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Lithium batteries have been the most popular battery type for all applications due to their superior energy density and high single-cell voltage. Their advanced performance characteristics compared with other battery types also come with the challenge to properly control battery processes and deal with numerous potential problems including those related to safety. Different types of lithium batteries are discussed based on the type of anode, including the most popular lithium–ion battery, but also future systems with lithium metal and versions that use polymer or other types of solid electrolyte. Lithium–ion batteries with different cathode materials are described and compared based on distinctive performance characteristics such as capacity, power, cycle life, and others. The most important figures of merit: energy, power, number of cycles, safety, and cost are used to compare different versions of lithium batteries. A critical view is presented of lithium battery components, charge–discharge processes, and operational challenges focusing on safety.
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