the level of implemented digitalization. For this reason, it is important to apply such safety management tools, so that they enable a complex approach to the protection of physical but also intellectual property of an organization.The objective of the study was to find the real level of Industry 4.0 factors implementation and asses the status of complex safety in the selected industrial organizations in the Slovak republic. The form of questioning stemmed from the exceptionality model – EFQM. Basic parameters of the requirements resulting from the I4.0 factor analysis were created. The area of results was structured in such a way so that it is possible to prove the level of digitalization achievement and complex safety management in companies operating in Slovakia and their readiness for current trends in I4.0 and their development.

Hana Pacaiova, Renata Turisova, Anna Nagyova, Milan Oravec

Links Between Knowledge Transmission Programs and the Preservation of Occupational Health and Safety

Studies show that knowledge retention and transmission practices can have a positive impact on the occupational health and safety management. To understand the presence of occupational health and safety issues in knowledge retention/transmission practices in the last 15 years in professional contexts, a systematic review was conducted. The studies analyzed include initiatives such as mentoring programs and documentary repositories based on the explicit dimension of knowledge, and which do not focus on the participation and acknowledgement of workers or on the analysis of the role that their working conditions, health and safety behaviors have in the processes of knowledge transmission. The results allowed the identification of guiding principles to support companies in the implementation of practices that privilege the participation and acknowledgment of workers and their knowledge, for an action that guarantees production and quality for the company and that preserves the health and safety of workers.

Cláudia Pereira, Marta Santos, Catherine Delgoulet

Psychosocial Risk Factors at Work: The Legal Compliance Model in Mexico

In 2016, the draft Official Mexican Standard was generated that responded to the guidelines on psychosocial risk at work, through the National Advisory Committee for Standardization of Safety and Health at Work. The Federal Occupational Health and Safety Regulations, and 5, section III, and 24 of the Internal Regulations of the Ministry of Labor and Social Welfare, state that, for NOM035-STPS-2018 (Official Mexican Standard of the Secretary of Labor and Social Welfare of the Government of Mexico), on Psychosocial Risk Factors at Work, the objective should be to establish the elements to identify, analyze and prevent psychosocial risk factors, as well as to promote a favorable organizational environment in the workplace. Results of a design and proposal of intervention instrumentation to facilitate the organizational diagnoses that allow determining the roadmap of the implementation and compliance with the official Mexican norm. Conclusion: is a methodology with the appropriate instruments generates an efficient process of legal compliance.

Rodolfo Martinez-Gutierrez, Concepción Cruz-Ibarra

Systems Engineering for Healing Healthcare: The Journey from Compliance to Resilience

As healthcare strives to improve its reliability, we seek to inform healthcare systems with perspectives beyond prescription and compliance. This paper describes states of Readiness for gauging preparedness at different structural levels to facilitate strategic planning toward continuous improvement. Healthcare systems of all sizes and complexities can utilize the concept of Readiness to prioritize preparation required to anticipate change and adapt to variability associated with delivery of safe and effective healthcare by building on approaches experienced by the author in designing, training for, and conducting complex Space operations.

Tandi M. Bagian, Helen J. A. Fuller, Timothy Arnold

A Human Factors Framework and Heuristics for Diffusion of Innovations

Change management and diffusion of innovation have been studied and described extensively in the sociology and anthropology literature. Greenhalgh and colleagues (2004) provide an insightful conceptual model for the implementation of innovations. During a recent teaching experience, we encountered limitations on the model’s practical utility due to the complexity. At the same time, we noted clear parallels to the field of human factors. This paper diffuses the model into a human factors framework that aids in the understanding of change management and diffusion of innovation. In addition, we provide heuristics for evaluating innovations. These may be used prior to implementation to evaluate the innovation for suitability and risk and modify it if necessary, prepare the system for change, and plan the deployment of the innovation for the greatest chance of success.

Helen J. A. Fuller, Timothy Arnold, Tandi M. Bagian, William P. Gunner

The Anchoring Effect of Technology in Navigation Teams

Modern technology revolutionised marine navigation, reducing errors and increasing navigation safety. However, the same technology has been associated with critical accidents and navigators’ errors. On the other hand, expert mariners have proved to manage complex situations, adapting to unforeseen events successfully. To better understand the effects of new technologies and how work is currently done, the Portuguese navy promoted a study about navigation team performance. The results suggest that navigation technology appears to have a strong anchoring effect on team activity. While sensemaking and intuitive judgements complement the shortfalls of the decision support system (DSS), it was found that the combination of high automation influence with lack of coordination leads to a collaborative biased perception of the situation.

Vítor Conceição, Carlos Teles, Joakim Dahlman

Dictionary of Competencies for Sustainable Development in the Municipalities of Northern México

The present research work has the purpose of identifying which are the key elements within the municipal governments in Mexico, which could be considered as the most significant areas of opportunity whose strategic attention would be a better performance in the fulfillment of their constitutional attributions, in the promotion of public policies capable of integrating the realities of its inhabitants and their communities, but also capable of incorporating into them actions and commitments derived from national and global agendas, also playing with the above, a more active role in the scene international contributing successful experiences in its institutional work.

Rodolfo Martinez-Gutierrez, Maria Estela Salcedo Correa

TIAMBIENTA Smart Technologies for the Motor-Home Sector

The contemporary scenario sees the substantial affirmation of innovative technologies as digital tools necessary for the creation of an increasingly connected society. These technologies have a systemic relevance as they feed the value of the production system chain and have the ability to innovate processes, products and services in all economic sectors of human activity. The TIAMBIENTA project is focused on creating an ecosystem of home automation services through the use and integration of the new tools of digital technology for the design of the interior spaces of the motorhome. The project involves the construction of a cloud home automation sensor system. The sensor network will be interconnected through a control unit capable of collecting data, sending it to the central cloud platform and introducing direct implementation protocols on the internal environment control systems of the motorhome. Among the various enabling technologies that we have taken into consideration, a fundamental role has been given to ICTs, information and communication technologies, fundamental for collecting the data and recording and adjusting the user experience.

Giuseppe Lotti, Marco Marseglia, Elisa Matteucci, Margherita Vacca, Irene Fiesoli, Claudia Morea, Alessio Tanzini, Francesco Cantini, Lu Ji, Eleonora Trivellin

Retaining Steel Tips: Motivation of Construction Managers in South Africa

The world economy continues to grow at an ever-increasing pace and as a result, has created additional demand for new buildings. This has placed an ever-increasing demand for experienced construction managers with learned and practically applied skills to competently deliver successful projects. South Africa is no exception to this phenomenon. To retain skilled construction managers projects must be well managed from the outset. Having the correct policies and procedures in place will assist with this requirement. Motivating factors play a large role to assist construction managers in achieving their best and keeping their focus. Thus, how to motivate them is key to ensuring that a project delivers on; quality, time and within budget. This paper attempts to identify factors that motivate construction managers and assist construction companies to retain them. For this purpose, structured interviews were conducted at the University of Pretoria and a mixed-method approach was followed. Data was collected from construction professionals with a minimum of 10 years of construction site experience within the Gauteng Region of South Africa. The decisive factor was the work environment conditions and this included factors like; creating job security, give employees a sense of belonging, mentors giving constructive criticism, listening to problems, acting on them and thus giving support, reducing long working hours, improved site office facilities, regular relaxing social events within the company. Results from a recent research project have identified three items that are needed to retain construction managers. These included; a good work environment and extrinsic and intrinsic rewards. It was found not uncommon that if an offer to be employed at an alternative company with less salary, but with a more comfortable work environment was available, then this would be a viable option. Construction companies should invest more effort to improve their work environment and further tailor-make their extrinsic and intrinsic awards systems.

Andries (Hennie) van Heerden, Mostafa Babaeian Jelodar, Michelle Burger, Benita Zulch

Leadership in Ensuring Positive Socio-Psychological Experiences of Employees

Competitive environment along with the “24/7 Society” characterized by a perfectionist approach to work have become a real challenge for contemporary employees. They must frequently maintain a high working tempo, carry the workload, take increasingly more responsibilities, and face constant changes. Consequently, employees may feel threatened – either psychologically or socially. Leaders have a crucial role in this stressful working environment. They could both predict and reduce the feeling of vulnerability of employees and boost their self-confidence. Leaders could inspire employees, or conversely, make them feel unhappy or unsatisfied. Hence, leaders affect the socio-psychological experiences of the employees. Appropriate behaviors of leaders can ensure sustainable positive socio-psychological experiences; however, negative inappropriate behaviors can be treated as working environment threats and stressors. The aim of the paper is to reveal the critical leadership behavior-based threats and rewards that shape the socio-psychological experience of employees thus suggesting how leaders could ensure positive socio-psychological experiences for employees.

Asta Savaneviciene, Lina Girdauskiene

Green Work Environments and Workforce Productivity Among Energy Organizations in Ghana

The current work aims at exploring green workplace practices that trigger environmentally friendly changes, leading to an increase in workforces’ productivity among energy organizations. Green work settings globally, are environmentally sensitive, resource efficient and socially responsible. Green work strategies, when well deployed, can make office practices more sustainable, efficient and well suited to the complex, ever-changing world of business. Indeed, evidence abound that, modern organizations enhance business profitability and long-run marketability, while reducing costs and increasing productivity through greener practices. Research overwhelmingly shows that eco-friendly offices and green environmental practices among energy organizations translate to a happier, healthier and more efficient employees. Drawing on a qualitative, multiple-case study approach, primary data were collected from selected energy organizations in Ghana, using interviews and document archival sources. The paper showed green work environmental awareness initiatives being embarked by the energy organizations. The results further showed how the energy organizations are adopting environmentally friendly practices, resource-efficient initiatives and socially responsible actions to enhance productivity. The results also point to the various energy organizations embarking on environmental audits to understand their initial situations and using such audit results to create workplace environmental policies and procedures for sustainability that is geared towards minimizing negative impact of their activities on the environment. The paper has practical implications for clean energy, competitive and sustainable energy operations as well as a more productive workforce. The paper recommends an adoption of holistic green work environment practices as a priority to leverage lean energy production, transmission and distribution across the various energy organizations in Ghana.

Rufai Haruna Kilu, Mohammed-Aminu Sanda

A Fuzzy Decision Making Method for Preventing the Loss of Knowledge in Nuclear Organizations

Appropriate technical expertise and experience, along with a strong safety culture, must be developed and kept available throughout the nuclear technology life cycle. For organizations using nuclear technology, the ability to take safe decisions and actions can be affected by knowledge gaps or knowledge loss. For preventing the loss of knowledge in nuclear organizations, it is important to identify the barriers or critical factors that affect the success of the knowledge management (KM) process. From the perspective of the nuclear organizations, no systematic structure exists on characterizing a set of critical success factors (CSFs) for KM. Furthermore, there are no appropriate models that can satisfactorily assess the CSFs and fully solve the subjectivity of KM assessment. In this context, this work presents a fuzzy decision making method for preventing the loss of knowledge in nuclear organizations using CSFs able to identify the barriers that affect the KM.

Jaqueline Vianna, Paulo V. R. Carvalho, Carlos A. N. Cosenza, Claudio H. S. Grecco

Internationalization Agendas in Higher Education. A Dutch – Russian Perspective

The endeavor to establish a faculty leadership by shaping the best practices in strategic planning of the internationalization process is the major contribution to knowledge of this study. From a conceptual perspective, different levels of internationalization are examined within this research, trying to associate these levels to the general background of institutional strategic planning concerning globalization and internationalization agendas. The present study seeks to fill the gap in research regarding the manner of implementation at the HAN University of Applied Sciences (Arnhem Business School), the Netherlands and Plekhanov Russian University of Economics, Russia regarding the goals of internationalization agendas. This comparative study brings into the light best practices to be learned from and it describes how the objectives of internationalization processes are achieved. The approach to learning from best practices creates not only awareness but also develops new learning practices that could be implemented to enhance the global competitiveness.

Florentin Popescu, Dmitry Shtykhno, Roman Iskandaryan, Marjon Elshof

Exploring Critical Success Factors for Safety Management of Tanker Vessels

Managing modern merchant vessels is quite challenging task for shipboard personnel, as well as for shore-based managers in shipping companies. The risks are more so accentuated in terms of vessels that carry dangerous and volatile cargoes, such as tanker vessels. Modern industrial disasters have demonstrated that organizations have a considerable role to play in terms of ensuring adequate safety climate in day-to-day operations at the sharp end. This study explores Critical Success Factors (CSFs) that are necessary for tanker vessel managers to ensure that the ships operate as safe as possible. A literature review focused on the shipping industry and tanker vessels in specific, revealed CSFs such as – human factors, technical factors, environmental factors, organizational factors, regulatory factors, and economic factors, as well several sub factors. The results can provide a basis for further systematic analyses of the CSFs and how they are perceived by the shipping managers in their order of relative importance.

Amit Sharma, Tae-eun Kim, Gesa Praetorius, Salman Nazir

Psychosocial Risk Assessment by Fine Kinney and ANFIS Method: A Case Study in a Metal Processing Plant

Occupational health and safety practices continue to improve, but accidents and occupational health issues continue to cause problems for management and employees. Although psychosocial risks and hazards have substantial adverse effects, they are often overlooked in most risk assessment practices. The objective of this work is to assess the employee psychosocial risks by a case study using the COPSOQII questionnaire at a metal processing plant. Inputs from COPSOQII questionnaire were used to assess psychosocial hazards in Fine Kinney analysis. The Fine-Kinney method contains fuzzy decisions. This uncertainty is resolved by using the ANFIS (Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System) module. Results of the ANFIS model indicate that when actual risks and those predicted by the model are compared, the model could predict the risk scores with high accuracy.

Nalan Baç, Ismail Ekmekci

International Entrepreneurship: “Glocal” Business Creation, Development and Sustainable Employability

This article proposes a new approach model that frames International Entrepreneurship in a “Glocal” context where co-creation is essential by providing stakeholders with knowledge, insights and skills in how they can create new business models, develop new and existing businesses towards an output of Sustainable Employability. The model functions as a conceptual model and as starting point for future international case studies. This new model can help bridge the gap between the knowledge co-creation triangle professional field, education and research while enabling an in-depth exploration of which transferable international entrepreneurial skills and behaviors need to be developed. Additionally, the way students adopt skills must be adapted and this can be achieved by a more symbiotic relationship between employers and universities. Examining the most desired skills by local employers, in various regions and countries, provides context and incentive to act on this insight, allowing universities and students to make informed decisions.

Florentin Popescu

Youth Workers and Innovative Development of Social Work

We conducted the research taking into consideration the fact that in organization of the professional training of a social worker for work with young people it is necessary to focus on the formation of high level professional culture, the development of the needs for constant professional development, as these should guarantee the success and effectiveness of the activities in the modern educational environment. The purpose of the experimental work was to check the competences gained at the workshops of the Youth Centre “START” and to determine the relevance of such competences. The survey engaged 48 participants who were students obtaining Bachelor and Master degrees at Social and Psychological Education Department in Pavlo Tychyna Uman State Pedagogical University. The respondents chose 13 competences among 31 proposed positions. In student youth’s opinion, the youth worker should have basic competences. As a result we identified 5 main competences, which students had claimed in their questionnaire as the most relevant ones. The results of the research confirm the opinion that in the process of organizing the professional preparation of a social worker to work with young people, it is necessary to emphasize the formation of a high level of professional culture, the development of needs for continuous professional self-improvement, which is a guarantee of success and efficiency of activities in a modern educational environment. Therefore, the development of the theory and practice of vocational training for youth workers is on the agenda; research of the problem of the subjects of social and educational sphere in preparation of social workers for work with youth; development of theoretical and methodological bases and recommendations for training specialists for youth work; scientific support for youth policy areas; practical application of scientific research in youth work, etc.

Oksana Kravchenko, Nataliia Koliada, Nataliia Levchenko

Successful Development of Virtual Teams in a Geographically Dispersed Electric Power Grid Company

Electric power grid operation companies are in need for renewal and restructuring due to the introduction of local renewable energy production and changed patterns of energy and effect consumption, combined with strong political incentives for electrification. This paper present how development of two supporting capabilities has contributed in improvement of organizational performance. The two capabilities are (1) analytics, the capacity and ability to process and analyze data, together with (2) collaboration, the capacity and ability to effectively involve relevant expertise and authority at the right time in decision making regardless of organizational and geographical location.

Asgeir Drøivoldsmo, Per Gøran Bergerud

Interactive Storytelling Books for Fostering Inclusion of Children with Special Needs

Children with Special Needs may have difficulty understanding the content of a book or associating words and sentences with their meaning. Teachers use the storytelling as a powerful literacy tool which engage children in making connections between academic content and pedagogy. This strategy is also useful to integrate the diversity of the classroom. Increasing or varying the types of materials available to children is another way to make the classroom more inclusive. This paper proposes a new approach for fostering interaction and inclusion development during shared reading. We sought to increase the interactivity of traditional tale books by incorporating elements of technology and storytelling. To develop prototypes we recruited 30 teachers divided into six groups. Each group worked with two challenges: (1) to incorporate technology into a traditional storybook and (2) create an interactive storytelling book for left-handed children. During five work sessions each group developed two proposals: The first proposal was designed with QR codes and the second with NFC tags and augmented reality patterns to facilitate left-handed activities among teachers and children. The proposals were evaluated in the classroom and with experts’ reviews, finding interesting results.

Janio Jadán-Guerrero, Sandra Sanchez-Gordon, Patricia Acosta-Vargas, Cleofe Genoveva Alvites-Huamaní, Isabel L. Nunes

Sustainable Development in Higher Education

Public discussion on the role and responsibility of higher education institutions in shaping society of the future began in 2001 [1] The answer to the question of how sustainable development should be understood and what it brings for universities came from the World Commission on Environment and Development in 1987 which described sustainable development as “meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”. The future role of the university should be widely discussed. Education provided outside of higher education institutions should also be considered as important for society. The system of higher education needs reshaping to become more transdisciplinary, open to eliminate barriers and ready for new partnerships.

Marcin Geryk

International University Leadership Development

Looking into the importance and relevance of leaders in international higher education institutions, the author starts his journey by reviewing literature on global, effective and successful leadership to anchor his own understanding of international leadership. This paper is positioned as a design research paper on the concept of University International Leadership. By conducting targeted expert interviews, the author takes into account in his model the Leader Personal Dynamics (Attitude, Behavior, Competencies, Skills, Knowledge) and Glocal University Dynamics where International University Leaders operate. The Glocal concept fits the strategy of a University of Applied Sciences as Arnhem Business School, the Netherlands, to stay globally relevant but also keep its local identity. University international leaders need to create a good understanding of where it adds value to be global and where it is better to be local developing the right mindset and skillset required to succeed in this complex international environment.

Florentin Popescu

Using Effect Size in Evaluating Academic Engagement and Motivation in a Private Business School

This research analyses student engagement and motivation data gathered from a UK-based private business university and multiple European public universities. The data was obtained using an Internet-based generic expert system called Evolute. In this research, the self-evaluation results from 40 undergraduate business school students were subjected to comparison analysis using an effect size described by Cohen’s d-values. Using the effect size in the analysis helps to easily identify the areas or the specific items where the benchmarked university is doing well compared to others, as well as to find out the areas or items that could be subjected for improvement. According to the results, the benchmarked institution scored higher mean values in 95% of statements than all the other cases conducted with the instrument at public universities.

Jarno Einolander, Evangelos Markopoulos, Jussi Kantola, Hannu Vanharanta

Development of Psychological Readiness of the High School Students to Enter Higher Educational Institutions

The research of the psychological readiness development of high school pupils to enter higher education institutions and to pass an external independent assessment based on the implementation of the author’s program “Successful entrant” has been revealed in the article. The analysis of psychological literature on this issue has been made. The problem of professional self-determination of high school pupils, their psychological readiness for admission and its structure represented by emotional, motivational and volitional components have been considered. With the help of empirical research, the increase of levels of identified components and psychological readiness in general have been found out.

Oksana Kravchenko, Nataliia Shelenkova, Maryna Mishchenko

SCAT Model Based on Bayesian Networks for Lost-Time Accident Prevention and Rate Reduction in Peruvian Mining Operations

Several factors affect the activities of the mining industry. For example, accident rates are critical because they affect company ratings in the stock market (Standard & Poors). Considering that the corporate image is directly related to its stakeholders, this study conducts an accident analysis using quantitative and qualitative methods. In this way, the contingency rate is controlled, mitigated, and prevented while serving the needs) of the stakeholders. The Bayesian network method contributes to decision-making through a set of variables and the dependency relationships between them, establishing an earlier probability of unknown variables. Bayesian models have different applications, such as diagnosis, classification, and decision, and establish relationships among variables and cause–effect links. This study uses Bayesian inference to identify the various patterns that influence operator accident rates at a contractor mining company, and therefore, study and assess the possible differences in its future operations.

Ana Ziegler-Barranco, Luis Mera-Barco, Vidal Aramburu-Rojas, Carlos Raymundo, Nestor Mamani-Macedo, Francisco Dominguez

New Technology Implementation in High-Risk Organizations - The Application of HRO Principles in New Technology Implementation in Railroad Industry

High-risk organizations are inherently complex and depend on the latest technologies to survive and function properly. Therefore, introducing new technology to such an organization is inevitable. Studies show that the installation of new technology always involves some changes to the organization and its members. The railroad industry, as an example of a high-risk and safety-critical organization, strives to avoid catastrophic events, while performing dynamic tasks under strict time constraints, operating technology posing large-scale physical hazards. High Reliability Organizations (HROs) are a subset of high-risk organizations designed and managed to avoid such accidents. This paper discusses the adaptation of HRO principals as part of the implementation process for the Positive Train Control (PTC) technology in a safety-sensitive railroad organization.

Yalda Khashe, Najmedin Meshkati

Safety in Drilling Offshore Operations: A Narrative Literature Review

This paper sought to collect and analyze evidence reported in studies that address the safety dimension in drilling offshore operations. A bibliographic search was made at different databases and following the exclusion of the duplicates and applying the inclusion/exclusion criteria 19 papers were reviewed by the authors. This literature review showed that the documents still address the issue of security in drilling offshore operations from a behavioral perspective with little regard to the human and organizational factors of industrial security. Even studies that used a qualitative or mixed approach based on interviews and focus groups as data collection procedures, which are interesting strategies, do not reach the complexity of real work situations. To overcome this gap is therefore suggested to develop and disseminate researches in drilling offshore operations that adopt frameworks that access actual work situations and allow to address the security beyond the focus on individual behavior.

Carolina Maria do Carmo Alonso, Luciano do Valle Garotti, Eliel Prueza de Oliveira, Janaína Silva Rodrigues da Costa, William Silva Santana de Almeida, Francisco José de Castro Moura Duarte

Implications of Narcissistic Personality Disorder on Organizational Resilience

In the Fifth Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-5) of the American Psychiatric Association, narcissistic personality disorder is characterized by having feelings of self-importance, seeking for admiration, and lacking empathy. These traits map well into qualities of leadership such as having vision, having high achievement, and being able to make hard decisions. Unfortunately, narcissism often carries with it a number of negative traits such as manipulation or subversion of individuals, ethical lapses, and a need for constant change. On an organizational level, these traits may serve to undermine workers and the workplace, causing considerable damage in their wake and leaving personnel feeling helpless to intervene. This paper reviews an anonymized organizational case study of narcissistic personality disorder at a university. The dysfunction caused by a narcissistic leader directly led to the collapse of a program at the university, unusually high levels of attrition, and a diminished institutional reputation. This paper considers the implications of opportunistic leadership in eroding organizational resilience. Current research models focus on many of the factors that may erode organizational resilience, but they overlook the internal threat posed by narcissistic leaders. This paper reviews opportunities to consider narcissism as a causal factor in organizational resilience and human reliability analysis.

Ronald Laurids Boring

Maritime Resource Management in the Marine Engineering and Nautical Science Education – Attitudes and Implication for Training and Evaluation

This study presents a survey that has been conducted as part of a larger research project focused on crew resource management in the maritime domain. As research focused on this type of training is currently limited, the Ship Management Attitude Questionnaire (SMAQ) developed by a Swedish marine insurance company, has been adopted to explore NTS knowledge of fourth year students in a maritime education program. Thirty-one students within the maritime academy’s Nautical Science (n = 21) and Marine Engineering (n = 10) programs participated in the survey. The age of the participants ranged between 22 and 46 years (M = 26.6, SD = 5.79). The results show that the questionnaire as is, is maladapted to explore NTS. It is also indicated that practices trained are not always encountered in the work onboard. The article concludes with a discussion on how to potentially improve the evaluation and assessment of NTS in maritime degree programs.

Gesa Praetorius, Carl Hult, Jan Snöberg

A Discussion of Quantitative Stress Analysis in Long-Term Embarked Work

A network of factors in a serial, parallel and cross way transfers the hazard energy until it causes the accident. Ávila adjusted the Swiss cheese model to 8 layers of human elements and 9 layers of dynamic-fallible HF. This discussion will test tools to measure the level of stress and relate causal factors. The relationships between factors in critical activities are studied to prevent loss of perception of new emerging problems. The level of stress is impacted by activities confined progressively. The mind map is altered by the level of stress and affects the outcome tasks. The quantitative relationships try to signal a max stress level. Tasks, skills, technologies, risks are based on maintaining motivation around the psychological contract. Cognitive degradation caused by chronic stress, and, failure caused by acute stress are present in critical tasks and are discussed in divers JOB, oil production operators and astronauts to Mars.

Salvador Ávila, Ronald Boring

Rethinking the Contemporary Art Fairs Through the Viewpoint of Assemblage Theory: A Case Study of ART021 from Shanghai

Approaching the study of the current over-supply of Contemporary Art Fairs from the viewpoint of assemblage theory is what we explored value within this paper. Base on the literature review of Actor-Network Theory (ANT) that gives us an enlightening vocabulary and framework to approach how Art021 built their business network. We connect the case from contemporary art market to analysis the specific art collaborations. The network assembled a number of galleries, collectors, art media and public attending in a certain location and time to construct various projects, campaigns, and exchange. This study set out with the aim of shaping the co-create interest among different stakeholders and describe their marketing solution during the art fair.

Jia Fu

The Effects of Leadership and Management to Organizational Atmosphere and the Impact to Cash Flow Earnings: A Study from SME-Companies in Finland

Due to organizational atmosphere being a very broad entirety, which extends practically to all activities and levels of the organization, it can be considered a strategic matter. Good organizational atmosphere shows off, among other things, as an employee’s satisfaction and empowerment, which increases organizations abilities to innovate and enhance customer satisfaction. Those can be measured with cash flow earnings.This article shows trough a study, made in several Finnish SME-companies, a different way to measure performance and success. The good organizational atmosphere has huge impacts for the financial performance of the company as the article will show. Article also answers to questions how and why cash flow earnings is a good and relevant way to measure success and performance. The future research actions and needs are handled and addressed in the end of the article.

Marcus Penttinen, Lauri Raitala, Tero Reunanen, Jussi Kantola

The Dividers for Continuum of Business in Business Transfer Situations and Impacts to Cash Flow Earnings: A Study from SME-Companies in Finland

The well-functioning markets of business transfers can bring competitive advantage regionally and nationally. At the same time, management and leadership culture in transferred companies are in crucial role for the success or failure of the transferring situations. Valuing business transferring and the organizational success of transfers from the profit and loss statement or return of assets or investment point of view, can raise challenges.This article reveals a different way for valuing business transferring and organizational success of transfer. A cash flow earnings-based method that can take into account the changes happening in different kinds of processes. Through this study there is also brought up some of those factors that have huge impact on the success of transfers. The future research actions and needs are handled and addressed in the end of the article.

Marcus Penttinen, Timo Holopainen, Lauri Raitala, Lassi Rosala, Jussi Kantola

Creating a Physical Bridge Between Management and Leadership as a Strategy to Improve Organization Performance Analysis

Managers are defined by their roles, responsibilities and characteristics aligned with the business goals and objective. In this, regard, the performance of the Organization, largely depend on the quality of management and leadership activities. In many cases, lack of managerial experience, incompetency, lack of leadership skills and inappropriate work experience are the major contributory factor to organizational and business failures. From studies, a major challenge within organizations is associated with restricted channels for innovation in decision-making and process optimization for managers. High emphasis on following the standardized processes, and procedures is another identified challenge. The gap between management and leadership strategies is often phenomenal. Most of the managers use the management functions of controlling, organizing, planning and directing for the applications of principles in connecting resources effectively and achieving the organizational goal without using their own personal strategies. Managers’ are generally trained to follow the policies, processes and procedures handed by their seniors whereas; leaders are there to create solutions to problems encountered in the organization on continuous basis. It is important for managers to equip themselves with both leadership and management skills, in order to be multi-facetted on problem solving without following the standardized processes and procedures. The controlling, planning, organizing and directing role of managers will be highly effective when it is merged with the leadership skills and roles in achieving objectives of that policy. It requires the art of leadership skills to motivate employees towards achieving the common goal set by the organization. Under the inadequate management systems, the members of the organization would pursue their own daily agenda which results in resource and time misuse, causing various failure loops in an organization. The research reviews methods applied in different instances and it communicates the inferences identified based on obvious patterns and correlations that have effectively worked for organizations burdened with similar challenges.

Domininc M. Ramere, Opeyeolu Timothy Laseinde

Credible Evidence Continues to Surface Regarding a Likely “Friendly Fire” Incident Along the Sesame Street and Shrine Corridor Area on June 30, 2013

On June 30, 2013, nineteen Granite Mountain Hot Shots (GMHS) perished on the Yarnell Hill Fire. The Serious Accident Investigation Team - Report conclusion states: “no indication of negligence, reckless actions, or violations of policy or protocol.” Was an unfeasible firing operation dismissed? Video-audio and Hearsay-Exception evidence indicated uncollaborated independent action while GMHS hiked downhill through unburned fuels. Was there a concurrent rogue firing operation? Indications of an unfeasible goal pursuit continued with everything contradicting a sound plan. Contemplated failure led to more entrenched behaviors. Weather deterioration and increased fire behavior were interpreted unrealistically. Both visual and auditory stimuli decreased significantly under stress; listening to cues weakened vision - intense visual cues diminished hearing triggering tunnel vision and auditory exclusion. Fixated goal setting, non-critical thinking, indecision-making, single-mindedness, and leadership dysfunctions concealing possible dire consequences resulted in disaster. “Friendly Fire” decisions and actions are discussed for lessons to reduce similar tragedies.

Fred J. Schoeffler, Lance Honda, Joy A. Collura

Probabilistic Models of Job Placement and Positioning for Students with a Career in Chile

The purpose of this research is to determine the factors that affect the insertion and job positioning of women professional graduates of the public accountant and auditor of the Universidad del Bío-Bío, Chile. The data were obtained through a questionnaire applied to the graduates. Given the dichotomous nature of the dependent variable, logistic regression models are used, for which linear probability models will be used. Three different models are tested for the endogenous variables: average time it takes to find your first job; liquid remuneration of the graduate and the current position of the graduate. The results indicate that the variable that most affects the labor insertion is the recommendation of third parties, meanwhile, that for the job positioning is the postgraduate.

Hanns de la Fuente-Mella, Cecilia Gallegos Muñoz, Estela Rodríguez Quezada, Camila Inostroza Ocares, Mariana Lagos Pérez

Accountability in Assertive Decisions Making

This scientific investigation is a proposal regarding managerial skills for decision making, in the context of emotional intelligence. The objective is to investigate the influence that accountability has on assertive decision-making in all areas and at all hierarchical levels of an SMB in the hospital sector in Tijuana, Baja California, México. The approach is qualitative in phenomenological design, carried out on 10 collaborators: 54.5% operative personnel, 18% support personnel, and 27.5% administrative area. The measurement instruments are focus groups and questionnaires to measure accountability. The data analysis is using descriptive statistics, SPSS version 22 program, and coding tables. The results show that 100% of the collaborators are not aware of the responsibility of the daily decisions and sometimes, the decision-maker prefers not to decide especially for fear of punishment. It is concluded that it is necessary to design an accountability model as a part of the continuous training requirements.

Alma Laura Bonilla-Hernández

Phonological Awareness Intervention and Basic Literacy Skill Development with Kiteracy-PiFo

Phonological awareness refers to a global awareness of the sound structures of speech and the ability to manipulate those structures. Children with phonological awareness problems may have difficulty associating environmental sounds with appropriate objects and they generally do not play with sounds. This paper describes the manufacturing process of an educational kit to strengthen phonological awareness skills. Kiteracy-PiFo is a kit based on the literacy method Picto Phonic (PiFo), which is made up of one teddy bear with a built-in RFID reader and 30 tags that represent the letters of the alphabet. The kit was designed to carry out a longitudinal study in order to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions for children between 5 and 6 years old. In the manufacture of the kit participated 70 students, 5 from Computer Science Career, 20 from Digital and Multimedia Design Career, 45 from Psychology Career and 30 from Master in Education, mention Innovation and Leadership. All of them worked with 7 teachers who guided the development and intervention activities. A total of 25 kit were built, 5 of which were destined at 5 schools in Cartago-Costa Rica, 10 schools in Quito-Ecuador and 10 schools in Ambato-Ecuador. These kits were used to work on the development of phonological awareness with 667 children.

Janio Jadán-Guerrero, Carlos Ramos-Galarza, María de los Angeles Carpio-Brenes, Tania Calle-Jimenez, Luis Salvador-Ullauri, Isabel L. Nunes

Leadership Competencies for Digital Transformation: Evidence from Multiple Cases

Digital transformation (DT) is disrupting industrial organizations, which require significant changes in their properties to remain competitive. This calls for strong leadership to drive this transformation. However, what leadership competencies are required to lead DT impactfully is unclear. Therefore, we seek to identify the key leadership competencies by employing a qualitative, grounded theory approach. By conducting interviews of ten DT experts from two hardcore industrial organizations, we highlight five key leadership competencies that industrial organizations need to develop in their leaders: digital vision, digital knowledge, failing fast, empowerment, and managing diverse teams. The results of this study will help industrial organizations to strategically prepare their leadership for the requirements of DT.

Faisal Imran, Khuram Shahzad, Aurangzeab Butt, Jussi Kantola

Lean Manufacturing Model of Production Management Under the Focus on Maintenance Planned to Improve the Capacity Used in a Plastics Industry SME

Nowadays, SME industries in the plastics sector fail to work with their maximum installed capacity, among the main factors are lack of market, normal or inevitable and conventional or technical stops, will be dealt with in this investigation. The problem is evident in 71.45%, the average percentage of capacity used in the plastics industries in Peru. Therefore, this article proposes the development of a three-phase production model and complements the Planned Maintenance pillar with Lean tools that seek to improve the capacity used by 17% in industries in the sector. The model starts with the 5S as a basis and support to standardize the ordering and cleaning habits to continue with SMED and Planned Maintenance of TPM. The model was validated with an implementation, an 18% increase in the production capacity used, so it can be concluded that the proposal for improvement presented serves as a reference for future research.

Diana Fernández-Marca, Karla Mostacero-Rojas, Víctor Núñez-Ponce, Carlos Raymundo, Nestor Mamani-Macedo, Javier M. Moguerza

Rural Tourism Development Proposal. Case Study: The Commune El Palmar, Santa Elena Canton, Ecuador

Tourism activities in rural areas in Latin America and the global consensus on the subject, simplistically links tourism as a solution to poverty and environmental protection. 26.1% of the Ecuadorian population prefers to visit the rural area, feel linked to nature, peace and harmony, breathe fresh air, have a more natural and healthy way of life. Therefore, the objective of studying the subject is to enhance the tourism offer for the local and rural development of the Palmar commune, taking advantage of the natural tourist attractions that it has, through ecological tourism with a proposal of an ecological path to María Guare hill, Palmar beach and Rosada beach, through the Mangrove and the cliff, in order to raise awareness and conserve this natural resource through environmental education, while generating a source of economic income for the Commune.

Fernando Alberto García Alarcón, Rosa María Pin Guerrero, Jesús Rafael Hechavarría Hernández

5. Shadow Banking in Asia

The Asia region is a very interesting playfield from a shadow banking industry perspective. Not only is there the Chinese shadow banking market with its distinct characteristics, products and market participants and with its own set of particularities and intricacies. Clearly driven by its specific economic-political context, it makes headlines pretty much every single week. The same can be said about the Indian shadow banking segment, which for a long time has been decorated with providing real economic benefits to the economy during a period that the largely state-led banking industry didn’t cover large parts of the emerging Indian economy. But there is a wider variety of shadow banking markets in the region, two meaningful international financial centers (Singapore and Hong Kong), and a large set of countries in Central Asia with almost non-existent shadow banking markets often driven by its closed economies, politically controlled banking industry and capital controls.

Luc Nijs

3. The EU Shadow Banking Market

The European Union (EU) is an economic and monetary union with countries holding distinct regulatory autonomy. That makes it unique but also mind-bendingly bizarre. Shadow banking segments in the different EU countries hold clear and distinct characteristics that set them apart. Nevertheless, they all operate within the same economic and monetary union. The European Commission from its side sees the future of the EU financial infrastructure as one large and deepening financial open space called the capital markets union. The hope is to balance the still dominant banking industry with market-based finance channels and products. Part of that effort is to create more broadband access to finance for small- and medium-sized enterprises. One of the tools is a renewed and union-broad securitization market. To that effect the simple, transparent and standardized securitization regulation was enacted in recent years. Questions can and will be asked about the usefulness of many of such measures. It is clear that despite the differences among EU countries, shadow banking is on the rise in the entire EU and has become a material part of the contemporary EU financial infrastructure. Concerning is the fact that the most sizeable growth has been identified in the other financial institution segment and in particular the miscellaneous category, that is, containing a variety of funds largely unregulated and unsupervised and as a consequence often limited information is available about its activities and embedded risks. Part of the analysis includes how the shadow banking segments relate to the still dominant traditional banking space in the EU. The last subsection is dedicated to a thorough analysis of the concept safe assets and the ill-received proposal for EU-wide sovereign bond-backed securities. How to create safe sovereign assets in an imperfect fiscal and political union and avoid a new euro crisis is the central question on the table.

Luc Nijs

7. The Policy Train Chasing Shadow Banking

This chapter takes a step back and asks the question what happened when the dust settled after the financial crisis of 2007–2009. There was time for analysis and reflection. But then it was time to take action based on those findings and experiences. But where to start in a complex domain with many issues that require attention? And does dealing with the 2007–2009 issues solve the deeper root-cause problems? If we don’t want to go down the road of fixing the symptoms, what are then the underlying objectives? Financial stability, liquidity, risk neutralization, keep credit flowing at all times and so on. And what are the best tools to achieve those objectives? Ex ante regulation is needed but inherently insufficient; ex post regulation is to ensure that things are cleaned up as soon as possible and markets don’t stay instable longer then absolutely needed. And how does regulation relate to macroprudential and monetary policies that carry the same objective? And can supervision and stress testing contribute to those joint objectives? An analysis of what happened and the decisions made in the financial industry and the different shadow banking segments is the subject of this chapter.

Luc Nijs

Chapter 2. Illustrating an Organisation’s Strategy as a Map

Business strategies need to be communicated and internalized by employees to make a difference. In this chapter we explore how balanced scorecards and strategy maps can facilitate such communication and dialogue among employees. We build on references from the field of strategic management control and a well-grounded overview of the concept of storytelling from the field of cinema studies. In addition to this, we offer an in-depth case description of how the Swedish €100+ million amusement park group, Parks and Resorts Scandinavia, has deigned their strategy map visually, to engage their employees in talking about the strategy and measuring its execution. Our recommendation is that designers of scorecards and strategy maps should take the learnings from motion-picture storytellers into account and apply these experiences in their effort to make the strategy everyone’s job. We especially highlight the two concepts (1) simple design that creates intense content, and (2) “suspension of disbelief”, i.e. how the designer of the strategy map can strike a deal with the viewers (the employees in the organisation) such that they interpret and trust the content in the strategy map.

Thomas Falk, Carl-Johan Petri, Jan Roy, Åke Walldius

Chapter 8. Management Control as Strategic Dialogue—A Memoir

The chapter summarizes the forces that shaped management control over the last half-century, based on the author’s work as an educator, author, consultant and researcher. While many of the fundamental issues of organisation life remained the same, conditions changed. Methods that became influential later were proposed already in the 1970s, for instance multicriteria targets and mobilizing local knowledge in large organisations. Change has been slower and more gradual than expected then, and he believes some of the advice given in the 1970s could have made our ride during the next half-century less bumpy. Since 1970 strategic management control has emerged as the key process for coordinating decentralized action, supported by the simultaneous development of information systems. Its contribution to success rests on strategic dialogues, leading to shared views on tasks and expectations. They need to combine facts and credible assumptions into narratives supported by evidence. Convincing scenarios will make organisation members eager to contribute their part to the journey envisioned in its strategies. Articulating beliefs, possibilities, and preferences during a strategic dialogue presupposes data on performance and future options. Metrics are central to this kind of control, and they need to connect these to vital aspects of strategy and environment.

Nils-Göran Olve
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