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Manipur earthquake of 4 January measuring 6.7 on Richter scale was a gentle reminder of high level of earthquake risk in Manipur as well as other north-eastern States of India. The epicentre of the earthquake was in Tamenglong district of the state. The focal depth of the earthquake was estimated to be 55 km by USGS. Eight people were reported killed and more than 80 injured. A vast majority of traditional houses sustained minimal or no damage. Most of the damage was observed in Reinforced Cement Concrete (RCC) buildings built over the last few years. Soft-storey failure was observed to be the most common cause of serious damage to RCC buildings. In addition, several problems in the design of the structures as well as on-site detailing (e.g. in reinforcement) were observed. In Manipur, there is a gradual and inevitable shift from traditional forms of construction to RCC buildings. The performance of RCC buildings in 4 January earthquake indicates that this transition needs to be supported by systematic transfer of both design and execution skills for RCC construction on the one hand and strengthening of institutional capacities for enforcement of building bye-laws on the other hand. The former includes training and capacity development of engineers, masons and other construction workers. The latter addresses compliance to building codes, earthquake safety guidelines, etc. In this regard, this paper will identify some of the key lessons learned from the recent Manipur earthquake, highlight different dimensions of the change in built environment that is currently underway in Manipur and explore approaches to manage this change in order to enhance overall seismic safety in the state. The paper will further discuss how lessons from Manipur can be applied more widely to other north-eastern states.
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The team comprised Prof. C. V. R. Murty (Director, IIT Jodhpur), Dr. Vineet K. Gahalaut (Director, National Center for Seismology, New Delhi), Dr. Ajay P. Chourasia (Principal Scientist, CSIR-CBRI, Roorkee) and a Senior Engineer of NBCC Limited, New Delhi.
- Lessons from Manipur: Managing Earthquake Risk in a Changing Built Environment
- Springer Singapore