Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
This chapter presents the most important driving cycles used for testing passenger cars and light-duty trucks, which are all of the chassis-dynamometer type. European, U.S., Japanese, Australian and worldwide modal and transient cycles are presented, including those intended for battery and electric vehicles, with graphic illustration of the speed profiles together with a detailed historical background. Main technical specifications are provided, as well as identification of the shortcomings, and representative results from real vehicles operation. An extensive comparison of the most important legislated cycles is also presented and discussed at the end of the chapter.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
ACEA. Official website. http://www.acea.be/statistics. Accessed 28 Aug 2016.
Berg W. Legislation for the reduction of exhaust gas emissions. In: Gruden D, editor. The handbook of environmental chemistry, traffic and environment, Vol. 3. Berlin: Springer; 2003. p. 175–253.
TransportPolicy.net. http://www.transportpolicy.net/index.php?title=Category:Light-duty_Vehicles. Accessed 12 Aug 2016.
Wurzel RKW. Environmental policy-making in Britain, Germany and the European Union. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press; 2006.
Chapoux E, Delpeyroux D. French studies of pollution by motor car exhaust gases. In: Proceedings Institute of clean air conference, Paper V1/2. 1966, pp. 157 –163.
Watson HC. Vehicle driving patterns and measurement methods for energy and emissions assessment. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service; 1978.
Degobert P. Automobiles and pollution. Paris: Editions Technip; 1995.
van Beckhoven L. An appraisal of the proposals for the further development of EEC—legislation on automotive emissions. SAE Paper No. 871077, 1987.
Armas O, García-Contreras R, Ramos Á, López A. Impact of animal fat biodiesel, GTL and HVO fuels on combustion, performance and pollutant emissions of a light-duty diesel vehicle tested under the NEDC. ASCE J Energy Eng, Article No. C4014009, 2014.
Giakoumis EG, Lioutas SC. Diesel-engined vehicle nitric oxide and soot emissions during the European light-duty driving cycle using a transient mapping approach. Transp Res Pt. D 2010;15:134–43.
Kühlwein J. The impact of official versus real-world road loads on CO 2 emissions and fuel consumption of European passenger cars. ICCT White Paper, May 2016.
Joumard R, André M, Vidon R, Tassel P, Pruvost C. Influence of driving cycles on unit emissions from passenger cars. Atmos Environ. 2000;34:4621–8. CrossRef
Pelkmans L, Debal P. Comparison of on-road emissions with emissions measured on chassis dynamometer test cycles. Transport Res, Pt. D 2006;11:233–41.
Rakopoulos CD, Giakoumis EG. Diesel engine transient operation. London: Springer; 2009.
Tzirakis E, Pitsas K, Zannikos F, Stournas S. Vehicle emissions and driving cycles: comparison of the Athens driving cycle (ADC) with ECE-15 and European driving cycle (EDC). Global NEST J. 2006;8:282–90.
Mock P, German J, Bandivadekar A, Riemersma I, Ligterink N, Lambrecht U. A comparison of official and ‘real-world’ fuel consumption and CO 2 values for cars in Europe and the United States. ICCT White Paper, May 2013.
Kadijk G, van Mensch P, Spreen J. Detailed investigations and real-world emission performance of Euro 6 diesel passenger cars. TNO Report 2015 R10702, May 2015.
Tietge U, Zacharof N, Mock P, Franco V, German J, Bandivadekar A, et al. A 2015 update of official and ‘real-world’ fuel consumption and CO 2 values for passenger cars in Europe. ICCT White Paper, Sept 2015.
Ntziachristos L, Mellios G, Tsokolis D, Keller M, Hausberger S, Ligterink NE, et al. In-use vs. type-approval fuel consumption of current passenger cars in Europe. Energy Policy. 2014;67:403–11. CrossRef
Franco V, Sánchez FP, German J, Mock P. Real-world exhaust emissions from modern diesel cars—part 1: aggregated results. ICCT White Paper, Oct 2014.
Kadijk G, Ligterink N, Spreen J. On-road NO x and CO 2 investigations of Euro 5 light commercial vehicles. TNO Report 2015 R10192, Mar 2015.
Reducing NO x emissions on the road. European conference of ministers of transport. Report prepared by the ECMT group on transport and the environment in co-operation with the OECD environment policy committee’s working group on transport. 2006. http://www.itf-oecd.org/sites/default/files/docs/06nox.pdf. Accessed 5 July 2016.
Engeljehringer K. Emission legislation timeline: overview about emission regulation with focus on RDE. AVL-Italy RDE Roadshow, AVL List GmbH, 18 July 2015.
Dieselnet website. https://www.dieselnet.com//standards/cycles/. Accessed 2 Sept 2016.
Personal communication with Mr. Kurt Engeljehringer, AVL, Sept 2016.
André M. The ARTEMIS European driving cycles for measuring car pollutant emissions. Sci Total Environ. 2004;334–335:73–84.
André M, Joumard R, Hickmam AJ, Hassel D. Actual car use and operating conditions as emission parameters: derived urban driving cycles. Sci Total Environ. 1994;146/147:225–33. CrossRef
Favre C, Bosteels D, May J. Exhaust emissions from European market-available passenger cars evaluated on various drive cycles. SAE Paper No. 2013-24-0154, 2013.
Barlow TJ, Latham S, McCrae IS, Boulter PG. A reference book of driving cycles for use in the measurement of road vehicle emissions. Published Project Report PPR354, TRL, June 2009.
EcoTest-testing and assessment protocol. ADAC e.V., January 2015. www.adac.de/ecotest. Accessed 15 July 2016.
Reitze AW Jr. Air pollution control law: compliance and enforcement. Washington DC: Environmental Law Institute; 2001.
Morriss AP, Yandle B, Dorchak A. Regulating by litigation: the EPA’s regulation of heavy-duty diesel engines. Admin L Rev 403; 2004.
Stonex KA. Survey of Los Angeles traffic characteristics. In: 36th annual meeting, U.S. Highway Research Board; 1957. pp. 509–38.
Hass GC, Brubacher ML. A test procedure for motor vehicle exhaust emissions. J Air Pollut Control Assoc. 1962;12:505–509.
Clarkson D, Middleton JT. The California control program for motor vehicle created air pollution. J Air Pollut Control Assoc. 1962;12:22–8. CrossRef
Austin TC, di Genova FJ, Carlson TR, Joy RW, Gianolini KA, Lee JM. Characterization of driving patterns and emissions from light-duty vehicles in California. California Air Resources Board, Final Report, Nov 1993.
Hass GC, Sweeney MP, Pattison JN. Laboratory simulation of driving conditions in the Los Angeles area. SAE Paper No. 660546, 1966.
Kruse RE, Huls TA. Development of the federal urban driving schedule. SAE Paper No. 730553, 1973.
Kearin DH, Lamoureux RL. Survey of average driving patterns in the Los Angeles urban area. TM-(L)-4119/000/01, Feb 1969.
SAE J1634. Battery electric vehicle energy consumption and range test procedure. Society of Automotive Engineers, Oct 2012.
Federal test procedure review project preliminary technical report. U.S. EPA 420-R-93-007, May 1993.
Lin J, Niemeier DA. An exploratory analysis comparing a stochastic driving cycle to California’s regulatory cycle. Atmos Environ. 2002;36:5759–70. CrossRef
Kruse RE, Paulsell CD. Development of a highway driving cycle for fuel economy measurements. EPA, Mar 1974.
Austin TC, Hellman KH, Paulsell CD. Passenger car fuel economy during non-urban driving. SAE Paper No. 740592, 1974.
Berry IM. The effects of driving style and vehicle performance on the real-world fuel consumption of U.S. light-duty vehicles. MSc Thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 2007.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 40 CFR Parts 79, 80, 85, et al. Control of air pollution from motor vehicles: Tier 3 motor vehicle emission and fuel standards; Final Rule, Federal Register, Vol. 79, No. 81, 28 Apr 2014.
Filipi Z, Wang Y, Assanis D. Effect of variable geometry turbine (VGT) on diesel engine and vehicle system transient response. SAE Paper No. 2001-01-1247, 2001.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency SFTP. https://www3.epa.gov/otaq/sftp.htm. Accessed 22 July 2016.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Final technical report on aggressive driving behavior for the revised federal test procedure notice of proposed rulemaking, 31 Jan 1995.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Fuel economy labeling of motor vehicles revisions to improve calculation of fuel economy estimates: final technical support document, EPA420-R-06-017, Dec 2006.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Final technical report on air conditioning for the federal test procedure revisions notice of proposed rulemaking, Jan 1995.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 40 CFR Parts 86 and 600. Fuel economy labeling of motor vehicles: revisions to improve calculation of fuel economy estimates; Proposed rule. Federal Register, Vol. 71. 1 Feb 2006.
EPA fuel economy and environment labels. https://www3.epa.gov/carlabel/. Accessed 27 Aug 2016.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Recommended practice for measurement of exhaust sulfate emissions from light-duty vehicles and trucks, Sept 1977.
Gibbs R, Hyde JD, Whitby RA, Choudhury DR. Characterization of emissions and fuel economy of in-use diesel automobiles. Final Report, EPA-600/3-83-087, Sept 1983.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Final regulatory impact analysis and summary and analysis of comments—control of vehicular evaporative emissions, Feb 1993.
California Air Resources Board. http://www.arb.ca.gov/research/resnotes/notes/96-11.htm. Accessed 24 May 2015.
Pidgeon WM, Dobie N. The IM240 transient I/M dynamometer driving schedule and the composite I/M test procedure. U.S. EPA, EPA-AA-TSS-91-1, Jan 1991.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. High-Tech I/M test procedures, emission standards, quality control requirements, and equipment specifications: IM240 and functional evaporative system tests—revised technical guidance. EPA-AA-RSPD-IM-96-1, June 1996.
Ando AW, Harrington W, McConnell V. Estimating full IM240 emissions from partial test results: evidence from Arizona. Discussion Paper 98-24, Mar 1998.
Committee on Vehicle Emission Inspection and Maintenance Programs. Evaluating vehicle emissions inspection and maintenance programs. Washington DC: National Academy press; 2001.
St. Denis M, Lindner J. Review of light-duty diesel and heavy-duty diesel gasoline inspection programs. J Air Waste Manage Assoc 2005;55:1876–84.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 40 CFR Part 86, Emission durability procedures and component durability procedures for new light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and heavy-duty vehicles; Final rule and proposed rule, Federal Register, Vol. 71. 17 Jan 2006.
Cuerden R, Nathanson AA, Goodacre O, McCarth M, Knight I, Muirhead M, et al. Durability of pollution control measures for L-category vehicles. Final Report, PPR627, Dec 2012.
Brzezinski D, Hart C, Enns P. Final facility specific speed correction factors. U.S. EPA Final Report, EPA420-R-01-060, Nov 2001.
Carlson TR, Austin TC. Development of speed correction cycles. Sierra Research Report SR97-04-01 prepared for the U.S. EPA, Apr 1997.
Carlson TR, Austin TC, McClement D, Yoon S-H. Development of generic link-level driving cycles. Sierra Research Report SR2009-05-02, prepared for the U.S. EPA, May 2009.
Kunselman P, McAdams HT, Domke CJ, Williams M. Automobile exhaust emission modal analysis model. U.S. EPA-460/3-74-005, Jan 1974.
Spindt RS, Dizak RE, Stewart RM, Meyer WAP. Effect of ambient temperature on vehicle emissions and performance factors. U.S. EPA-460/3-79-006A, Sept 1979.
Chan CC, Chau KT. Modern electric vehicle technology. New York: Oxford University Press; 2001.
Husain I. Electric and hybrid vehicles: design fundamentals. 2nd ed. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2011.
Larminie J, Lowry J. Electric vehicle technology explained. Chichester: Wiley; 2003. CrossRef
Brandt DD. Driving cycle testing of electric vehicle batteries and systems. J Power Sour. 1992;40:73–9. CrossRef
Burke AF, Cole GH. Application of the GSFUDS to advanced batteries and vehicles. In: 10th international electric vehicle symposium, Hong Kong, Dec 1990.
Cole GH. A generic SFUDS battery test cycle for electric road vehicle batteries. SAE Paper No. 891664, 1989.
Itagaki A. The legislative process of automobile exhaust emissions control in Japan—the 1966 regulation and the role of the ministry of transport. In: Takeda H, editor. Micro-performance during postwar Japan’s high-growth era. Singapore: Springer; 2016. p. 39–68.
Yoshizumi K, Nakamura K, Inoue K, Ishiguro T. Automotive exhaust emissions in an urban area. SAE Paper No. 800326, 1980.
Japanese Industrial Safety and Health Association. Technical standard for 10-mode and 11-mode exhaust emission measurement for gasoline-fueled motor vehicles, JISHA 899, 1983.
Vehicle Emission Standards—Japan. MECA World Regulations, 2006.
Kimura T. General resources energy investigation committee, Energy savings standards section, Automobile standards judging subcommittee, LPG car fuel efficiency standards evaluation group, Final Report, Feb 2003. https://www.eccj.or.jp/top_runner/pdf/tr_lpg_passenger.pdf. Accessed 7 July 2016.
Final report of joint meeting between the automobile evaluation standards subcommittee, energy efficiency standards subcommittee of the advisory committee for natural resources and energy, and the automobile fuel efficiency standards subcommittee (automobile transport section, land transport division of the council for transport policy), concerning revisions of evaluation standards for manufacturers with regard to improvement of automobile energy consumption efficiency, Japan, Mar 2007.
Rule G, Allen GH, Kent JH. A driving cycle for Sydney. Charles Kolling Research Laboratory Technical Note ER-15, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sydney; 1976.
Watson HC, Milkins EE, Braunsteins J. Development of the Melbourne peak cycle. In: Joint SAE-A/ARRB 2nd conference on traffic energy and emissions, 19–21 May 1982, Melbourne, SAE Paper 82148.
Kenworthy JR, Newman PWG, Lyons TJ. A driving cycle for Perth. Report to National Energy Research Development and Demonstration Council, NERDDP/EG/83/120, 1983.
Brown S, Bryett C, Mowle M. In-service emissions performance—drive cycles, Vol. 1, NSW Environment Protection Authority, Mar 1999.
NISE 2—drive cycle and short test development. Final Report, Department of the Environment and Heritage, Sept 2005.
Global Technical Regulation No. 15. Worldwide harmonized light vehicles test procedure. Established in the Global Registry on 12 Mar 2014.
Tutuianu M, Marotta A, Steven H, Ericsson E, Haniu T, Ichikawa N, et al. Development of the worldwide harmonized light-duty driving test cycle (WLTC). Technical report, UNECE/WP.29/GRPE/WLTP-IG DHC subgroup, Dec 2013.
Tutuianu M, Bonnel P, Ciuffo B, Haniu T, Ichikawa N, Marotta, A, Pavlovic J, et al. Development of the worldwide harmonized light duty test cycle (WLTC) and a possible pathway for its introduction in the European legislation. Transport Res, Pt. D 2015;40:61–75.
Mock P, Kühlwein J, Tietge U, Franco V, Bandivadekar A, German J. The WLTP: how a new test procedure for cars will affect fuel consumption values in the EU. ICCT Working Paper 2014-9, Oct 2014.
Steven H. Homologation test cycles worldwide—status of the WLTP. Green global NCAP labelling/green scoring Workshop, Apr, 2013.
Ciuffo B, Marotta A, Tutuianu M, Anagnostopoulos K, Fontaras G. Pavlovic J, et al. The development of the world-wide harmonized test procedure for light duty vehicles (WLTP) and the pathway for its implementation into the EU legislation. Transportation Research Board, 94th Annual Meeting, Washington DC, United States, 2015.
Worldwide emission standards—Passenger cars and light-duty vehicles. Delphi, 2015/16.
Worldwide emission standards and related regulations—Passenger cars, light and medium duty vehicles. Continental, Feb 2009.
Faiz A, Weaver CS, Walsh MP. Air pollution from motor vehicles—standards and technologies for controlling emissions. Washington DC: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/World Bank; 1996.
Document on test method, testing equipment and related procedures for testing type approval and conformity of production (COP) of vehicles for emission as per CMV Rules 115, 116 and 126. Ministry of Road Transport and Highways, Government of India, Mar 2010.
Marotta A, Pavlovic J, Ciuffo B, Serra S, Fontaras G. Gaseous emissions from light-duty vehicles: moving from NEDC to the new WLTP procedure. Environ Sci Technol. 2015;49:8315–22. CrossRef
- Light-Duty Vehicles
Evangelos G. Giakoumis
- Chapter 2
in-adhesives, MKVS, Hellmich GmbH/© Hellmich GmbH, Zühlke/© Zühlke, Neuer Inhalt/© momius | stock.adobe.com