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This paper discusses low-cost 3D indoor positioning with Bluetooth smart device and least square methods. 3D indoor location has become more and more attractive and it hasn’t been well resolved. Almost each smart phone has a Bluetooth component and it can be used for indoor positioning and navigation in the nature of things. Least square algorithms are the powerful tools for linear and nonlinear parameters estimation. Various linear and nonlinear least square methods and their theoretical basics and application performance for indoor positioning have been studied. Simulation and hardware experiments results prove that nonlinear least square method is suitable for parameters estimation of Bluetooth signal propagation, and generalized least square method has better performance than total least square methods. Simulation and hardware experiments results also show that proposed method has the advantages of low cost, lost power consumption, perfect availability and high location accuracy.
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- Low-Cost 3D Bluetooth Indoor Positioning with Least Square
- Springer US