Earthquake surveys have demonstrated that the lack of out-of-plane strength is a primary cause of failure in many traditional forms of masonry. Moreover, bearing walls are relatively thick and, as a matter of fact, many codes of practice impose a minimal slenderness for them, as for instance the recent Italian OPCM 3274 2003, in which the upper bound slenderness is fixed respectively equal to 12 for artificial bricks and 10 for natural blocks masonry.
In this context, it seems particularly attractive a formulation at failure for regular assemblages of bricks based both on homogenization and Mindlin-Reissner theory.
Starting from a compatible identification, already developed in the framework of linear elasticity by Cecchi and Rizzi [
], in which a 3D system of blocks connected by elastic interfaces is identified with a 2D Mindlin-Reissner plate, in this paper a limit analysis approach for deriving the homogenized failure surfaces for masonry out-of-plane loaded is presented. On the other hand, in a previous paper by Milani et al. [
] failure surfaces for out-of-plane loaded masonry were obtained by means of a static limit analysis approach under Love-Kirchhoff plate hypotheses.
In this paper, a kinematic approach is proposed under the hypotheses of Mindlin-Reissner plate theory, infinitely resistant blocks connected by interfaces (joints) with a Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion. In this way, the macroscopic masonry failure surface is obtained as a function of the macroscopic curvatures and shear strains by means of a constrained minimization of the internal power dissipated, once that a subclass of possible deformation modes is a
chosen in order to characterize out-of-plane masonry behavior.
Several examples of technical relevance have been developed with the model at hand and comparisons both with previously developed Love-Kirchhoff kinematic limit analyses [
] and standard 3D FE elasto-plastic procedures on the homogenized failure surfaces are reported in detail.