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Über dieses Buch

Preface The Linux Start-Up Guide has been written for both private and professional Linux users. Its purpose is to give a solid under­ standing of the Unix-like operating system kernel and its-system commands. This book is intended for beginners, system administrators, and people who have worked with other systems. Experienced Unix and Linux users will still find it useful, as all main Linux features have been treated extensive, reducing the need to study other documentation. Without a doubt, it is not possible to give a comprehensive description of every typical Linux tool in just 300 pages. There­ fore, I have concentrated on providing detailed and well struc­ tured explanations of the fundamental Unix commands, the most important editors, network applications, and the X Window System. I also thought it important to give a general idea of the concepts underlying each topic and to mention the historic milestones that influenced the current state of development.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction

Abstract
Not so very long ago Unix was known to just a small group of computer experts. This was due to the fact, amongst others, that at that time Unix could only be used on special mini or supercomputers to which the average user had no access. Today microcomputers and especially PCs are so powerful that almost every home PC has all that is required for using Unix.
Fred Hantelmann

Chapter 2. Development of Unix

Abstract
The forefathers of all current varians of the multiuser multitasking operating system Unix are Kenneth Thompson and Dennis Ritchie. In 1969, in the laboratories of the North American telephone company AT&T, they developed the first Unix prototype, then still written in Assembler, on a PDP-7 system manufactured by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC). The name “Unix” first derived from a pun MULTICS, which was one og the first interactive operating systems. Based on the idea of creating a system, that would support the cooperation of several programmers in the team communication between them, Thompson and Ritchie conceived the “UNiplexed Information and Computing System” Unics.
Fred Hantelmann

Chapter 3. Operating Linux

Abstract
Switching on a Linux computer for the first time, one is con-fronted with a large number of system messages that include information on the hardware devices. These messages are issued by the operating system kernel while booting the system. The system is only operational after this is completed. Then the user is invited to log in by a login prompt. The concept of virtual consoles realized under Linux offers the opportunity to log in more than once on the consoles of the system (see Sect. 3.1.1).
Fred Hantelmann

Chapter 4. Programs and Processes

Abstract
From the user’s point of view, the operating system processes programs according to the program call entered. From the operating system kernel’s view, however, the computer does not process a program, but a process derived from it. Programs are executable files, located anywhere in the file system, and a process is a context of the operating system kernel, which can run independently and which executes a program.
Fred Hantelmann

Chapter 5. Files and File Systems

Abstract
Files collect data into groups, and directories structure files. Directories and file systems are logical components, on physical data storage media. At least that is the quick explanation of the difference between the specialist terms that this chapter deals with. For a deeper understanding of these conceptual elements, which play a central role in the way Unix and Linux work, such a brief definition of the terms is utterly inadequate.
Fred Hantelmann

Chapter 6. File Oriented Commands

Abstract
Creating, removing, listing, renaming, copying, and reloading are the main actions performed on files and directories. Typical Unix distributions also include a variety of commands for extracting special information from binary and text files. A further group of Unix programs serve for management of file systems. However, the commands available for these purposes are accessible not all to the average user, or are available only with limited features.
Fred Hantelmann

Chapter 7. Editors

Abstract
Editors are without doubt a vital part of every operating system as they help the user to create and modify files. When changing to another operating system, the user is often confronted with an unfamiliar editor which provides features different from those of products already known.
Fred Hantelmann

Chapter 8s. Shell Programs

Abstract
The command interpreter (shell) is the direct interface between the user and the operating system. Its task is to analyze command lines, to expand or replace some command line values, if necessary, and then either to execute an action or to start a program. The shell reads individual command lines either from a terminal or from a file.
Fred Hantelmann

Chapter 9. Networked Systems

Abstract
Unix was developed with the aim of supporting the teamwork and communication of several programmers. Furthermore, based on services, the operating system in its present form can integrate remote systems. While terminal service, file service, and electronic mail (email) have become part of the popular services of almost all operating systems, Unix stands out against most competitors because of its ability to export performance to foreign systems.
Fred Hantelmann

Chapter 10. TCP/IP Applications

Abstract
The aim of this chapter is to give an overview of the variety of application programs that enable Linux users to access network services. To get a general idea of the network services supported under Linux, see the enumeration of network daemons in Sect. 4.6.2.
Fred Hantelmann

Chapter 11. X Window System

Abstract
An ergonomic alternative for operating Linux via a (virtual) console is offered by the window system X11, where the user can access the system by a graphical interface. Over X11, single applications are displayed in windows and are operated (depending on the application type) via keyboard and/or mouse commands.
Fred Hantelmann

Chapter 12. X Window Manager

Abstract
A striking difference between X11 and other window systems is that X11 does not integrate control of X clients in the X server, but rather concentrates it in an independent X application, namely the X window manager. Like window managers of other window systems, it controls the assignment of input devices to an X client and helps the user in modifying various window attributes such as position and size, an X application converting to an icon or vice versa, and positioning a window in the window stack (raising or lowering it).
Fred Hantelmann

Backmatter

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