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Many teachers are hesitant as to how to teach about ICT and, at the same time, integrate ICT into subject-based learning. Parents and the community-at-large have goals that differ from the goals espoused by teachers and students. This volume highlights the concerns of all - students, teachers, parents, policy makers and the general public.

Major themes in Learning in School, Home and Community: ICT for Early and Elementary Education include:
*Teachers' and researchers' studies of ICT use in school, home and community.
*National strategies and policies affecting ICT use in school, home and community.
*ICT tools designed to promote learning and the optimal settings to promote learning.
*School and community responses to ICT use that promote the integration of ICT for all members of the community.

This volume contains the selected proceedings of the Working Conference on Learning with Technologies in School, Home and Community, which was sponsored by the International Federation for Information Processing (IFIP) and held June 30-July 5, 2002 in Manchester, United Kingdom.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Learning

Frontmatter

Learning in school and out: Formal and informal experiences with computer games in mathematical contexts

Abstract
This paper presents the results of a study investigating the mathematical understandings, social processes and features of computer software that most appealed to children of primary school age. The study was conducted in both school and after-school contexts where computer games were used in different settings. The data reported here pertain to the out-of-school component of the study. The children attended a suburban primary school in a large urban area in Australia, and, in the after-school program located on the site, were free to choose and use the software in any way that they desired. The results of the study revealed that the children enjoyed games that had a narrative content and activities that went beyond those of traditional mathematical tasks. They preferred playing games that were problem-solving tasks, such as puzzles or spatial activities. They interacted frequently across age and gender, and indicated that they recognised the mathematical content of the majority of the games presented to them. The study highlights some major differences between in-school and after-school uses of computers, and suggests that the informal context was not only conducive to learning but also afforded opportunities for the children to interact in new and dynamic ways.
Nicola Yelland

Using technology to encourage social problem solving in preschoolers

Abstract
A recent emphasis in the early childhood literature has been on using computers to facilitate social skills in preschool children. Findings are mixed on how well children collaborate when using computers. This inconsistency indicates that the design of the computer curriculum may dictate the nature of the climate of use.
Our work examines a cooperative classroom approach to computer use to “alter” the roles of students and teachers. Our premise is that computers can encourage socialization among children, thereby forming the basis for early cooperative learning.
Mandy B. Medvin, Diana Reed, Deborah Behr, Elizabeth Spargo

Using electronic mail communication and metacognitive instruction to improve mathematical problem solving

Abstract
The present study investigated the effects of e-mail communication between teachers and students embedded within metacognitive instruction on mathematical problem solving. Three learning environments are compared: (a) e-mail communication with metacognitive instruction (META+EMAIL); (b) e-mail communication without metacognitive instruction (EMAIL); and (c) face-to-face communication (CONT group).
Participants were 119 fifth-grade students (boys and girls), who practiced six weeks of problem solving on authentic tasks in three classes. Students who were exposed to e-mail conversation and metacognitive instruction (EMAIL+META) outperformed students who were not exposed to metacognitive instruction (EMAIL and CONT) on problem solving. The effects were observed on various aspects of solving authentic tasks: (a) processing information; (b) using mathematical strategies; and (c) using mathematical communcation. The EMAIL students outperformed the CONT students only on one criterion: Using mathematical strategies.
Bracha Kramarski, Adiva Liberman

Online searching as apprenticeship

Young people and web search strategies
Abstract
To participate in the Information Society, it is necessary to acquire online searching skills. Despite the promise of improved searching software and the promises of instant access to information made by the search engines themselves, the process still requires human cognition. Many studies of searching behaviour have been made and are summarised along with a report of current research on group interviews with 10 year-old school children. Attitudes to searching the web and negotiating the various digital repositories of information available to them provide valuable clues about children’s e-learning. A significant finding was the lack of distinction made between resources held on local machines, those on the school network and those on the Internet itself. Analysed from a phenomenographic point of view, it appears that young people are concerned about protecting their own data and privacy, and often those concerns override the need to find new information. Searching was not seen as an activity in its own right; instead, young people concentrated on identifying sources that were usable in a given context. Also of importance was the role of social collaboration, both with siblings and parents, in web searching.
Matthew Pearson

The use of virtual reality three-dimensional simulation technology in nursery school teacher training for the understanding of children’s cognitive perceptions

Abstract
This study examined the effectiveness and efficiency of a three-dimensional virtual reality simulation model designed to train nursery school teachers in the understanding of nursery school children’s cognitive perceptions. An experimental group of 45 nursery school teachers underwent 20 hours of virtual reality simulation as opposed to 20 hours of workshop activity experienced by 44 nursery school teachers in a comparable control group. Both methodologies were designed to promote improved understanding of children’s cognitive perceptions. After the training sessions the teachers were observed in their nursery school work over a period of two days by three nursery school supervisors who evaluated the research subjects’ understanding of nursery school teacher’s cognitive perceptions.
Statistical analysis of the data indicate that the nursery school teachers who were trained through the virtual reality simulation technology were significantly more understanding of children’s cognitive perceptions and needs than those trained through the workshop method. Thus, in light of the results of the study, it is suggested that teacher trainers should favourably consider using virtual reality simulation models in the training of nursery school teachers in order to maximise the effectiveness of the teacher training process.
Yaacov J. Katz

Exploring visible mathematics with IMAGINE

Building new mathematical cultures with a powerful computational system
Abstract
In our paper we explore how programmable pictures together with events, parallel independent processes and direct manipulation tools can be used for building powerful interactive visual elements and provide rich environments for exploring basic mathematical concepts. To visualize the concepts we use IMAGINE turtles, the shapes of which are specified by the Logo language. Thus we achieve high interactivity in the resulting microworlds. Children can easily create such objects, control them, combine, move, group, match, etc. We hope that new features of IMAGINE will inspire math teachers and developers to create new visible math educational materials.
Ivan Kalas, Andrej Blaho

Cooperative networks enable shared knowledge

Rapid dissemination of innovative ideas and digital culture
Abstract
The paper reports developmental research using Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in support of the sharing of knowledge and expertise of digital culture. In both sites for advanced learning, cooperative team projects provide a way for stakeholders to exchange knowledge and become enabled by new technologies. Professional development provides advanced teacher knowledge on learning, motivation and engagement in problem-based learning as a basis for the use of hand-held computers and networks to support strategic cooperative thinking among teams. The skills and confidence of young students using networked ICT is shared with less technically confident teachers. Expert teacher design of the learning context continually draws students’ attention to the kinds of capabilities, knowledge, thinking and tools that are used to achieve different goals.
Networked learning also has high economic value. A networked community comprised of teachers, students, scientists, and business people was developed to enable advanced learning in innovation. Three key features of the research projects were: The younger members of the community had the greatest knowledge of and commitment to communication and knowledge building in a digital culture; the development of authentic cooperation required all members to adopt new roles and rethink the traditional patterns of behaviour; teachers have made a particularly valuable professional contribution as they applied their expertise to facilitate learning and relationships for knowledge exchange.
Kate Crawford

Teaching

Frontmatter

Developing an ICT capability for learning

Abstract
Learning effectively with Information and Communication Technology (ICT) requires an appropriate level of ICT capability. This paper explores the ways in which children develop their capability in home and school, and how their skills support ICT activity and learning in each setting. Conditions for developing ICT capability during such activities are identified using a framework for analysing learning situations based on affordances, constraints and abilities. It is concluded that all aspects of young children’s ICT capability can be developed effectively through a combination of structured activities in school designed primarily for learning other subjects, provided that subsequent reflective activity is generated. This learning is supported by unstructured activities at home, and provided that they have access to appropriate guidance from more capable family and friends. Suggestions are made concerning the coordination of school and home ICT activities in order to exploit the positive features of each setting, and generate effective learning within and beyond the formal curriculum.
Steve Kennewell

Separated by a common technology? Factors affecting ICT-related activity in home and school

Abstract
There has been a steady growth in the number of computers in both home and school over the last decade and it is now clear that there is the potential for activities in those settings to be linked through a common technology.
This paper explores the relationship between computer-based activities in home and school by considering each of those settings as a distinct, but related, community of practice. The exploration of the relationship is based on Benzie’s (2000) research that highlights the significance of power, motivation and legitimacy as forces which affect, in Lave and Wenger’s (1991) terms, peripheral participation in a community of practice. The paper suggests that this perspective can be used to help shape worthwhile Information and Communication Technology (ICT)-related activities that link home and school.
David Benzie

The interaction between primary teachers’ perceptions of ICT and their pedagogy

Abstract
A qualitative, case study approach was used to investigate the perceptions and pedagogy of a small group of teachers working within one school, Carberry Junior School in England. The study was carried out during an eighteen-month period of significant change in primary schools responding to the UK Government’s National Grid for Learning (NGfL) initiative and its impact on models of access to ICT resources and expectations in teaching and pupil achievement. The paper highlights the teachers’ perceptions of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) as a social and cultural phenomenon, as an ambiguous area constructed as a discrete subject, curriculum resource and higher-order capability, and as a “new” field in primary schools. An interactive model is proposed to describe the interaction of the teachers’ perceptions and pedagogy. The case study can offer insight to a consideration of professional development with ICT in primary schools during a period of rapid change in resource provision and expectations of teachers’ use of ICT to support teaching and learning.
Avril M. Loveless

Capacity building in tele-houses

A model for tele-mentoring
Abstract
This paper describes the tele-house pilot project designed to serve Hungarian learning communities. In the project participating children are mentored by students in pre-service Informatics courses using distance learning technology. Two web-based learning material collections designed by the TEAM Lab <http://​www.​team-lab.​ini.​hu> provide a constructivist approach and allow different learning styles to emerge. The NETLogo component provides self-paced discovery learning with individual guidance while the Creative Communications component provides project-based group learning with collaboration and group mentoring. The pilot project went through two sessions of an Action Research process that aimed to build a suitable model extendable to the whole network of tele-houses and to contribute to the introduction of distance education in order to support under-developed regions of Hungary.
Márta Turcsányi-Szabó

Policy

Frontmatter

ICT for rural education

A developing country perspective
Abstract
In 1991, as part of its educational reform, the Chilean government launched the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in Schools initiative, the “Enlaces Network”. Its aim is to properly integrate ICT into Chilean public schools. After more than ten years of development, with 100 percent of Chilean secondary schools and more than 50 percent of the primary schools already using ICT, Enlaces is entering a new phase with a more curriculum-oriented focus and with the goal of incorporating all rural schools by year 2005.
The paper addresses the main implementation constraints of the Chilean rural environment and their effect on the ongoing ICT policy: The geographical isolation and precarious infrastructure; the fact that rural schools are usually very small schools with different grades sharing the same classroom. The cultural reality of rural areas involves a special kind of relationship between the school and the local community. Those constraints, together with the previous experience with Enlaces in different Chilean realities, have been taken into account to define a special ICT policy for rural schools in Chile. First, a special long-term teacher training program with a specific pedagogical approach that fits a rural environment has been developed and tested in pilot schools. Second, the definition of a local support organisation to help sustain development strategies in the long run has been established. Third, the hardware and software infrastructure required and Internet access have also been analysed together with the technical support Finally, community involvement in school activities was also included in the policy.
Pedro Hepp, Ernesto Laval

National plans and local challenges

Preparing for lifelong learning in a digital society
Abstract
This paper presents a case study of a Norwegian primary school as an example of the approach used to introduce Information and Communication Technology (ICT) policy in Norway. After an overview of Norwegian school system and national goals for ICT in education, the paper describes the challenges teachers and schools face when implementing curricula designed to fulfill different national expectations, ranging from specific skills and pieces of knowledge to more general goals such as preparing students for the future society. National curriculum guidelines describe what should be taught and what skills should be mastered but local schools and teachers must do the actual implementation. The most important actor in the Norwegian classroom is the student while the teacher creates stimulating learning environments. Learning to learn and lifelong learning are considered the main tasks of schools. This paper presents a programme of a lower primary school (6 to 10 year-olds) which has taken up the challenge of focusing on learning to learn, including use of ICT. Skjong barneskule, where learning to learn and learning how to use ICT is combined with development of a richer learning environment and learning specific knowledge, exemplifies the Norwegian programme.
Sindre Røsvik

Learning online

E-learning and the domestic market in the UK
Abstract
Over the past decade the Internet has become a vital educational resource. In this paper we look at the growing e-learning industry, focusing on the conflict of interests which has emerged between the public and private sectors. We also look at the impact of new media on the demand for more traditional media.
Margaret Scanlon, David Buckingham

Glimpses of educational transformation

Making choices at a turning point
Abstract
This paper is based on the study of four separate evaluations of the implementation of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) policies in schools in England during 1998–2002. The education system was in transition with new equipment coming into schools and patterns of computer use changing radically as a result of the Internet and school intranets. The most significant impact appeared to result from children’s extended access to computers in the home. Children were using ICT in exploratory and innovative ways for leisure activities through which they were rapidly acquiring advanced skills. They also had the kind of sophisticated understanding of the role of computers in today’s world that is a necessary condition of being able to envisage possible ways of using ICT for maximum benefit. The paper comes to the conclusion that a more radical approach to re-structuring the education system is necessary.
Bridget S. Somekh

How do we know that ICT has an impact on children’s learning?

A review of techniques and methods to measure changes in pupils’ learning promoted by the use of ICT
Abstract
Over the past 30 years many studies have been conducted into the effects of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) on pupils’ learning. The methods used have ranged from intervention methods where the researchers have brought specific educational software into the classroom and used subject-based tests to large-scale studies using pre- and post-tests of pupils in many different classroom settings.
Previous reviews concerning the validity of educational research findings in ICT have revealed limitations regarding the generalisability of some results and the consistency of the findings due to a number of factors: e.g., using conventional tests which may not measure the specific learning which occurs from the use of ICT; or conducting small—scale case studies, sometimes with little analysis of the wider implications of the findings. Many research studies do not take account of the possible longer-term impact of ICT on learning, which may result from the consequent learner’s reflections and metacognition. This paper reviews a range of research methods and results which have been used in the past, and considers the consistency, the limitations and the implications for future research into the effects of ICT on pupils’ learning.
Margaret J. Cox

Backmatter

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