A major proposition prevalent in the geographic information research community is that better models, tools and techniques are needed to measure and represent changes in access as more and more of the interactions and transactions of our daily lives occur electronically. Measures or representations from these tools and techniques will purportedly help us identify the winners and losers in society as we move to electronic social interaction environments. However, the losers quite often are obvious and a focus on measuring losses in such situations seems misplaced when energies might be better spent on lessening or reversing such losses. Further, measurement tools are often used by those in power positions in attempts to refute that losses are actually occurring. This is because many of the benefits of access and costs of lack of access (such as missed opportunities) are very difficult to measure or otherwise quantify in a convincing manner. In addition, by focusing on the scientific reliability of tools and measurements, those in power positions often are able to divert attention and energy away from the goals of opponents that otherwise would undermine their control over access.
Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
- Legal Access to Geographic Information: Measuring Losses or Developing Responses?
Harlan J. Onsrud
- Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Systemische Notwendigkeit zur Weiterentwicklung von Hybridnetzen