Weitere Artikel dieser Ausgabe durch Wischen aufrufen
In major curriculum reforms, there are inevitably gaps between design and implementation issues, taking the introduction of liberal studies (LS) into the senior secondary curriculum in Hong Kong as a classic example. The current paper illustrates how the implementation of LS as a compulsory core subject has impacted noticeably on Hong Kong senior secondary education. The LS curriculum setup is somewhat different from traditional subjects due to both the interdisciplinary nature of its design and the conceptions of learning, teaching, and assessment. The current study therefore attempts to portray the delicate balance that exists between the desirability ans feasibility of LS curriculum reform through interviewing members of the working group on the review of the academic structure for senior secondary education and interface with higher education. The study reports that, while LS policy makers considered both desirability and feasibility angles of the LS curriculum in their initial planning, the implementation of the LS public examination and teacher training to support the radical curriculum innovation fell short of expectations. Findings in the study clearly indicate that much more should be taken into account in respect of the dominance of an examination culture as well as teachers’ professional development when making major curriculum design changes.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Cheung, B. L. A. (2007). Policy capacity in post-1997 Hong Kong: Constrained institutions facing a crowding and differentiated polity. The Asia Pacific Journal of Public Administration, 29(1), 51–75. CrossRef
Cheung, C. Y. (2004a). Liberal studies is an elite education. Ming Pao. 27 Oct 2004. (in Chinese).
Cheung, W. M. (2004b). Assessment with specialized experts to minimize marking discrepancy. Ming Pao, 6 Jul 2004. (in Chinese).
Chiu, C. S. & Mak, K. W. (2006). The analysis of Hong Kong liberal studies curriculum development (School Education Reform no. 34. Hong Kong: The Faculty of Education, and Hong Kong Institute of Educational Research, The Chinese University of Hong Kong.
Clarke, D., & Hollingsworth, H. (2002). Elaborating a model of teacher professional growth. Teaching and Teacher Education, 18(8), 947–967. CrossRef
Creswell, J. W. (2003). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods approaches (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Curriculum Development Council, & Hong Kong Examinations and Assessment Authority [CDI & HKEAA]. (2007). Liberal Studies curriculum and assessment guide (Secondary 4–6). Hong Kong: CDI & HKEAA.
Editorial (2004, November 17). Government should heed teachers’ views. Ming Pao, p. D10.
Editorial (2004, October 22). Three difficulties. Ming Pao, p. D08.
Education and Manpower Bureau (EMB) (2004). Reforming the academic structure for secondary education and higher education: Actions for investing in the future. Hong Kong: Education and Manpower Bureau.
Education and Manpower Bureau (EMB) (2005). The new academic structure for senior secondary education and higher education – Action plan for investing in the future of Hong Kong. Hong Kong: Education and Manpower Bureau.
Education Commission, E. C. (2000). Life-long learning, all-round development: Reform proposals for the education system in Hong Kong. Hong Kong: Education Commission.
Education Commission (EC). (2003). Review of the academic structure of senior secondary education. Hong Kong: Hong Kong Education Commission.
Educational Convergence (2009). Views on liberal Studies in new secondary education. Retrieved on 25 July 2015. http://www.edconvergence.org.hk/main.htm
Fok, P. K., & Ip, W. H. (2010). The decade review of Hong Kong curriculum reform: An analysis of contextual perspective. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 5(1), 1–35. [in Chinese].
Fok, P. K., & Wong, H. W. (2011). The decision making of liberal studies in Hong Kong new secondary school curriculum: Process and nature. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 6(2), 31–61. (in Chinese).
Fok, P. K. (2005). Curriculum advisory bodies in Hong Kong: Structure, characteristics and critique. Educational Research Journal, 20(2), 265–287. (in Chinese).
Fok, P. K. (2007). The ideology and implementation of liberal studies in Hong Kong: Between societal level and school level. New Horizons in Education, 55(2), 104–121. (in Chinese).
Forestier, K. (2005, November 26). Good start, but there is much more to do. South China Morning Post. Retrieved from http://www.scmp.com
Fullan, M. (2007). The new meaning of educational change (4th ed.). New York, NY: Teachers College Press.
Fung, D. (2014). Expectations versus reality: The case of liberal studies in Hong Kong’s new senior secondary reforms. Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education. DOI: 10.1080/03057925.2014.970009
Fung, D. C. L., & Yip, V. W. Y. (2010). The policies of reintroducing liberal studies into Hong Kong secondary schools. Educational Research for Policies and Practice., 9, 17–40. CrossRef
Gibbs, G. (2002). Qualitative data analysis: Explorations with NVivo. Buckingham: Open University.
Glatthorn, A. A., Boschee, F., & Whitehead, B. M. (2009). Curriculum leadership: Strategies for development and implementation (2nd ed.). Thousand, CA: Sage.
Guskey, T. R. (1985). Staff development and teacher change. Educational Leadership, 42(7), 57–60.
Guskey, T. R. (2002). Professional development and teacher change. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 8(3/4), 381–391. CrossRef
Hall, G., & Hord, S. (2010). Implementing change: Patterns, principles, and potholes (3rd ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Hon, H. S., Li, M. H., & Wong, H. W. (2011). The understanding of and catering for learning differences and diversity: Teachers’ perspectives. Education Journal, 39(1–2), 67–94.
Hong Kong Professional Teachers’ Union [PTU]. (2010). Results of questionnaires survey of Liberal Studies. 4 Aug 2014 retrieved. http://www.hkptu.org/education/newsdgrd/news154.pdf
Hong Kong Research Association [HKRA]. (2005). Citizens’ Responses on ‘334’ New Academic Structure in Hong Kong. News Release, Hong Kong Research Association. 10 Aug 2014 retrieve from http://www.rahk.org/research/036/036newsX.pdf
Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. (2004). 2004 Policy address. Hong Kong: HKSAR.
Hu, S. (2004, November 09). Radical education reforms to benefit art studies, says playwright i. The Standard, p. A16.
Hu, S. (2004, October 22). Concerns raised over planned school reforms. The Standard, p. A08.
Lam, C. C. (2003). The romance and reality of policy-making and implementation: A case study of the target-oriented curriculum in Hong Kong. Journal of Education Policy, 18(6), 641–655. CrossRef
Lam, C. C., & Zhang, S. (2005). Liberal studies: An illusive vision. Hong Kong Teachers’ Center Journal, 4, 35–42. (in Chinese).
Lee, J. C. K., & Wong, H. W. (1996). Curriculum: Paradigm, perspective and design. Hong Kong: The Chinese University of Hong Kong.
Lee, J. C. K. (2002). Hong Kong curriculum reform and implementation: Review and prospect (in Chinese). In J. C. K., Lee (Ed.), Curriculum, teaching and school reform: Education development in new millennium (pp. 27–41). Hong Kong: The Chinese University of Hong Kong.
Lui, T. L. (2015). Hong Kong model: From present to past (in Chinese). Hong Kong: Chung Hwa Books.
Marsh, C. J., & Willis, G. (2007). Curriculum: alternative approaches, ongoing issues (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill / Prentice Hall.
Merriam, S. B. (1998). Qualitative research and case study applications in education (2nd ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis: an expanded sourcebook. Thousand Oaks, CA.: Sage.
Morris, P., & Adamson, B. (2011). Curriculum, schooling and society in Hong Kong. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.
Morris, P. (1996). The management of participation in the policy making process: The case of the education commission in Hong Kong. Journal of Education Policy, 11(3), 319–336. CrossRef
Ng, T. (2004, October 20). New school reforms mean job losses, warn educators. The Standard, p. A13.
Ng, T. (2004, October 23). Education, curriculum reforms should blend. The Standard, p. A06.
Ng, T. (2005, January 19). Education reforms get mixed review. The Standard, p. A13.
Ng, T. (2005, May 14). Liberal studies to be less work. The Standard, p. A09.
Pinar, W. F., Reynolds, W. M., Slattery, P., & Taubman, P. M. (1995). Understanding curriculum: An introduction to historical and contemporary curriculum discourses. New York: Peter Lang.
Shing, Y. N. (2000). The curriculum development council and the reform of school curriculum: Does restructuring really solve the problem? Unpublished M. P. A. dissertation, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
Sinn, D., & Yeung, L. (2004, February 14). Teachers to receive advance training in liberal studies. South China Morning Post. Retrieved from http://www.scmp.com
So, Y. K., & Chan, T. M. (2006). The stability and change of credibility rating of Hong Kong media in past ten years. 29 July 2015 retrieved from https://www.liberalstudies.hk/pdf/ls_hongkong_05_credibility.pdf
Student (2004, November 03). Reform ideas get mixed response. The Standard, p. E02.
Tan, K. (2004). Small Class teaching requires teacher training- Prerequisite in implementing liberal studies. Ming Pao, 26 Oct 2004. (in Chinese).
Tong, N. (2005, November 26). Liberal studies concerns. South China Morning Post. Retrieved from http://www.scmp.com
Tsang, K. K., & Lin, Y. (2010). How should liberal studies in new senior secondary curriculum foster students’ multi-dimensional and critical thinking? Hong Kong Teachers’ Center Journal, 9, 89–95. (in Chinese).
Tsang, W. K. (2006). In search of the meanings for liberal studies in Hong Kong senior secondary education. Hong Kong: The Hong Kong Institute of Educational Research.
Tsang, W. K. (2011). Analysis of HKSAR educational policy. Hong Kong: Joint Publishing. [in Chinese].
Wong, C. L. (2015). The advisory committee system of Hong Kong government. Hong Kong: Chung Hwa Books. (in Chinese).
Wong, N. Y., Ngan, M. Y., Fok, P. K., Tang, K. C., & Wong, K. L. (2009). History of mathematics curriculum development in Hong Kong: Reviewing several issues of recent curriculum development and decision. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 4(2), 57–80. [in Chinese].
Wu, S. W., Yung, M. S., Tsui, W. S., Leung, Y. P., Wong, P. M., Yeung, P. M., et al. (2007). Challenge on the implementation of Liberal Studies: Sharing of a survey. Hong Kong Teachers’ Center Journal, 6, 47–53.
Yeung, L. (2005, November 05). Educators are feeling special. South China Morning Post. Retrieved from http://www.scmp.com
Yeung, S. Y. S., & Lam, C. C. (2006). The malfunctioning of the curriculum policy-making system in Hong Kong. International Journal of Education Reform, 15(3), 400–423.
- Liberal studies reform in Hong Kong secondary education: contrasting desirability with feasibility
Ping Kwan Fok
- Springer Netherlands
Neuer Inhalt/© Stellmach, Neuer Inhalt/© Maturus, Pluta Logo/© Pluta, digitale Transformation/© Maksym Yemelyanov | Fotolia