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Über dieses Buch

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Learning Technology for Education in Cloud, LTEC 2016, held in Hagen, Germany, in July 2016.

The 25 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 51 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on learning technologies; learning tools and environment; MOOC for learning; problem solving and knowledge transfer; case study.



Learning Technologies


Revisiting Mathematical Textbooks Problems in a Technology Enhanced Learning Environment

We analyse and discuss the extent to which the systematic use of digital tools offers prospective and practicing high school teachers an opportunity to construct and explore dynamic models of textbook problems in terms of visual, empirical, and geometric reasoning. In this context, the use of the tool not only offers them novel ways to think of the tasks, but also to engage in problem solving activities to extend and look for connections of the initial statements. Thus, the use of technologies provides learners a set of affordances to represent and explore dynamically textbook problems and to look for and support mathematical relationships.
Matías Camacho-Machín, Mar Moreno, Manuel Santos-Trigo

The Knowledge Management into Technology Based Firms (Model Proposal)

This article works on how the knowledge management could helps a specific kind of companies (technology based firms) to increase and take advantage of the benefits that its implementation can carry out. It was made a research about the technology-based firms (TBF’s) and its main characteristics, after it’s described the main contributions of the most representative Knowledge Management model from which are obtained important pillars to finally presents and develops a proposal KM model for TBF’s.
Jorge Leonardo Puentes, Nancy Yurani Ortiz, José Ignacio Rodriguez

Informational Technology Skills and Media Literacy in Students: A Case Study

There is agreement on the contribution of technology to teaching and learning. Given its potential we can find a number of features that promote learning as the possibility of establishing a two-way communication, the potential of the interaction between teachers and students, the ability to organize, adapt and be flexible with information based on the needs and requirements of students. Notwithstanding, there’s not much information on the effects of using technology in the teaching and learning process or the elements we should consider to analyze the use of technology in teaching and learning. In order to answer these questions, the work presented here aims to assess the current state of the research in the area of ICT skills and media literacy in Chilean students.
Jorge Chavez, Claudia Jaramillo, Dario Liberona

A Case of Emotional Intelligence for Teachers’ Professional Development: Emotions and Connections are Ubiquitous in Second Life

Success in teaching requires teachers’ strong social and emotional competences to effectively manage and develop students’ emotional development in every day practice. Having identified the important role of these competencies in schools, virtual learning environments (VLEs) and specifically environments like Second Life (SL) could be selected in order to enhance teachers’ and students’ social and emotional intelligence. Teachers could reflect, practice and improve their use of social and emotional competences in the classrooms by using Teachers’ Professional Development programs (TPD), thereby making further improvements to their teaching. These training programs could support teachers by using suitable frameworks aligned with social and emotional learning (SEL). In this paper, we highlight the significance of TPD programs by presenting a SEL workshop on SL in order to better understand and enhance Emotional Intelligent (EI) for teachers’ competencies. This study reveals that after having received training in a Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) workshop on Second Life (SL), teachers ‘effectiveness in recognizing the EI components is highly increased.
Ioanna Giannakou, Fotini Paraskeva, Aikaterini Alexiou, Hara Bouta

Using Games to Improve Learning Skills in Students with Cognitive Disabilities Through Kinect Technology

The purpose of this paper is to present the use of ICT tools to improve the performance of students with some cognitive disabilities in Colombia, the use of tools and software based on .Net and Java can build interesting alternatives that can be evaluated and applied learning different fields, such as mathematics, physics and others, through interactive games that make learning how to be more successful students.
Dacarth Sarmiento, Yesid Díaz, Roberto Ferro

Web Framework for Developing Real Time Applications for Education

SCALE-UP classrooms are designed to provide an environment for active and collaborative learning. These teaching techniques rely heavily on the collaboration between students, and implementing them in courses with a high number of students is a challenge. Therefore the use of technology is needed.
In this work we have developed a modular education-oriented Web framework that provides: a real time communication infrastructure; a simple access mechanism; a user interface; and positioning and identification of students in the classroom. The framework is primarily (but not exclusively) intended to be used with the mobile devices that the students already have. The whole code is publicly available on the Internet under the GNU Affero General Public License.
On top of this framework, we are developing a set of modules to be used in SCALE-UP classrooms. This whole platform will provide a working environment for the classroom activities and, by monitoring the responses of students, the platform will make possible to identify students with different answers, encouraging discussion and collaboration among them.
Werner Creixell, Cristóbal Ganter

Learning Tools and Environment


Proposal of a Standard Architecture of IoT for Smart Cities

The Internet of Things (IoT) makes reference to the interconnection between different devices and internet; in the last years has been studied its development, impact and improvement, to answer to common needs of society, its requirements and to the kind of applications that demands to be developed. That contributes largely to the technology development and hence also to the growth of the cities. Nevertheless, so far applications just reply to particular necessities, so it is important to know how its structure can be developed to attend to the general requirements of cities to become those into Smart Cities, without affecting their correct performance. This paper aims to show a proposal of a standard IoT architecture for Smart Cities done from author’s research, review and analysis of available data, especially of generic and implemented structures in some Smart Cities around the world.
July Katherine Díaz Barriga, Christian David Gómez Romero, José Ignacio Rodríguez Molano

Investigating the Experience of Moodle Adoption Through Expert Voices

Virtual learning environments (VLEs) such as Moodle are now widely used in universities and other organisations. One crucial factor in the successful employment of such platforms is the ability and commitment of teaching staff to adopt the system. Despite the importance of this role, there has been little work to examine the experience of using VLEs in practice. This paper presents initial, qualitative research aimed at understanding how Moodle is being used and the different experiences and perspectives of the staff involved. To generate themes and areas of interest for future investigation this paper uses interview data from two “expert witnesses” who have a deep understanding of how the platform is used. Emergent themes include: divergence between confident and basic users; the spread of usage within an academic community; lack of progression to innovative teaching methods.
Jane Sinclair, Anne-Maria Aho

Learning Strategies and Interpersonal Relationships of Students Learning Cooperatively Online

Adult learners studying cooperatively are thought to have an innate predisposition to help each other in the process of learning, but cooperation among learners online who do not necessary know each other may not occur spontaneously. It has often been suggested that learning online requires being autonomous and able to effectively regulate one’s learning. Research using two scales, one to measure Self- and Co-Regulation (SCoR) of learning, the other to measure interpersonal relationships, was carried out with first-year Master’s in education students (N = 38) taking an online course in quantitative research methodology. The course was designed using a cooperative learning method enabling to study SCoR strategies in relation to the quality of interpersonal relationships, as well as achievement in this setting. The research is presented. Conclusions point to the role of individual anticipation strategies and to the quality of peer relationships in relation to higher achievement.
Jonathan Kaplan

Teaching Students to Learn IDEA: The Impact of Learner Attitudes

Technology is pervasive every profession. Successful professionals must be able to learn new technologies throughout their careers. Students who learn new technologies as part of a college curriculum are more equipped to meet this challenge; this effect is enhanced if the technologies learned in college are used in the student’s future profession. However, some students learn course-specific technologies more easily than others. Our study investigates accounting students who learn the auditing software IDEA. While prior research has shown that technology acceptance and aptitude for learning technology both are relevant to technology adoption decisions of organizations, prior research has not applied these models to teaching and learning professional-level technology. We found that technology acceptance and self-perceptions of the ability to learn had significant impacts on students’ achievement with the new technology. When students believed their aptitude for learning technology was higher, they showed higher achievement in using IDEA.
D’Arcy Becker, Dawna Drum, Aimee Pernsteiner

Emotion Determination in eLearning Environments Based on Facial Landmarks

Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) are a new kind of e-Learning environment, which enables us to address untold numbers of students. MOOCs allow students all over the world to participate in lectures independent of place and time. The sessions that are in some cases joined by more than 100,000 students are based on small units of teaching material containing videos or texts.
However today’s MOOCs are static environments, which do not take into account the diversity of the students and their situational context. Current MOOCs can be seen as mass processing but not as an individual treatment of individual students. Thus MOOCs need to be personalized in addition to massive.
In order to personalize an e-Learning environment it is first of all necessary to collect data, or personal factors, about the student, his or her current environment and his or her situational context. This data should later be processed and used as input for adaptive functions. Basically there are many input factors imaginable, such as cognitive style, preknowledge, currently used device or personal goals. The input factors can be grouped into technical, personal and situational factors. Especially situational factors may help to support students in different learning situations.
This paper describes an approach to detect the student’s current mood as a situational input factor. The mood of a student in a learning situation might be an interesting feature that can be used as an instant feedback for the currently used teaching materials. The proposed approach is based on widespread availability of built-in cameras in devices that are used by students, such as smart-phones, tablets or laptop computers. The captured frames from these devices are processed by a Java-based server component that detects selected facial landmarks. Based on the relative position of these landmarks the potential shown emotion is determined.
The output of the system may be used to adjust the difficulty level of tests or to determine the preferred media type.
Tobias Augustin

MOOC for Learning


A Practical Experience on the Use of Gamification in MOOC Courses as a Strategy to Increase Motivation

The rapid and constant pace of change in technology and the increasing involvement of educational institutions in the massive online open courses (MOOC) movement elicit a large myriad of opportunities and challenges. One of the main issues is the reported high dropout rate. In this sense, gamification strategies have been proposed as a complement to existing learning approaches providing a powerful and motivational learning experience to students. Examples of gamification strategies for MOOC environments include rewards for learning activities, applying levels and leader-boards to encourage progress and competition, and badges for participation in forums. The aim of this study is to contribute to the analysis of motivational factors to provide improved learning experiences for cloud-based learning services. This paper presents lessons learned from the MOOC course “Authoring tools for e-learning courses”. 1678 participants experienced a mix of gamification strategies: Badges – Leaderboard forums; Students Classifier League and Reward strategy. Findings revealed the reward strategy as the most effective one, and indicated increased motivation to complete the assigned learning activities.
Miguel Morales, Hector R. Amado-Salvatierra, Rocael Hernández, Johanna Pirker, Christian Gütl


Ubiquitous Networked Learning in Higher Education
Higher Education tries to meet the call for openness and internationalization, moving (parts of) its learning-environments from brick and mortar universities to virtual learning environments. This implies a different and higher heterogeneity and requires an awareness and consideration of underlying and often unconscious cultural differences in understandings of learning and knowledge. “Throughputs” (like interaction, communication and interrelations) become more important than inputs (expert-knowledge) and outputs (skills and competences) and require theories, approaches, and concepts that go beyond mere technological solutions to make throughputs visible and to enable enhanced processes of learning.
Sabine Siemsen

Case Study on Using MOOC Materials in a Small Private Online Course

In National Ilan University, we utilize Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) as the courseware in a Small Private Online Course (SPOC). In this paper, we share the experience that how we manage and operate the SPOC course for the students in a part-time master program. We identify that the MOOCs can provide good learning materials. In addition, the teacher and TA pay lots of efforts on the courses such as answering the student’s questions and online discussion. The students in the SPOC obtain better achievements than the students who complete the MOOCs.
Whai-En Chen

Open Education – A Challenge for E-training

Information and communication technology is dramatically changing the world we live in. Over recent years, open resources and open education have been part of different initiatives and projects. Nowadays, information can be easily reached from different sources and knowledge can be acquired outside of the traditional bricks-and-mortar institutions. Massive open online courses (MOOCs) are challenging higher education, however the experts and researchers are yet to reach a consensus on whether MOOCs will change the nature of higher education. This paper analyses the issues of whether MOOCs pose a threat to higher education institutions, if they are a feasible replacement for payable study programs or whether they support people willing to learn in their lifelong learning process. These questions are analyzed from a business perspective rather than from the point of formal (higher) education. We are asking if the MOOCs present the opportunity for in-house company training.
Viktorija Florjančič

Problem Solving and Knowledge Transfer


Designing Technology-Based Tasks for Enhancing Mathematical Understanding Through Problem Solving

In this paper, we propose some organizing principles that can be useful for high schools or bachelor mathematics teachers when designing technology-based instructional tasks. It is widely accepted that tasks are the most important aspect to promote students’ mathematical understanding, since tasks offer opportunities to attain relevant sensorial experiences fostering the construction of mental images as sources of meanings for mathematical concepts. In this vein, we reflect on the work developed by three bachelor mathematics teachers who participated in a problem solving seminar. The main points identified during task design involved recognizing how mathematical concepts are structured around the task, and which are needed to approach it, and proposing a hypothetical learning trajectory in which technology plays a role as amplifier and reorganizer of cognitive processes.
Fernando Barrera-Mora, Aaron Reyes-Rodriguez

Digital Technologies and a Modeling Approach to Learn Mathematics and Develop Problem Solving Competencies

This study is framed within a conceptual approach that integrates modeling, problem solving, and the use of digital technologies perspectives in mathematical learning. It focuses on the use of a Dynamic Geometry System (GeoGebra) to construct mathematical models as a means to represent and explore mathematical relationships. In particular, we analyze and document what ways of reasoning high school students exhibit as a result of working on a mathematical task in problem solving sessions. Results show that the students rely on a set of technology affordances to dynamically visualize, represent and explore mathematical relations. In this process, the students’ discussions became relevant not only to explain their approaches; but also to contrast, and eventually refine, their initial models and ways of reasoning.
Manuel Santos-Trigo, Isaid Reyes-Martínez, Daniel Aguilar-Magallón

Knowledge Transference and Management Model for MSMEs Through the Pedagogical Strategy of Simulated Companies

This is a model proposal for the improvement and strengthening of the training processes through management strategies and modern pedagogies, which energize and make the learning process more efficient, thus contributing to improve the processes and actions of the Micro, small and medium enterprises ¨MSMEs” of the region supplying their demand for knowledge.
In the research, existent world theories were analyzed related to the management and transference of knowledge as innovative approaches to better the performance and competitiveness supported within the human component as the most valuable resource of the organization. Also, the pedagogical strategy of simulated companies was analyzed as a worldwide experience that can expand the process of comprehensive professional training. The study was implemented in the Centre for Commerce and Services of the Colombian National Learning Service (SENA - Institution for technical training) in Risaralda in order to provide an opportunity to improve the quality of the training imparted by SENA, adding value by stablishing an approximation and a connection with the production environment, where the common and fundamental factor is the transfer of information between different parties.
Sandra Bonilla Cely, Leonor Rojas Marmolejo, Victor Hugo Medina García

Knowledge Management Metamodel from Social Analysis of Lessons Learnt Registered in the Cloud

This article describes the development of a functional architecture for Personal Knowledge Management, defined from the lessons-learnt concept registered in a mass-use social network. This functional architecture applies, in practical manner, the implementation of a registry system of the personal lessons learnt in the cloud through a Facebook social network. The process starts by acquiring data from the connection to a non-relational database (NoSql) in Amazon’s SimpleDB and to which a complementary analysis algorithm has been configured for the semantic analysis of the information registered from lessons learnt and, thus, study the generation of Organizational Knowledge Management from Personal Knowledge Management. The final result is the design of a functional architecture that permits integrating the Web 2.0 Application and a semantic analysis algorithm from unstructured information by applying machine learning techniques.
José López Quintero, Víctor Hugo Medina García, Cristina Pelayo García

Case Study


Teaching Information Literacy in Secondary Education: How to Design Professional Development for Teachers?

The networked information and media society provides us increasingly with digital information and knowledge. However, the effective and efficient use of information also requires a high level of information literacy (IL), the competent handling of information and the ability to do that from an early age. Despite this early beginning, the development of IL is considered an important goal of schoolteachers who are required to integrate IL into their daily teaching practice. One reason that IL has only been considered sporadically in education is the lack of a scientifically proven model to operationalize and measure IL. Furthermore, teachers are often uncertain when dealing with digital media pedagogically and need support and clarity in terms of how to evaluate IL in their specific subjects. In the implementation of formal educational efforts, the low practical feasibility in specific working contexts, time and financial aspects are criticized. The current contribution presents a 7i model for the conceptualization and measurement of IL. Furthermore, it provides alternatives to the dominant “training model” to develop the competence of teachers by combining formal and informal learning.
Sabine Seufert, Nina Scheffler, Katarina Stanoevska-Slabeva, Severina Müller

Can K-12 Students Learn How to Program with just Two Hours?

This paper presents results of analyzing almost 1500 students’, from ages 6 to 18, feedback and test results to a two hour long programming workshop using LEGO Mindstorms kits. Students had very little or no previous programming experience. At the end of the workshop they were asked how the workshop affected their interest towards engineering in general, robotics and programming. They were also asked list of theoretical question about concepts and ideas learned during the workshop. Students’ answered were analyzed according to genre, age and school type. As a result, it can be concluded that two hours of intense programming workshop gives students similar basic understanding about programming concepts as other students with previous experience have. Primary school students were most excited about the workshop and stated highest positive change as a result of the workshop. On the other hand, they lacked ability to understand programming concepts. Therefore students between ages 11–12 and 16–18 benefit most from the workshop as they have high interest and they also are able to comprehend theory. Type of school student attends does not affect the results. Girls have lower previous interest towards three considered fields before the workshop and they have slightly lower results than boys.
Kadri Umbleja

Course Implementation: Value-Added Mode

This paper introduces a new learning control method – ‘value-added mode’. This mode is based on counting credits for only new knowledge learned whereas ‘old’ knowledge is taken into account with low weight. The need for such mode appears when background of students starting a course is very varying. This situation becomes more and more frequent, because of globalization, personal study tracks etc. In this paper we describe how this mode is implemented and also describe an application Build-Your-Course.
Vello Kukk

Establishing Meta-Learning Metrics When Programming Mindstorms EV3 Robots

Recently, wider issues of social relationships, contexts, feelings and personal goals have been recognized as impacting upon learning. Moreover, as the Higher Education paradigm appears to be shifting towards students as consumers, there is added pressure on academics to ensure students evaluate and subsequently ‘make sense’ of their educational experiences. This has been termed ‘meta-learning’ but there has been little research on meta-learning compared to the more recognized cognitive science term of metacognition. The paper describes a project in a Japanese university where meta-learning was promoted among first-year Systems Information Science students learning to program LEGO Mindstorms EV3 robots. Students were engaged in a collaborative, creative cycle termed TKF (Tsukutte つくって- Create)/Katatte かたって- Share)/Furikaeru - Reflect) to build and program robots to solve systematic problems. This paper will demonstrate that learners actively engaged in iteratively challenging robot-mediated interactive tasks can develop generic, declarative and epistemic competencies, with a consequential development of meta-learning.
Michael Vallance

Three Curriculum Maturing Cycles in Academic Curriculum Management Systems

The top-to-down and bottom-to-up processes in the semantic competence management of curriculum development in higher education context were investigated based on different semantic systems for curriculum management. As a result the paper proposes the framework and the three interrelated curriculum maturing cycles of (i) standards maturing, (ii) curriculum maturing and (iii) personal competence maturing in semantic systems for academic organizations.
Kai Pata, Kairit Tammets, Vladimir Tomberg, Mohammad Al-Smadi, Mart Laanpere

Is a Virtual Learning Environment a One-Size-Fits-All Solution? A Survey of Cognitive Styles Within a University Student Population

Over the last decade, the large-scale introduction of Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs) into higher education has been a boon to learners and teachers alike. VLEs enable students to have ready access to digital materials before, during, and after classes; and to a platform for subsequent discussion. Over a number of years a body of evidence has emerged, suggesting that learners differ in their cognitive styles in significant ways; and that the matching/mismatching of instructional design with these styles can affect both how learners interact with materials and perform tasks, and learning outcomes. A survey based on a revised version of the Study Preferences Questionnaire [4] was distributed to students at a UK university in order to identify their style. 229 students returned the questionnaire. Of the respondents, 140 students were categorized as holists, 73 as serialists, and 16 as versatile. The implications of the prevalence of holists for instructional design are discussed. In a conclusion, it is suggested that research attention be given to a structure/structuring criterion as a way of exploring the matching/mismatching hypothesis; while the development of versatile rather than optimal information processing may also be a more productive educational goal.
Russell Barton, Jonathan Foster


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