We present automated techniques for the explanation of counter-examples, where a counter-example should be understood as a sequence of program statements. Our approach is based on variable dependency analysis and is applicable to programs written in Cimple, an expressive subset of the C programming language. Central to our approach is the derivation of a focus-statement sequence (FSS) from a given counter-example: a subsequence of the counter-example containing only those program statements that directly or indirectly affect the variable valuation leading to the program error behind the counter-example. We develop a ranking procedure for FSSs where FSSs of higher rank are conceptually easier to understand and correct than those of lower rank. We also analyze constraints over uninitialized variables in order to localize program errors to specific program segments; this often allows the user to subsequently take appropriate debugging measures. We have implemented our techniques in the FocusCheck model checker, which efficiently checks for assertion violations in Cimple programs on a per-procedure basis. The practical utility of our approach is illustrated by its successful application to a fast, linear-time median identification algorithm commonly used in statistical analysis and in the Resolution Advisory module of the Traffic Collision Avoidance System.
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- Localizing Program Errors for Cimple Debugging
Scott A. Smolka
- Springer Berlin Heidelberg
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