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Über dieses Buch

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Second International Conference on Love and Sex with Robots 2016 in December 2016, in London, UK.

The 12 revised papers presented together with 1 keynote were carefully reviewed and selected from a total of 38 submissions.

The papers of the Second International Conference have been accepted and reviewed in 2015 but could not be presented as there was no conference in 2015 but at the conference in 2016.

The topics of the conferences were as follows: robot emotions, humanoid robots, clone robots, entertainment robots, robot personalities, teledildonics, intelligent electronic sex hardware, gender approaches, affective approaches, psychological approaches, sociological approaches, roboethics, and philosophical approaches.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Keynote Talk

Frontmatter

Why Not Marry a Robot?

Abstract
The trend of robotics research and development, from industrial robots to service robots to companion and carer robots, has as its logical continuation the design and construction of partner robots, sufficiently human-like and sufficiently appealing in various ways to take on the role of a partner in a relationship with a human being. This trend immediately raises many questions relating to humans loving and being loved by robots, treating robots as life partners and being similarly treated by them, marrying robots and having sex with robots. We discuss some aspects of human-robot marriage and reassess the author’s 10-year-old prediction that the first human-robot marriage will take place in the state of Massachusetts around the year 2050.
David Levy

Papers

Frontmatter

Sex Robots from the Perspective of Machine Ethics

Abstract
This contribution explains firstly the terms and the phenomena of sex robots and robot sex and the foundations of machine ethics. Secondly it poses questions related to sex robots as moral agents, from a general and a specific perspective, aiming at assisting manufacturers and developers. By using the questions, the opportunities and risks can be discussed in a structured manner. Thirdly, the fields of applied ethics are included to work out the implications for humans as moral patients. At the end, the author summarizes the findings. Machine ethics, from his point of view, may help to construct sex robots and service robots with special capabilities which are moral machines in their appearance and in their behaviour and which may allow some people to complement their sexual activities and to lead a fulfilling life. The fields of applied ethics may be beneficial with respect to the adequate use of sex robots.
Oliver Bendel

Affective Labor and Technologies of Gender in Wei Yahua’s “Conjugal Happiness in the Arms of Morpheus”

Abstract
Robotics explores the boundary between the human body and its objective use value, recasting the fields of of gender and affect as commodities—a question that takes on specific cultural values in post-Mao China. This privileging of technology and its engagement with gendered labor are examined in Wei Yahua’s short story, “Conjugal Happiness in the Arms of Morpheus,” which uses the feminine performativity of a robot wife to engage with the intertwined role of affective labor and the legal status of objects. Such a performance decenters the human subject while simultaneously subjugating the laboring technological materials, such that Lili—the robot wife in question—is only capable of acquiring legal subjecthood through her appeal to a law that binds human actors.
The historical context in which this story was written is as important an artifact as the language it uses and the subject matter it treats, raising the specter of a possible ethics of consciousness unconnected to humanistic social mores at a time when technology was being touted as the way towards a collective future emancipated from labor as a whole. In 1980s China, labor and technology were both equally privileged as sites of socialist revolution, with a restructuring of the imaginaries of both free and controlled labor. By raising the question of differential relationships in a supposedly egalitarian society through characters that explore their various relationships to artificial life, “Conjugal Happiness in the Arms of Morpheus” offers a critical look into what kinds of labor (and laboring bodies) are replaceable and which are privileged—and, in doing so, directly critiques the legal framework regarding women in the country, as well as how a subject is defined in the first place.
Virginia L. Conn

Teletongue: A Lollipop Device for Remote Oral Interaction

Abstract
In this paper we present Teletongue, a lollipop device that provides remote oral interaction between two people. Each lollipop device is currently physically connected via an Arduino, where one lollipop senses the licking “gestures” and the licking “sound” of the user while the other lollipop vibrates accordingly to the gestures and playbacks the recorded sound. We will be connecting the two devices via the ZigBee protocol to realize true remote interaction. Whilst many current devices that support intimate relationships with others (including so-called sex toys or teledildonics) are for special uses and are somewhat out of our everyday lives, the goal of this work is to provide a natural way of enhancing and enjoying intimate relationships that blends in to our everyday life. In this paper we explain the background and the motivation for our work, then present the design process and the system design of Teletongue.
Daisuke Yukita, Fathima Assilmia, Nadira Anndhini, Dolhathai Kaewsermwong

ROMOT: A Robotic 3D-Movie Theater Allowing Interaction and Multimodal Experiences

Abstract
In this paper we introduce ROMOT, a RObotic 3D-MOvie Theater. ROMOT is built with a robotic motion platform, includes multimodal devices and supports audience-film interaction. Differently from other similar systems, ROMOT is highly versatile as it can support different setups, integrated hardware and contents. Regarding to the setups, here we present a first-person movie, a mixed reality environment, a virtual reality interactive environment and an augmented reality mirror-based scene. Regarding to integrated hardware, the system currently integrates a variety of devices and displays that allow audiences to see, hear, smell, touch and feel the movement, all synchronized with the filmic experience. Finally, regarding to contents, here we present some samples related to driving safety and, in the discussion section, we theorize about the expansion of ROMOT for love and sex-related interactive movies.
Sergio Casas, Cristina Portalés, María Vidal-González, Inma García-Pereira, Marcos Fernández

For the Love of Artifice 2: Attachment

An Extension of the Paper ‘for the Love of Artifice: Why We Need Robot Sex Dolls and Why There Is a Growing Sub Culture of Real People Trying to Become Them’
Abstract
This work is an extension to the original paper written for the AISB 50 Conference Symposium by the author ‘For the Love of Artifice: why we need robot sex dolls and why there is a growing subculture of people trying to become them’ where ‘evolutionary sexual strategies according to Buss and Schmidt were introduced as a lens for discussing relations with artificial humans. In addition, this paper has combined Money’s discussion of love mapping with Schwartz and White’s theoretical approaches to attachment as a framework to explore our individual sexual strategies with artificial partners. It is argued in this extended paper that such theoretical approaches should be combined to facilitate discourse on the impact of robotic and technological intimacy on the end user. This need not necessarily be solely seen in terms of psychological aspects, but also in relation to Jenkins’ notion of contemporary participatory culture, associations with multi-mediated geek fandoms and fetishes, and concepts of social acceptance. As a consequence of this, elements of attachment explored as a sexual project rather than an emotional one, as in erotic countertransference onto robots and technology for example, will be developed.
Trudy Barber

Influences on the Intention to Buy a Sex Robot

An Empirical Study on Influences of Personality Traits and Personal Characteristics on the Intention to Buy a Sex Robot
Abstract
The first sex robots will hit the market within the next few years, but no empirical research has gathered insights into the question who possible costumers could be. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate personal characteristics (e.g. relationship status) and personality traits (such as loneliness) that would influence the intention to buy a Sex Robot. An online survey with 263 male participants showed that 40.3% would buy such a robot now or within the next five years. We could show that while the affiliation-related personality traits, the relationship status and sexual fulfilment does not have any impact on the intention to buy a sex robot, rather, negative attitude towards robots and anthropomorphic tendency are influential.
Jessica M. Szczuka, Nicole C. Krämer

The Cyborg Mermaid (or: How Technè Can Help the Misfits Fit in)

Abstract
In feminist studies, the figure of the mermaid has long been regarded as flawed, disabled and less-than-human. Her theoretical counterpart in that respect would be the cyborg, an image used to show that with the help of robotics, humankind could be larger than life. So, what would happen if we could combine those two images and apply them to create “super love” more-than-human relationships? This article explores the possibilities of technology for “mermaids”, people who normally fall outside the norm, to satisfy human desires in a new way. Two case studies will be presented, first we will look at people who identify as having ASD and after that we will look at people who have BDSM-oriented desires. We shortly discuss the added value of practice theory for exploring how people are altered by technè.
Martine Mussies, Emiel Maliepaard

Exploration of Relational Factors and the Likelihood of a Sexual Robotic Experience

Abstract
As technology progresses, robots will become increasingly involved in our everyday lives. Robots are already available for individual purchase and are starting to appear in our homes and offices. Robots specifically built for sexual experiences are presently available on the market. There is no current research on sexual robots or how it will affect our previous, current, and future sexual relationships. This study asked 133 participants to understand what relational factors could contribute to the likelihood of participants having a sexual episode with a robot. Results indicate one is more likely to have a sexual episode with a robot the more sexual fantasies and risky behavior one partakes in. Additionally, one is less likely to have sex with a robot the more they view robots negatively. Findings are discussed with future research directions.
Riley Richards, Chelsea Coss, Jace Quinn

The Impact of a Humanlike Communication Medium on the Development of Intimate Human Relationship

Abstract
In this paper, we reports how a humanlike communication medium affects the development of human relationship. We examined changes in the relationship between persons when they interact with each other through humanlike communication media or mobile phones for about a month. The intimacy of their relationship was evaluated with the amount of self-disclosure. The result shows that a communication medium with humanlike appearance facilitates the development of intimate relationship even when it just has humanlike shape and other functions are the same as standard mobile phones. We also discuss a possible underlying mechanism of this effect from misattribution of a feeling caused by intimate distance with the medium to a conversation partner.
Nobuhiro Jinnai, Hidenobu Sumioka, Takashi Minato, Hiroshi Ishiguro

Kissenger – Development of a Real-Time Internet Kiss Communication Interface for Mobile Phones

Abstract
A real-time bilateral kiss communication interface is developed for transmitting multisensory kissing sensations over the Internet using mobile phones. Kissenger consists of a plugin haptic device that attaches to a mobile phone via the audio jack and a mobile application that connects to the device and sends real-time data stream over the Internet. The device uses an array of linear actuators to generate haptic stimulations on the human lips and force sensors to measure the force output. Bilateral force-feedback control is used to synchronise the forces on both sides of the system. The aim is to provide an intimate communication channel for couples and families to physically interact with each other in order to maintain close relationships even at a distance. The stimulation of other sensory modalities such as taste and smell are discussed to provide a full multisensory communication experience.
Emma Yann Zhang, Shogo Nishiguchi, Adrian David Cheok, Yukihiro Morisawa

Sex with Robots for Love Free Encounters

Abstract
This paper considers sex with robots for love free encounters within the context of pornographic experiences. Leisure sex and pornography are briefly outlined, along with the potential of the market. Limited research on both the user experience of pornography and the physical functionality of sex robots is highlighted. The physical embodiment of sex robots is considered, questioning whether we need human-like robots or something else entirely. Technological advances for pornography and their relevance for sex robots are explored examining the potential offered through the integration of Virtual Reality, teledildonics, soft and wearable robots. The potential of categorising sex robots as fantasy hardware is considered seeking to provide a palatable terminology. This paper concludes that researchers need to engage with the Porn Sector in creating innovative sexual experiences with robots, aiming to create a new type of sexual experience, rather than replicating humans as seen in most science fiction.
Lynne Hall

Robots and Intimacies: A Preliminary Study of Perceptions, and Intimacies with Robots

Abstract
When David Levy first introduced the subject of ‘love and sex with robots’, he became a provocateur of a conversation that spread from morality to the rights of robots. With the rapid development in Artificial Intelligence, love and sex with robots is expected to be a reality in near future. However, the question remains, how much humans understand and accept intimacies with robots. We argue that perceptions of human-robot interactions (HRI) have a certain impact on how individuals comprehend intimacies with robots. In this study, a pilot study of first stage of a series of studies, we examined the perception of robots, and intimacies with robots, and realized our sample created a ‘self and other’, and ‘over there, but not here’ distinction when it comes to the perception of HRI. This stance, we like to identify as an adoption of a moral position, not simply with regards to love and sex with robots, but also communicating to HRI.
Chamari Edirisinghe, Adrian David Cheok

Backmatter

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