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As the global population and economy continue to grow, demand for energy will continue to grow. The transportation sector has been relying solely on petroleum, consuming more than 50 % of the global world oil production. The United States is the top oil-importer country. Two major issues facing the transportation sector in the U.S. and other major countries are energy security and environmental sustainability. Improvements in the energy efficiency of vehicles and the substitution of petroleum fuels with alternative fuels can help slow the growth in the demand for petroleum oil and mitigate the increase in greenhouse gas emissions. Biofuels and electricity are being promoted for their potential reduction of petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions. This chapter examines the potential reduction of life-cycle energy use and greenhouse gas emissions associated with the use of biofuels in internal combustion engine vehicles and electricity in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and battery-powered electric vehicles.
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- Life-Cycle Analysis of Biofuels and Electricity for Transportation Use
- Springer Netherlands