Skip to main content
main-content

Über dieses Buch

The work establishes the design flow for the optimization of linear CMOS power amplifiers from the first steps of the design to the final IC implementation and tests. The authors also focuses on design guidelines of the inductor’s geometrical characteristics for power applications and covers their measurement and characterization. Additionally, a model is proposed which would facilitate designs in terms of transistor sizing, required inductor quality factors or minimum supply voltage. The model considers limitations that CMOS processes can impose on implementation. The book also provides different techniques and architectures that allow for optimization.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction

Abstract
This chapter introduces the power amplifier (PA) as a component within the transceiver. It then moves to a discussion of the impact of the PA in terms of power consumption and the new requirements of modern wireless communication standards, and it ends with a description of the importance of the peak to average power ratio (PAPR) for PA performance and the issues related to CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor) processes for PA implementation.
Hector Solar Ruiz, Roc Berenguer Pérez

Chapter 2. Power Amplifier Fundamentals: Metrics

Abstract
This chapter details the metrics that are usually used to evaluate the performance of a PA. PA metrics can be combined into two main groups: linearity and efficiency, and they can be related to either single-tone or two-tone or digital channel tests. In addition, this chapter discusses the effect of the 1 dB compression (P 1dB) point and saturated power (P SAT) parameters in the digital channel distortion. Finally, stability and power capability metrics are also included.
Hector Solar Ruiz, Roc Berenguer Pérez

Chapter 3. Power Amplifier Fundamentals: Classes

Abstract
This chapter analyzes the different PA operation modes. The different PA classes are traditionally classified into two main groups: current source amplifiers, which comprises classes A to C, and switch-type amplifiers, which make up classes E and D. The class F PA is treated separately as it falls between current source and switch-type amplifiers. The following sections describe each operation mode in detail.
Hector Solar Ruiz, Roc Berenguer Pérez

Chapter 4. CMOS Performance Issues

Abstract
This chapter details how CMOS processes limit the performance of fully integrated linear PAs. The low V DD of modern, submicron CMOS processes, along with breakdown phenomena and hot carrier degradation, are the main limitations. On top of that, these limitations are also accompanied by other effects such as reduced output voltage headroom due to the V KNEE, the low quality factor of integrated inductor and transformers, transistor parasitics, substrate losses or stability issues. All these limitations have a direct impact on the linearity, the output power levels and the efficiency of PAs.
Hector Solar Ruiz, Roc Berenguer Pérez

Chapter 5. Enhancement Techniques for CMOS Linear PAs

Abstract
This chapter describes different techniques that are of interest for boosting the performance of fully integrated CMOS linear PAs. Not only have these techniques been proved to boost linear PA performance, but they can also be fully integrated into a single chip. From the simple use of the cascode transistor or the differential topology to more complex techniques such as the Doherty PA, predistortion, supply modulation or PA combination, these topologies allow the performance of a single PA to be improved in terms of efficiency, linearity or increased output power levels without jeopardizing the full integration of the final solution.
Hector Solar Ruiz, Roc Berenguer Pérez

Chapter 6. Power Amplifier Design

Abstract
This chapter describes the design of a linear CMOS power amplifier. It begins with the description of a mathematical model that predicts the performance of the PA and then presents the PA’s schematic design. In addition the chapter includes specific layout considerations for high frequency linear PAs. The design of the inductors implemented in PAs specific issues regarding layout are also discussed.
Hector Solar Ruiz, Roc Berenguer Pérez

Chapter 7. Test Setups and Results

Abstract
This chapter presents and discusses the measurements that are required to characterize PAs and power inductors. The setups required to perform the tests are also described, along with several recommendations for improving the accuracy of integrated circuit measurements.
Hector Solar Ruiz, Roc Berenguer Pérez

Chapter 8. Conclusion

Abstract
This chapter concludes the book by highlighting the main aspects that have been discussed in the field of RF CMOS linear power amplifiers. As mentioned throughout the book, there is great interest shown in CMOS integration of linear PAs for wireless communication systems. However, as CMOS processes present important issues to high-performance PAs, it is crucial to know how to overcome these issues by a proper design and implementation of PAs. A high performance RF CMOS PA is of great importance not only because a complete integration of the transceiver is then possible but also because of the great impact of the PA power consumption.
Hector Solar Ruiz, Roc Berenguer Pérez

Backmatter

Weitere Informationen