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## Über dieses Buch

This volume includes select papers presented during the 4th International and 19th National Conference on Machines and Mechanism (iNaCoMM 2019), held in Indian Institute of Technology, Mandi. It presents research on various aspects of design and analysis of machines and mechanisms by academic and industry researchers.

## Inhaltsverzeichnis

### A Mechanical Contrivance for Acoustic Levitation and Mixing of Particles

Yadav, Saurabh Gupta, ArpanStanding wave acoustic levitation is an interesting technique to levitate small objects using sound. One of the common ways is to create a pressure node, or focal point, using standing waves, at which particles can levitate. In this study, the standing wave acoustic levitation phenomenon is studied numerically and validated with the experiments. Further, a mechanical design with five transducers having revolute joints is demonstrated numerically to create a focal point and hence levitate objects. By providing rotation to these transducers, two standing waves are created which are moved to merge two pressure nodes and hence mix two particles.

### Design and Validation of Flexure-Based Hinges for Space Deployable Antenna Reflector

Space exploration arises the demand for launching large-diameter antenna reflectors to satisfy the need of high-bandwidth telecommunication, earth observation and deep space interplanetary missions. Launching of monolithic LDR antennas of sizes 3 m or more is not feasible due to limited launch fairing space of state-of-the-art launch vehicles. Therefore, the development of innovative deployment mechanisms is the present need of the hour. Many researchers have proposed various mechanism options to fold large size antenna reflectors in compact size and deploy in space to full configuration. Deployment process of antenna is process of transition from mechanism to structure which is one of the unreliable stages due to availability of many conventional rotary joints which causes loss of energy due to backlash, friction and misalignment. This paper proposes a solution of replacement of conventional hinges with flexure hinges in state-of-the-art space deployable configuration of large size reflectors, reforming it as compliant configuration which eliminates the factors causing loss of energy. Tape flexures are explored as a suitable candidate for compliant deployable configuration. The proposed configuration consists of two tape flexures mounted in such a way that concave curve of each tape will face to each other. Options with single tape flexure and double tape flexures are explored and compared. Experimental evaluation of a proposed joint configuration is carried out for the development of a deployable antenna reflector.

Hemant Arora, B. S. Munjal, Sudipto Mukherjee

### Effect of Implant Materials on Bone Remodelling Around Cemented Acetabular Cup

Bone resorption around cemented acetabular cup caused failure in the long tenure. This study aims to investigate the effect of different implant materials on bone remodelling around the cemented acetabular cup. Finite element (FE) models of intact and implanted pelvic models were established using CT-scan data sets. Three combinations (acetabular cup-femoral head) of implant materials, UHMWPE-CoCrMo, CoCrMo-CoCrMo, and alumina-alumina ceramic, were considered to predict the effect of implant materials on bone remodelling around cemented acetabular cup. Less bone resorption was observed for UHMWPE acetabular cup. Bone remodelling was nearly similar for the ceramic and metallic cup. Considering the bone remodelling scenario, the results of the current study stated that ceramic could be a good alternative to metallic implant in the cemented acetabular cup since ceramic has better wear resistance property than metal.

Ajay Kumar, Rajesh Ghosh, Rajeev Kumar

### Influence of Ageing and High BMI on Lower Back Pain

Lower back pain (LBP) is the common problem prevailing in most of the individuals. The individuals suffering from LBP would be of any age group. It is found common in subjects with higher body mass index (BMI), older age, inferior posture and occupation, etc. This study analyses the influence of ageing and high BMI on LBP by applying image processing techniques on X-ray images of individuals of various age groups. In this work, the vital features corresponding to degenerative discs are measured and analysed. The results indicated that the effects of ageing and high BMI are influencing LBP.

P. Praveen, M. S. Mallikarjunaswamy, S. Chandrashekhara

### Design and Analysis of a Robotic Lizard Using Five-Bar Mechanisms

Rajashekhar, V. S. Dinakar Raj, C. K. Vishwesh, S. Selva Perumal, E. Nirmal Kumar, M.Legged robots are being used to explore rough terrains as they are capable of traversing gaps and obstacles. In this paper, a new mechanism is designed to replicate a robotic lizard using integrated five-bar mechanisms. There are two five-bar mechanisms from which two more are formed by connecting the links in a particular order. The legs are attached to the links of the five-bar mechanism such that, when the mechanism is actuated, they move the robot forward. Position analysis using vector loop approach has been done for the mechanism. A prototype has been built and controlled using servomotors to verify the robotic lizard mechanism.

V. S. Rajashekhar, C. K. Dinakar Raj, S. Vishwesh, E. Selva Perumal, M. Nirmal Kumar

### Development of an Automated Material Handling System Inside a Nuclear Containment Structure

This paper presents design and development of an automated material handling and transfer system inside a containment structure of a nuclear facility. In the nuclear fuel cycle facilities, since, the feed material being handled is radiotoxic in nature all the process operations are carried out inside a mechanical containment structure known as a Glove Box. Main challenges for design are constraints arising due to the presence of highly radioactive material, confined space, limited access for maintenance and operation, maintaining vacuum inside the glove box and remote handling. To address the above-mentioned challenges, a conveyor system is designed for material transfer inside the shielded glove boxes. The system has been developed considering prime design objectives of modularity, ease of remote maintenance, standardization, provision for manual override, interchangeability and the absence of pneumatic devices inside the glove boxes. It is proposed to use the customized roller conveyor system. All the rollers are designed for the in situ maintenance. Three different types of power transmission systems shall be tested, viz. belt mechanism, gear mechanism and chain mechanism. The best out of three fulfilling the above-mentioned design objectives will be finally selected for the installation. It is proposed to initially develop a prototype and then, later on, expand it further to complete the entire fabrication line of glove boxes.

Anupam Saraswat, P. S. Somayajulu

### Nonlinear Modeling and Stability Analysis of Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Mechanism Under Aeroelastic Vibration

The present research work is focused on the mechanism of harvesting electrical energy from the oscillation of the bluff body placed in airflow. A rectangular bluff body is attached to the tip of a cantilever beam which has a portion embedded with piezoelectric layers. A geometrically nonlinear distributed parameter model is derived using extended Hamilton's principle for both parallel and series connections of piezoelectric patches and solved using Newmark-beta method. Polynomial representation of aerodynamic force is done using quasi-steady hypothesis. It is found that nonlinear damping coefficients play a significant role in determining the stability of the system. System bifurcates (Hopf-bifurcation) and goes into a limit cycle after a particular wind speed. The radius of the limit cycle increases with wind speed. Approximately, $$0.36$$ 0.36 mW electric power can be generated at a wind speed of $$7\;{\text{m/s}}$$ 7 m/s .

Rakesha Chandra Dash, Dipak Kumar Maiti, Bhrigu Nath Singh

### Optimization of Surface Roughness of Laser Trepanned Hole in ZTA Plate

Zirconia toughened alumina (ZTA) is employed to make components for aerospace, chemical, biomedical and cutting tool industries due to its excellent hardness, fracture toughness and strength. Improved properties of ZTA make it difficult-to-cut ceramic composite. Achieving a better surface quality in machining of ceramic composites has been very challenging due to the presence of surface cracks. Recent researchers have revealed that laser beam machining can overcome the machining limitations of ceramic composites. The present study tries to optimize the surface roughness of laser cut holes in ZTA plate using artificial intelligence tool. The optimum result shows an improvement of 17.5% in surface finish as compared with surface finish obtained at non-optimal parameters levels. The predicted optimum results have been tested by confirmation experiments.

Surendra K. Saini, Avanish K. Dubey, B. N. Upadhyay

### PI Control-Based Modelling of Segway Using Bond Graph

A personal transporter vehicle, called segway, is based on the stabilization principle of inverted pendulum system. In this work, the bond graph model of segway with PI control is developed. The simulation results for the forward and backward motion of segway are presented as pitch angle, speed of the vehicle with respect to time. For the turning of the vehicle, controller based on Ackermann steering mechanism is adopted to modulate the voltages of two motors. The results of turning motion of the segway are also presented as yaw angle response of main vehicle body. The focus of this paper is to develop the dynamic model and simulate the response of segway using non-model-based control system design. The objective of the work is accomplished by developing the stabilization controller based on PI control scheme using bond graph approach. Also, the swing up controller is developed for nonlinear behaviour of the segway.

A. Kumar, R. Singh, T. K. Bera, Ashish Singla

### Strategic Coordination and Navigation of Multiple Wheeled Robots

Pradhan, Buddhadeb Hui, Nirmal Baran Roy, Diptendu SinhaMulti-robot navigation and coordination are addressed in this paper. All the robots are subjected to their own kinematic and dynamic constraints. Genetic algorithm tuned fuzzy logic-based motion planner is compared with the potential field-based motion planner. To avoid the conflicts during the navigation, two different coordination schemes, namely strategic and heuristic, are implemented. Results are compared through computer simulation. Simulation experiments were started with eight number of robots initially, and the number of robots has been increased up to 17 later on due to the need of coordination scheme for the maximum number of robots. Strategic coordination scheme along with the genetic fuzzy-based motion planner is found to perform better than the other combinations concerning the quality of solutions and time taken to reach the goal positions. Computational complexity of different methods has also been compared and presented.

### Spur Gear Mechanism for Accurate Angular Indexing and Locking of Angular Position by Using Additive Manufacturing

Ratchet and pawl mechanism is used neither in many applications to provide precise locking of components either in linear nor in rotational directions. The number of locking positions depends on the total number of teeth on the ratchet. The objective is to increase the number of locking positions and thus minimizing the interval angle. For this objective to be fulfilled, spur gear is treated as ratchet, and meshing spur gear teeth is treated as pawl (named as lock). Due to the geometry of the spur gear teeth, the apparatus facilitates bidirectional locking. Spur gear permits 18 teeth in angular positions (P) achieved by a traditional ratchet mechanism with interval angles (A) of 20°. The locking of desired angle is impossible except for 18 positions of 20°, 40°, and 60° up to 360°. This study gives a better solution for increasing the number of locking position as well as decreasing the interval angles by introducing an innovative mechanism. Here, rearranging the position of the lock results in increasing the number of angular positions without increasing the number of teeth. Outcome of the paper is developed design which provides four times increase and reduction of angular positions. The locking position is derived by a mathematical formula, and simulation of the assembly was performed by using CAD software. Finally, the concept was proven by physical prototype fabricated through additive manufacturing technology and compared with traditional ratchet mechanism.

Arivazhagan Pugalendhi, Rajesh Ranganathan, C. Vivek

### Fabrication of Solid Lubricant Coating and Its Optimization Using Response Surface Methodology

The present paper elaborates process for production of solid-lubricating coating over the mild steel by electrical discharge technique through green compact electrode made of MoS2 + Cu powder. Electrical discharge coating which is based on EDM principle and performed with the help of powder compact electrode formed via hot mounting press. The transportation of material occurred through electrical discharges which helps in melting and simultaneous deposition of powder. The loose bonding between particles facilitates the material deposition over the substrate. The effect of input parameters variation on the output parameters, such as, tool wear rate, mass deposition rate, and coating layer thickness is investigated by response surface methodology (RSM). The experiments results achieved from this work show that experimental values are in good agreement with the predictive results. The morphology study showed minimum amount of defects at the top coated surface. EDS study confirmed the successful deposition of principal elements presence in the coating.

R. Tyagi, S. Kumar, A. K. Das, A. Mandal

### Computing and Verification of IPMC Parameters Through Equivalent Beam Theory

In this paper, an effort is made to measure and verify analytical and experimental aspects of a cantilevered smart material of various dimensions which is electrically actuated for various applications. The smart material is taken as ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC). The supported cantilevered beam model is analyzed, the relations for block force are provided, and the same is used to derive displacement at the free end. In order to make a proper agreement between the analytical results and measured results from an experimental setup, a comparison is made using a bending beam equation for the cantilevered condition with determined physical properties. The effect of water content in the parameters like deflection under the voltage actuation of IPMC is observed during the experimental process for underwater conditions.

Ankur Gupta, Sujoy Mukherjee

### Characterization of Mechanical Properties of Different Agro-derived Reinforcements Reinforced in Aluminium Alloy (AA6061) Matrix Composite: A Review

The metal matrix composites (MMCs) are increasing day by day in the entire manufacturing sectors due to their unique properties such as high strength to weight ratio, good mechanical properties, and better durability. The application of waste material in metal matrix composites has been getting more attention as they can reinforce particles in a metal matrix which enhance the strength properties of the composites. In addition, by applying these wastes materials in a useful way not only save the manufacturing cost of products but also reduce the pollution on the environment. Aluminium MMCs have found applications in the manufacturing of various components such as a piston, cylinder block, and brake drum, in which wear and friction are an important phenomenon. A comprehensive literature review is carried out on MMCs based on individual reinforcement and multiple reinforcements including various product applications. It is summarized in form of fields involved in tribology, fabrication processes/parameters, reinforcement(s), matrix contribution, tribological testing parameter, and product application areas of MMCs. This paper attempts to review the different combination of reinforcing material(s), both synthetic and agro-derived used in the processing of hybrid aluminium matrix composites, its effect on different mechanical and wear properties of the composite. Different methods for production of these materials have been studied and discussed in detail. Compatibility of agro-derived reinforcements with AMCs and research areas for further improvement of MMCs has been suggested.

Arjun J. Deshmukh, Sanjaykumar S. Gawade, Abhijeet B. Pawar

### Shoe-Based Energy Harvesting Using Ionic Polymer Metal Composites

Mechanical energy harvesting from human motion is new technology for generating clean and reasonable electrical energy for powering wearable devices used in health monitoring, gait analysis and so on. In this document, design and analysis of ionic polymer metal composite-based shoe energy harvester is proposed. Ionic polymer metal composite (IPMC) is a smart material of electroactive polymer categories and functionally similar to piezoelectric material and can be used as actuator, sensors or energy harvester. The harvester is based on specially designed two initially curved plates of spring steel attached together back to back and is placed under the heel of the shoe. It is found that IPMC in series produced the voltage of 6.4 V and power of 0.699 W across the load resistance of 2 Ω at walking speed of 2 steps per seconds. From these results, it is concluded that IPMC can be used for energy harvesting application. This work demonstrates the feasibility of IPMC for shoe-based energy harvesting to power wearable sensors.

Satya Narayan Patel, Sujoy Mukherjee

### IoT-Based Health Monitoring System (IHMS)

Health monitoring is one of the challenges today especially in remote areas where the doctor cannot be reached out immediately. The aim of IHMS is to provide quality and immediate medication to patients in emergencies. Considering the advantages of Internet of Things (IoT), a real-time application is developed. The application makes use of Raspberry Pi and sensors like temperature, blood pressure, heart beat, etc. as hardware and an android mobile application is developed through which communication can be maintained between patient's caretaker and doctor. Also, alerts will be sent through application both ways and incase of absence of Internet, the system is developed in such a way that alerts can be sent through messages for which a GSM module is used. In this way, IHMS is effective in taking care of health issues confronted by patients in emergencies and thus improving living conditions.

### Search and Reconnaissance Robot for Disaster Management

Natural disasters like earthquakes/landslides are sudden events that cause widespread destruction, major collateral damage including loss of life. The loss cannot be completely prevented but it can be reduced. People stuck in rubble/debris from the collapsed buildings can be rescued, but that operation must be performed in a very short span of time and requires the intervention of skilled personnel to avoid further risking, and the lives of the victims trapped underneath. In this paper, we present the design and control of search and reconnaissance robot (SRR)—a robot that aims at traversing on all terrains and locating the position of survivors inside the debris for quick rescue operations and cutting down on the necessity of trained manpower. The standout feature of SRR from other existing ATVs is the active articulating chassis to allow climbing and overcoming obstacles of size much greater than its wheel diameter. Module separation allows the robot to go into tight spaces where the whole body does not fit. The design of the active articulating chassis, modularity with a locking mechanism, the entire control of the vehicle and the various modes of operation are presented.

Sarthak Narayan, Mohd Aquif, Abdur Rahman Kalim, Dharun Chagarlamudi, M. Harshith Vignesh

### Experimental Validation of Various Existing Impedance Models for Acoustic Liners

This work is to find out the suitability of existing impedance models and their drawbacks. Predicted absorption coefficients using various impedance models are compared with the experimental results for different configuration of liners. In experiments, the realistic flow conditions are being imitated; for the same prediction and from various impedance models and experimental results, they have been compared. It concludes that the Bauer impedance model is more realistic and has good agreement with the experimental results. Elderge and Dowling method is better than the transfer matrix method (TMM).

Ashutosh Tripathi, N. K. Jha, R. N. Hota

### Design and Modeling of Pipeline Inspection Robot (PIR) for Underground Pipelines

The rapid growth of in-pipe inspection robots has been demanding in the society which is widely used in oil and gas industry, power plant industry, and sewage system, etc. This kind of robot can be applicable for inspecting the internal surfaces of underground pipelines like defects, cracks, and internal erosion. To cater this need, the main focus of this paper is to design and develop a pipeline inspection robot (PIR). For this purpose, a novel design of PIR is proposed using scissor mechanism which consists of two cross-links, and the motion of scissor is adjusted by controlling the lead screw in the mechanism. This is controlled through DC motors. The mathematical model for understanding the kinematics and dynamics of the scissor mechanism has been developed. Further, kinematic and dynamic simulation has been carried out. By results, it is proven that the scissor mechanism helps it to automatic adjustment of the height of the robot in the internal pipelines of robot for varying cross-sectional diameters. The robot can cover a large diameter range (500–1000 mm) of pipelines. This robot may solve the problems of inspection of the underground pipelines. This robot can be minimized the problems of the human factor in labor-intensive or hazardous work and can also act in unreachable environments during repair and maintenance inside the underground pipelines in various industries and day-to-day life.

Ravi Kant Jain, Abhijit Das, A. Mukherjee, Santosha Goudar, Ankita Mistri, A. Mandal, Pratap Karmakar

### Mechanism of Material Removal in Magneto Abrasive Flow Machining

The material removal in finishing of precision parts and hard to reach regions comprises a standout amongst the most demanding and costly stages in a manufacturing process. The magnetic abrasive flow machining (MAFM) is one of the non-traditional machining techniques which can successfully manage these problems. The MAFM process provides excellent surface finish at comparative low cost. The objective of the present investigation has been to understand the mechanism of the material removal (MR) and roughness improvement rate (RIR) in MAFM on a non-magnetic, soft and ductile workpiece. Finishing fluid in this study contains iron particles as magnetic bonders and diamond particles as abrasive part in different mesh size. Experimentation was conducted on aluminum tubes to investigate the effect of the key parameters on the MR and RIR and was designed in central composite design (CCD) of response surface methodology (RSM). It has been found that magnetic flux density (MFD) and number of cycles have impact on material removal and surface roughness. Based on experimental results, regression analysis of MR and RIR has been performed. This analysis has been used to predict MR and RIR compared with the experimentally obtained results. Both were found in close agreement. Finished surfaces were also examined using the scanning electron microscope (SEM) to get the knowledge for the fine surface texture produced by MAFM.

Palwinder Singh, Lakhvir Singh, Sehijpal Singh

### Optimization of Cutting Parameters of EN9 Steel with Plain Carbide Tool Using Response Surface Methodology

The present work deals with the optimization study on cutting performance of plain carbide inserts in turning of EN9 steel. The design of experiments (DOE) was done using response surface methodology (RSM) technique. The cutting parameters were spindle speed, feed, and depth of cut (DOC). The combined interactions of cutting parameters on crater wear were analyzed. The crater wear was observed using machine vision system. The work concentrated on the building up a mathematical relation between cutting parameters and output responses. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for checking the adequacy of the model. The relation between input factors and the response parameters is determined using a cubic regression model. The optimization was done using desirability ramp plots.

Sachin Chauhan, Rajeev Kumar

### Design and Development of a Sit-to-Stand Assistive Device

The aim of this work is to conceptualize, design and develop a device to assist the sit-to-stand (STS) motion for disabled and elderly. The device assists the human to stand up from sitting position along the natural trajectory of STS motion. Both human and device are assumed to be functioning fully in the sagittal plane. The natural trajectory of armpit is found for the STS motion using a motion capture system. The coordinates are projected onto a sagittal plane passing through the ankle. A four-bar mechanism is synthesized with four-position motion generation using Burmester curve theory. Assuming quasi-static motion, forces on joints at different time steps are found out. Finite element analysis (FEA) is carried out to determine the required cross section of the links of the structural components of device. Material and dimensions of STS device components are selected, and the device is fabricated. Final experiments of STS device with human show that while using the device, the ground reaction force (GRF) of the human during STS motion decreases by approximately 25%, thereby indicating a reduction in effort of the human for STS by the same order.

Shoudho Das, Satyajit Halder, Sourabh Kumar Sahu, Sujatha Srinivasan, Sourav Rakshit

### Effect of Structural Characteristics on Kinematics of Planar Kinematic Chains

Among the large family of planar kinematic chains, all possible distinct linkages/mechanisms are required for synthesis of kinematic mechanisms. Distinct structural inversions of an individual kinematic chain can provide distinct motion characteristics for the same number and type of links due to their different structural connectivity. To identify the distinct chains and their structural inversions, characteristics of structural elements of individual kinematic chains are considered to develop chain motion characteristic matrix. The proposed matrix is applied for identifying distinct kinematic chains and their inversions. Counter examples of ten-link and twelve-link co-spectral chains are also tested successfully. Variation of motion characteristics of individual planar mechanisms of six link kinematic chains is studied using motion analysis software, CATIA V5, for all inversions of Watt’s and Stephenson’s kinematic chains. Proposed method thus successfully identifies the isomorphism among kinematic chains and their inversions and also establishes their different motion capabilities.

### A Combined Experimental/Finite Element Model Analysis on Compressive Behavior of Tamarind Pod Shell Filler Reinforced Composites

The purpose of this work is to study the compressive behavior of Tamarind Pod Shell (TPS) reinforced epoxy composite using an experimental and finite element (FE) modeling approach. The compressive behavior of the composites was investigated based on the different particle sizes (75, 105, 150, and 250 μm) and NaOH treatment (5 wt%). The developed FE model validated the compressive strength using the representative volume element (RVE). The surface treatment was implemented in the FE model to compare with experimentally NaOH-treated TPS composites. The results revealed that good agreement between the FE and experimental results. This shows the accuracy and adaptability of the TPS filler reinforced composite model.

Santosha Goudar, Ravi Kant Jain, Debashis Das

### Workspace Evaluation of Robotino-XT Under Reconfiguration

Pachouri, VipinPathak, P. M.Mishra, Mrunal K.Samantharay, A. K.Merzouki, R.Bouamama, B. O.The major part of ongoing research in the field of robotics is to mimic the behaviour of species present in nature. This paper presents the workspace of the multi-section bionic manipulator Robotino-XT under the failure of one of its bellow. These types of failure may be due to repeated use, pressure leakage, hysteresis or improper design. The CBHA part of Robotino-XT has two bending sections, where each section has three bellows (actuator). Various strategies are proposed to compensate for the loss in workspace due to failure of one bellow. Also, the workspace obtained after the failure of the bellow is compared with the full-fledged workspace.

Vipin Pachouri, Pushparaj Mani Pathak, Mrunal K. Mishra, Arun K. Samantharay, Rochdi Merzouki, B. O. Bouamama

### Assessment of Surface Water Quality Using Principal Component Analysis in the Yamuna River: A Case Study

Present work studies of surface water quality using principal component analysis (PCA). Yamuna river is situated in North India. Its water has important role in irrigation and domestic uses. Yamuna river water is highly polluted from Gautam Budha Nagar to Agra. The reason is being rapid economic development, urbanization, industrialization and agriculture waste and fertilizers. So, water samples were monitored from Gautam Budha Nagar to Agra for three years (2014, 2015 and 2016). Water sample collection has been done on the basis of past research analysis and self-survey. These water quality parameters include pH, temperature, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, total dissolved solid, salinity, chloride, acidity, total alkalinity, total hardness, nitrate ions, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand and total coliform. PCA technique has been applied in analysis dataset. Four factors were identified for the data structure explaining of the total variance (83.73%) of the dataset, in which nutrient factor (41.79%), domestic sewage contamination (22.41%), physicochemical variability (11.92%) and wastewater from industrial (7.61%) in total variance. Result clearly shows that PCA technique is useful tool for water pollution resources identification and management. Anthropogenic activities are responsible for deterioration the river water quality. So, its needs to spread the awareness for the pollution status of river water publicly.

Bhuri Singh, Shahla Khan, Shahjaha

### Performance Analysis of Gripper Assembly of an In-Vessel Fuel Handling Machine

This paper deals with the analysis of gripper assembly of a long slender in-vessel fuel handling machine (IVFHM) of a fast breeder reactor towards assessing the behaviour of various kinematic links and joints. Finite element analysis is carried out for two different operating positions viz. gripper assembly freely hanging and gripper resting on sub-assembly (SA) head. Results of analysis are interpreted to understand the kinematic behaviour of various kinematic links and joints. Reactive forces and deformation behaviour of gripper assembly corresponding to freely hanging case and gripper resting on SA case are found out. Role of design features such as special joint between actuator rod and connecting piece to facilitate rotational degree of freedom, hard faced central guide with double curvature is explained. The present study provides valuable information for the design of gripper assembly of IVFHM with increased offset. Role of design features such as spherical guide arrangement for connecting rod, joint between connecting rod and inner tube permitting relative rotation and limited lateral displacement for gripper assembly of IVFHM with increased offset is also discussed briefly.

Anu Krishnan, R. Vijayashree, Sanjeev Kumar, S. Raghupathy

### Design and Development of a Remote Racking Mechanism for Switchgear

Circuit breaker is a device used to disrupt the flow of current when an abnormal condition occurs in switchgear. These withdrawable breakers are regularly disconnected for maintenance, testing and replacement. A novel design of a portable, electrically driven racking mechanism which is easy to mount on circuit breaker without any modifications in its enclosure, is presented in this work. The performance of the designed racking mechanism is verified by conducting finite element analysis (FEA) simulation and experimental studies. A prototype is constructed based on the analysis result, and the performance is validated in an actual circuit breaker.

Alex Sherjy Syriac, Shital S. Chiddarwar

### Iwan Model for Bolted Joint with Residual Macroslip Stiffness and Pinning

Ranjan, Prabhat Pandey, Ashok KumarBolted joint is an important component of any structure. It is used to assemble parts. However, these joints introduce non-linearity into the system due to the presence of friction at interface. The modelling of bolted joint is necessary to understand the behaviour of system. Microslip, macroslip and pinning of bolt shank with inner surface of through hole are some of the inherent phenomena of bolted joint when subjected to loading. To have better understanding of the response of joint subjected to sinusoidal loading, effect of above properties on energy dissipation is needed to be investigated. In this paper, we model above-mentioned properties using an eight parameters Iwan model. It captures change in stiffness at the inception of microslip as well as residual stiffness at the inception of macroslip. Pinning behaviour of bolted joint is also considered in this model. The proposed model gives more comprehensive details than previous Iwan-based models. The proposed model can be used to understand the dynamic behaviour of bolted joint beyond macroslip.

Prabhat Ranjan, Ashok Kumar Pandey

### Kinematics Model of Bionic Manipulator by Using Elliptic Integral Approach

This paper suggests a variable curvature kinematics model for the bionic continuum robots (BCRs) using elliptic integral approach. For the BCR, the manipulator is assumed to be a flexible beam, in which a large deflection takes place due to external loadings. A six-DoF elephant trunk-like BCR known as Robotino-XT is considered here for study. The external load is assumed to be an equivalent moment calculated from the pneumatic forces applied on the bellow tube-like actuators. Optitrack motion-sensing vision system with Motive 2.0 interface is used to acquire the deflection and orientation of the tip of the trunk. The analytical results are validated with experimental data.

Mrunal K. Mishra, Arun K. Samantaray, Goutam Chakraborty, Vipin Pachouri, Pushparaj Mani Pathak, Rochdi Merzouki

### A Review on the Effect of Biomechanical Aspects and the Type of Stability Fixation on the Bone Fracture Healing Process

Bone fracture healing is a complex process that involves both biological and mechanical aspects. There are various factors that influence the time period of fracture healing. Over the past decade, many researchers reported the different factors on which the bone fracture healing process depends. These researches also help the orthopedic surgeon to bring the upgradations in their surgical techniques. The type of stability fixation given to the fracture during surgery, the flow of body fluid at the fracture site and direction of interfragmentary motion, i.e., micromotion during the load-bearing period, are some important factors that are discussed by the various researchers in the past. The aim of this review is to highlight the existing knowledge about the biology of bone fracture repair, the recent research on bone fracture and the effect of biological and mechanical aspects on the bone fracture healing process.

### Mechanical Behaviour of Special Type Seals Used in the FBR Application

Leak tightness of the radioactive pressure boundary is one of the important safety requirements of the nuclear reactors. Dynamic seals present in the various mechanisms of fast breeder reactors (FBR) play an important role in achieving the required leak tightness. Dynamic seals allow high relative velocity and offer low frictional resistance at a moderate temperature between the mating surfaces of these mechanisms. An in-house designed and developed labyrinth type V-ring seals are used as dynamic seals in various mechanisms of Indian FBRs. Design of V-ring seal is frozen based on engineering judgement. Detailed stress analysis of these seals is the main focus of the present paper. The stress analysis revealed that the design intent of the seals is only partially met, with the scope for design improvements. Studies are extended to optimise the seal geometry for enhanced performance.

Nihal Kaushal, Sudheer Patri, R. Suresh Kumar, C. Meikandamurthy, B. K. Sreedhar, S. Murugan, P. Selvaraj

### Realization of a Simple Mechanism to Simulate Core Subassembly Growth of FBR

Under sodium ultrasonic transducer is used for in-service inspection in a fast breeder reactor to detect the protrusion or growth of core subassemblies. Transducer with its carrier mechanism is to be tested with subassemblies arranged identically to a typical fast breeder reactor. An important test is to demonstrate the capability of transducer to detect the growth of subassembly in sodium at 200 °C. To simulate core subassembly growth in a sodium vessel, different methods/mechanisms are proposed and studied thoroughly to arrive at the simplest way to perform the said task. A trapezoidal screw-nut mechanism, as selected, forms the key feature of the proposed design. The mechanism is tested in the sodium loop under simulated normal and abnormal conditions to demonstrate the reliable operation. Through these tests, a good insight into this mechanism’s operation is obtained in particular and a fairly good understanding of screw-nut working in sodium is acquired in general.

Sudheer Patri, Muhammad Sabih, S. Krishnakumar, C. Meikandamurthy, S. Chandramouli, B. Babu, B. K. Sreedhar, B. K. Nashine, S. Murugan, P. Selvaraj

### Investigation of Multiple Stable States of Tensegrity Structure

Low weight and ability to withstand large deformations make tensegrity-based structures attractive for a wide range of applications. It has been reported that given a number of bars (struts), strings (cables) and interconnections between bars and strings, more than one configuration can be arrived at. However, the possibility of taking a tensegrity from one of stable configurations to another has not been reported so far. This paper first explores a Monte Carlo-based method of arriving at different configurations of tensegrity structures having the same number of bars, strings and their interconnections. The results were validated against analytical solutions available in the literature. It then uses the dynamic relaxation method to show the intermediate steps for transforming one configuration into another by the application of a set of external forces. This can lead to multi-usability of tensegrity structures by switching from one stable configuration to other configuration.

P. K. Malik, C. Agrawal, Anirban Guha, P. Seshu

### Design and Development of a Short-Wave Electric Infrared Heater of 215 kW Capacity

Narendar, S. Srinivasa Kumar, T.Short-wave infrared (IR) heaters are used in the aerodynamic heating test facilities to simulate the fast-transient thermal loads on high speed flying objects at ground level. Design and development of a flat IR heater of 215 kW capacity is presented in this manuscript. Major challenges faced during the design and development of such high capacity electric heater in a 300 mm by 260 mm space with gold plated reflector are discussed in detail. Special purpose short-wave IR lamp of 350 W/cm linear power density is designed for this heater. Experiments are also conducted to identify the heat flux generating capacity of the heater with the use of thin circular foil type heat flux sensors. A maximum of 2 MW/m $$^2$$ 2 heat flux is generated with the developed heater.

S. Narendar, T. Srinivasa Kumar

### Kinematic and Dynamic Modeling of a Quadruped Robot

The quadruped robots have numerous advantages over the wheel due to their agility to exposure to cluster environment. This paper presents the kinematic analysis and dynamic modeling of a four-legged robot. The kinematic mechanism is the fundamental approached before proceed to the gait design. The forward and inverse kinematics equations are derived for legs with D-H transformation matrices. Also, dynamic modeling for trot gait pattern is established with the Newton–Euler theory. The computer simulation results are presented for different movement sequences of trot gait pattern to verify the validity of proposed design.

Priyaranjan Biswal, Prases K. Mohanty

### Nonlinear Joint Stiffness Parameter Identification

In this study, a method is developed for parametric identification of nonlinear element in structure. A concept of sub-structure synthesis is used to derive the frequency equation in terms of linear and nonlinear stiffness parameters. The derived equation is exploited for inverse analysis, wherein nonlinear parameter is estimated from theoretically obtained data. The method is demonstrated numerically for cantilever beam with nonlinear boundary condition. It is also shown that the method is robust against measurement errors and gives accurate estimates for a wide range of stiffness values.

Sanjay B. Ingole, Sanjay W. Rajurkar

### Design and Development of Reaper for Harvesting Maize

Maize crop is one of the major crops in India, and mechanization of different operations in Maize cultivation is essential in order to increase the productivity. Harvesting of Maize is one of the operations which is labour intensive and involves drudgery. Though reapers are available for other crops, and reapers specifically developed for harvesting Maize are not found in the Indian market. To address the identified need, a detailed review of the literature related to Maize crop cultivation practices in general and harvesting of Maize, in particular, was carried out. Field study visiting different farms in the region of north Karnataka where Maize is cultivated largely was carried out. Based on the literature review and data collected from field study, the complete specification of the reaper for Maize crop suitable for small farmers was developed. The specification developed included important parameters like required ground clearance, wheel diameter, engine power, cutter blade diameter, distance between the wheels, weight of the reaper and cutting speed. Different product concepts were developed to meet the specifications, and the most suitable one was selected. All the sub-systems of the selected concept, namely reaper mechanism, traction system and the frame, were synthesized and designed to meet the requirements. The fabrication of all the sub-systems and the assembly was carried out in-house. The developed reaper has been tested for its working and found to be satisfactory. The estimated reduction in cost of harvesting is found to be in the range of 80% apart from reducing drudgery.

Manjunath M. Ullegaddi, B. U. Balappa, N. C. Mahendra Babu

### Transpose Jacobian Control of Flexible Joint Upper Limb Exoskeleton System

In the present work, a two-link upper limb exoskeleton system is considered with harmonic drive actuators to track a semi-circular and L-shape path. The usage of harmonic drive actuators raises the problem of joint flexibility and produces substantial vibration at the tip of the exoskeleton system. The problem of joint flexibility in the system dynamics is considered using nonlinear spring model. Thereafter, the dynamics for two reduced cases, i.e., linear spring model and the rigid joint model are presented. At the last, transpose Jacobian control strategy is proposed to track the paths with different dynamic models. The controlled joint actuator torques for different cases are found and compared to analyze the system behavior.

Jyotindra Narayan, Mohamed Abbas, Santosha K. Dwivedy

### Defect-Free Synthesis, Analysis and Optimization of Planar Lower Limb Assistive Device for Gait Rehabilitation

Aging is the natural phenomenon that can be seen around the world. It is responsible for changing the muscle strength and body composition and limits the capacity to perform routine activities. Hence, elderly are more prone diseases, central nervous system disorder, strokes, etc. Also, the rehabilitation and hospitalization costs are most expensive for strokes among other diseases. Contemporary devices have many limitations such as they are bulky, heavy, complex, and require special training to operate; consequently, they are not preferred by patients, therapists, and small clinics. To address these issues, a new assistive device called “caster walker gait trainer (CGT)” is proposed for gait rehabilitation.

Ramanpreet Singh, Vimal K. Pathak, Himanshu Chaudhary

### Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of Friction in Hydraulic Actuators

This paper deals with the experimental verification of friction models used in the estimation of frictional forces in a hydraulic actuator. The friction force is calculated with the measured readings of pressure in the cylinder chambers and the acceleration of the piston. In order to predict friction forces in the hydraulic actuator, mathematical models, namely LuGre model and modified LuGre model, are extensively used. These models are simulated to predict the friction forces in the test actuator. The physical test setup and the simulation models are commanded with identical velocity inputs, and the results in each test case are compared. The experiment results show that the modified LuGre model with dimensionless fluid film thickness parameter predicts the friction forces in hydraulic actuator with a good accuracy when compared with the other models.

Jaidev Vyas, Aruna Rengasamy, L. Surya Narayanan, Balamurugan Gopalsamy

### Support Vector Classifier-Based Broken Rotor Bar Detection in Squirrel Cage Induction Motor

Kumar, Prashant Hati, Ananda ShankarCondition monitoring based on machine learning techniques for preventive maintenance of squirrel cage induction motors (SCIM) is the need of modern industries. Early detection of broken rotor bar (BRB) fault can reduce the unwanted production loss and minimizes downtime. With the advancement in high computational machines, machine learning techniques like logistic regression, artificial neural network, random forest technique, etc. can be efficiently implemented in BRB detection in SCIM. This paper deals with broken rotor bar detection in SCIM under different loading condition based on support vector machine (SVM)-based technique with the help of current spectrum analysis. Different kernel functions like linear, quadratic, cubic and Gaussian functions are analysed for finding the best kernel functions for achieving the good accuracy of the system.

Prashant Kumar, Ananda Shankar Hati

### Kinematic and Dynamic Analysis of Primary FCS Circuits of Typical 25 Seater Transport Aircraft

This research work presents kinematic and dynamic analysis of primary flight control surface actuation mechanisms including aileron, elevator and rudder of typical mechanically controlled transport aircraft. The 3D CAD models of the actuation mechanisms are constructed using SolidWorks. The circuit assemblies are exported to MSC ADAMS for detailed kinematic and force analysis. An elaborate simulation model is built in MSC ADAMS to understand the kinematic relations and to estimate the forces acting on all links, brackets and joints under the action of aerodynamic loads on the control surfaces. Analytical formulations are developed to verify the results of the force analysis. Further, the effect of inertia of control surfaces on the pilot forces is studied in detail and discussed.

C Manjunath, K Vinod Kumar, M Kiran, B Rammohan

### Kinematic Synthesis and Optimization of a Double-Slotted Fowler Flap Mechanism

A double-slotted Fowler flap in transport aircraft has more complexities in kinematic synthesis and design. The present research work presents a combination of six-bar mechanism, four-bar mechanism and a double-slotted mechanism configured for deployment of a Fowler flap arrangement. The mechanism is synthesized for cruise, take-off and landing conditions. A novel procedure for dimensional synthesis and optimization of the mechanism is developed for synchronizing flap and aft-flap positions. The complete synthesis, optimization procedures and parametric analysis are coded into MATLAB program. The results of the synthesis procedure are verified with 2D planar kinematic models and 3D solid models using SolidWorks. Also the novel kinematic synthesis procedure is validated by developing a prototype model of the mechanism using 3D printing technology.

K. Vinod Kumar, Balamurugan Gopalsamy, H. K. Rangavittal, C. Manjunath

### Intelligent Modeling of Dilution Percent in Laser Surface Alloying of AlxCu0.5FeNiTi High Entropy Alloy

Laser surface alloying is one of the techniques to create high entropy alloy (HEA). HEAs are multi-element solid solution alloys stabilized due to high mixing entropy. These alloys are superior compared to the existing materials used in combustion engines, gas turbine components, and medical implants. The dilution percent is one of the important parameters in laser surface alloying. It has effects on various properties of alloyed components. This paper presents artificial intelligence (AI)-based intelligent model for dilution percent. AI-based model is also compared with a response surface model (RSM). It is observed that RSM is adequate in the modeling of laser surface alloying.

A. A. Siddiqui, Avinash K. Dubey

### Spinal Needles Insertion and Traversal Based on Fiber Bragg Gratings—From Conceptual Approach to Prototype Development

Real-time needle positioning is essential in present-day surgical advancements including robotic assistive surgeries. Present work reports progressive methodology adopted for real-time dynamic monitoring and assessment of spinal needle insertion and traversal based on variation in compressive force on the needle. The initial conceptual approach adopted for monitoring of the exclusive longitudinal force experienced by spinal needle during its penetration through tissue layers is illustrated. The working principle of the preliminary conceptual design is based on transduction of force induced on the needle into strain variations monitored by a fiber Bragg grating sensor. This methodology may assist force modeling on the needle during tissue penetration which may help in recognizing the tissue layers penetrated.

Shikha Ambastha, Sharath Umesh, Sundarrajan Asokan

### Kinematic and Dynamic Analysis of Sliding Door Operating Mechanism for Internal Weapon Bay

The paper presents a kinematic and dynamic analysis of a sliding door operating mechanism used in the internal weapon bay of fighter aircraft it is an enclosure used to store, hold and drop weapons. While ejecting the weapons, doors of the internal weapon bay are required to be opened and closed after dropping of weapons in a short period of time. Traditionally, the hinged door configuration with actuators is used which protrudes outside, thus experiencing the drag force. In the present study, an innovative sliding door operating mechanism is devised such that doors slide within the internal weapon bay and are minimally exposed outside. The kinematic analysis of the mechanism has been carried out analytically and calculated results for displacement, velocity, and acceleration are compared with SOLIDWORKS motion software results.

Chandrakant K. Waghmare, Prasad S. Shivdas, Ravi Tiwari, Sunil V. Nimje

### A Method to Detect Isomorphism in Planar Kinematic Chains

For synthesizing kinematic chains of a given number of links and degree of freedom, detection of isomorphism is essential. Two kinematic chains are called isomorphic if they have equivalent topological configuration. The exertion for detection of isomorphism among planar kinematic chains is being researched for a long time to avoid redundancy. In the past, researchers have used several methods like characteristic polynomial-based approaches, Hamming number method, path and distance-based techniques, and many more complex algorithms to detect isomorphism. In this work, an index for detection of isomorphism among planar kinematic chains is proposed by considering the distance matrix and degree of links matrix. Kinematic chains are isomorphic, if they have same index else they are non-isomorphic. Hence, to detect isomorphism among different kinematic chains, the proposed technique is implemented successfully for 8-link single degree of freedom and 9-link double degree of freedom kinematic chains.

Ankur Dwivedi, Anirudha Bhattacharjee, Jai Narayan Yadav

### Generation of Coupler Curves for Planar Kinematic Chains Using Link Joint Equations

Analysis of four bar kinematic chain for generation of its coupler curves and functions generation is well researched. However, limited amount of work is reported for higher link mechanisms. In the present work, an attempt has been made to propose a simple method to generate coupler curves of kinematic chains. Present method is based on identifying the joint locations of all fixed and moving joint. Simultaneous equations of quadratic nature are proposed for each and every moving links to provide dimensional constraints with respect to the fixed link. MATLAB—mathematical software—has been used to solve the non-linear simultaneous equations. Analysis of the cases referred are carried out and coupler curves are generated for four bar mechanism, all five inversions of six link mechanism and eight link mechanism.

### Tribological Behaviour of Polymer-Based Composite Reinforced with Molybdenum Disulphide

The application of polymers and polymer-based composite increasing rapidly in industrial sector, due to its unique properties. In this study, the tribological behaviour of Poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK) and Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) based composites with different ratio content of molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) is analysed experimentally. The tribological behaviour of these new developed polymeric materials has been observed with the help of pin-on-disc setup for different loading condition. From these observations, 3 wt% of MoS2 base composite turned out to be the best in tribological properties as compared to other variants of composites. The improvement in PTFE due to 3 wt% MoS2 is close to 90–100% in wear and 30–40% in friction, as compared to the PEEK value.

Soumya Ranjan Guru, Prabhat Kumar, Mihir Sarangi

### Prediction of the Blood Flow Through Stenosis in AVF for Hemodialysis

Failure of maturation of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) persists as a major source of desolation and lethality in hemodialysis patients. Stenosis in a vascular access circuit is the predominant cause of access dysfunction. This study is done using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with OpenFOAM to model the flow through an arteriovenous fistula to predict the functional significance of stenosis in the vascular access system. The modeling of stenosis is created in ICEM-CFD by varying the diameter and length of stenosis and analyzed it in the environment of OpenFOAM using the inlet flow velocity as the velocity of each linear time step of the pulse rate like 1.3, 1.5, 2.66 m/s, etc. and maintained the fixed outlet pressure as 100 mmHg. The CFD analysis helps to find the clinical relevance of stenosis in access dysfunction and standardize the intervention.

Suraj Shembekar, D. B. Zodpe, Pramod M. Padole

### Tool Quality Monitoring in Friction Stir Welding Process

The present research aims at monitoring the quality of the tool in an advanced joining technique named friction stir welding by analyzing the force signals. Five tools with different qualities, namely a cracked tool, a tool with a half-pin, material sticking to the pin, tool without a pin, and a healthy tool, have been selected. Discrete wavelet transform has been applied on the acquired signal, and statistical feature of the wavelet coefficients has been extracted which aid in differentiating the selected tools’ condition. The depicted idea will improve the weld quality, reduce rejection of product, and subsequently will help avoid machine downtime which may occur because of a faulty tool.

Debasish Mishra, Rohan Basu Roy, Surjya K. Pal, Debashish Chakravarty

### Condition Monitoring and Fault Diagnosis of Induction Motor in Electric Vehicle

The twenty-first century is witnessing the growth of electric vehicles due to the declining level of petroleum products and legal concern for clean technology to take care of environmental pollution. Battery and electric motor are the two important components in the electric vehicle. An electric motor is a prime component responsible for the propulsion of a vehicle. Because of the continuous operation and load variation, the motor is subjected to different types of faults. Thus, condition monitoring and on-board diagnosis of an electric motor in the electric vehicle is essential to avoid catastrophic failure. In India, it is observed that the induction motor is commonly used in electric vehicles for propulsion. This article proposes the methodology for condition monitoring and fault identification of components in the induction motor using an on-board diagnostics in an electric vehicle.

Swapnil K. Gundewar, Prasad V. Kane

### Mechanical Design Calculations of Flywheel Generator

Flywheels generator is suited where a pulsed current generation is required. It has a higher energy density as compared to capacitor banks. This paper focuses on design calculations related to flywheel energy storage system (FESS) being developed at IIT Delhi. The flywheel rotor, filament wound carbon fibre/epoxy composite, will have storage capacity 10 MJ of energy at 17,000 rpm with energy storage density of 77.5 J/g and power density of 1.94 kW/g. At such a high speed, issues related to air drag, inertial forces on a rotor, dynamic forces on bearings, and vibration become critical. In this paper, we analysed these issues and proposed appropriate solutions.

Md Zafar Anwar, Nilanjan Sen, Jitendra Prasad Khatait, Sudipto Mukherjee

### Numerical Analysis and Reduction of Blade-Vortex Interaction (BVI) Noise in Helicopter Using Numerical Simulation

Computational Aero-acoustic (CAA) simulations on two NACA 23,012 airfoil were performed using STAR-CCM+ to study the BVI noise, and near Trailing edge air suction (TEAS) active control concept was investigated to diffuse the vortices and hence reduce BVI noise. Coupled CFD and CAA analogies were used to capture the wake and far-field noise propagation in 2D simulations. Farassat 1A formulation of Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H) equation is used to capture the far-field pressure fluctuations. Effect of active control on the percentage reduction in vortex strength downstream and overall BVI noise is investigated.

John Sherjy Syriac, Narayanan Vinod

### Dynamics of Underwater Manipulator: A Recursive Lagrangian Formulation

This article presents a method for computation of a unified inverse dynamics and hydrodynamics of a serial link manipulator, completely submerged in water using Lagrangian formulation. The derivation is based on recurrence relation for the velocities, accelerations and generalized forces including hydrodynamic forces. In dealing with the fluid dynamic effects of both uniform and accelerated motion of a body submerged in water, this paper makes use of empirical formulations/relations available in standard literature. As an exemplar implementation, the recursive formulation for a two-link planar underwater manipulator, moving in a vertical plane against gravity, is presented using the proposed algorithm to obtain the motion equations. A free-fall experiment of the chosen two-link manipulator is carried out in simulation through solving the equations of motion numerically with initial conditions set at rest. The two-link manipulator is physically built with straight cylindrical links and free joints (on antifriction bearings). The free-fall experiment same as the simulation experiment is again carried out physically, keeping the whole assembly completely submerged underwater in a glass tank. The time-varying evolution of manipulator configurations is recorded using high-speed motion capture and then analyzed to obtain time evolution of manipulator configurations and kinematic states. The paper concludes by stating the effectiveness of the proposed recursive procedure for inverse dynamics formulation through comparative study of the simulation and experimental results.

Amarendra Kumar, Virendra Kumar, Soumen Sen

### Effect of Tool Geometry on Chip Morphology Formed During CNC Turning of a Round Shaped Product

Characterization of chip formation and correlation between tool geometry and chip formation is an important aspect for generation of better surface of the finished job in CNC lathe machine. For generating the specific round profile of the job, the curvature drawn by the contact point between tooltip and workpiece varies each time with longitudinal distance. In this research work, a mathematical correlation between tool geometry and the machining parameters and its effect on the chip morphology is established by orthogonal turning of Aluminium rods using an HSS tool with a zero rake angle. The results have been verified experimentally with a set of machining parameters like spindle speed, feed and depth of cut and the morphology of the chips were studied using SEM analysis.

Koustov Mondol, Goutam Paul, Asim Gopal Barman

### Optimization of Equal Multi-square Cell Crash Box for Enhanced Energy Absorption

The crash box absorbs impact energy during a low speed crash. Multicell square tubes are proven to absorb energy better than square or rectangular cross-section. The present work is focused on optimization of the cell parameters like side length, thickness and height of a symmetric multicell square cell crash box. The optimization is carried out considering the volumetric space available in a passenger car as constraint. Advanced process monitor is used for solving the optimization problem. The performance of the crash box is evaluated using an analytical model and validated with simulations (LS-DYNA) and experimental results (UTM). The results obtained from three approaches are compared and percentage errors are reported.

Ganesh Prasad, Issac Paul, M. V. Jaathaveda, K. S. Sridhar, S. Harshitha

### Joint Stiffness Estimation Between Spindle-Tool Holder by Considering Clamping Forces

The productivity and the quality of machining depend on the dynamic characteristics of spindle-holder joint interface. However, spindle-holder system is one of the weak joint in the machining centres; therefore, it causes poor machining performances. The main objective of machine tool industries is to improve the accuracy of the machined component, achieve good surface finish, increase tool life and metal removal rate. To achieve these requirements, it becomes predominant to identify the joint stiffness for understanding the dynamic characteristics of spindle-holder joint interface. In this paper, author discussed in detail on how the joint stiffness plays an important role in the dynamics by considering the surface fractal topology theory. Here, the 3D CAD model of BT-40 spindle and Tool holder has been modelled and numerically analysed in FEA software by considering the typical Clamping forces, then obtained natural frequency from FEA is correlated with the experimental modal analysis results, this study will be more informative for understanding the influence of joint stiffness behaviour on the dynamics of spindle-holder system.

Ramesh H. Aralaguppi, K. B. Siddesh, Ashok N. Bade

### Buckling Analysis of Nonlinear First-Order Shear Deformation Composite Plates

This paper developed the buckling analysis of nonlinear behavior of first-order shear deformation laminated composite plates. The first-order displacement functions are used based on some simplifying assumptions. This article further simplifies the transverse displacement into bending and shear components at the midplane have reduced the number of variables and governing differential equations. The von Karman assumptions are used to derive the nonlinear strains based on the displacement functions. Hamilton’s principle is used to derive the equation of motion and boundary conditions. The analytical solutions are developed from the present theory and compared the results of the critical buckling loads with exact and three-dimensional solutions. Result shows that the present theory has closely associated with the exact and three-dimensional theory.

Ashes Maji, Prashanta Kr. Mahato

### Path Tracing and Object Avoidance Algorithm for Robotic Manipulators Incorporating Constrained Filters

This paper presents an algorithm for object avoidance while sustaining the trajectory of the end effector of the robotic manipulators. Multiple filters are developed that are based on classified constraints and applied to configuration space to obtain a collision-free path. The recursive and iterative nature of the algorithm makes it possible to acquire results under the permissible zone of error. The identification of desired configurations from millions of choices is achieved to obtain smooth and least deviated movements. MATLAB software is used to design, implement, visualize, and test the proposed model.

Vipul Garg, Vikas Rastogi

### Characterisation of Composites Made by Prepreg Waste

The current work deals with the utilisation of prepreg waste in making composites. The leftover and out-of-shelf prepregs were chopped into chips of different lengths to make the laminates. The fibre volume and void content tests were performed to evaluate the quality of the manufacturing process. The prepreg waste collected from the industries consists of bidirectional glass/epoxy material. The mechanical characterisation of the laminates, made by the prepreg waste, was performed. The effect of chip length on the tensile strength and modulus were analysed.

P. R. Krishna Mohan, Piyush, P. M. Mohite, Kunj Modi, Dhwani Sharma

### Experimental Investigation on the Effect of Process Parameters for CNC Turning of UNI Al 3055 Alloy Under MQCL Based Cooling Technique

In the present research a novel cooling setup that can help the turning process to be performed in various media, i.e., dry, liquid CO2 or compressed air, cooling lubricant, and the mixture of the liquid CO2 or compressed air mixed with the cooling lubricant. The conventional cooling oil is used to dissipate the heat and increasing life of a cutting tool. So, the surface finish of the workpiece improves leading to a better quality product. Customarily, the contaminated cutting fluid needs to be disposed of after its use that involves a good amount of money of total manufacturing cost. Primarily this work is a turning operation on Al 3055 alloy under three different cutting media namely dry, Liq. CO2 and Liq. CO2 assisted the minimum quantity of liquid in order to get better quality of the product.

Subrata Mondal, Goutam Paul, S. C. Mondal

### Reciprocating Wear Behaviour of Al–SiC Composite Processed with MWS

The present study involves the fabrication and characterization of Al–SiC composites by means of varying content of SiC (i.e., 5, 10, 15 and 20 wt. %). The material was synthesized with developed hybrid microwave sintering (MWS) technique incorporating powder metallurgy (PM) process. Findings are in good agreement for the selection of reinforcement content in the matrix material for the material development to be used in a lightweight material with improved properties. A systematic approach was made to validate the importance of reinforcement in the matrix material for enhanced product response for various functional applications. The hardness of the developed composite material increases significantly with maximum up to 38.1% for 20 wt.% reinforcement in aluminum. The higher reinforcement percentage in the composite material reduces the wear loss up to 96% as observed in the Al + 20% wt.% SiC composites.

Neeraj Kumar Bhoi, Harpreet Singh, Saurabh Pratap

### Dynamics and Control of a 6-DOF Biped Robot on MATLAB/SimMechanics

Kundu, Durbadal Dan, Alinjar Hui, Nirmal B.This paper plans to demonstrate a biped robot on MATLAB/SimMechanics, which tackles dynamics problems with time-efficient numerical models. Biped robot model in this paper has seven links and all the joints connecting links are revolute in nature. Two identical legs have hip joints between upper leg and torso, knee joints between the lower leg and upper leg parts, ankle joint between the lower leg and foot. A rigid body forms the torso. Modeling of ground contact forces is done using inbuilt MATLAB contact library. A PID controller is used in order to simulate the dynamics of the system. Results obtained from the dynamic simulation are presented.

Durbadal Kundu, Alinjar Dan, Nirmal Baran Hui

### Modal Analysis of 3-RRR SPM Model

Spherical parallel manipulator (SPM) finds in many engineering applications like aerodynamic simulators, medical devices, precision machine tools and telescopes. The dynamic characteristic of SPM plays an important role in determining the performance and stability of the manipulator. The present paper reports modal analysis of a 3-DOF SPM with full-circle twist model. A solid model of the SPM is developed using Unigraphics Nx and imported into Ansys for modal analysis. First, three fundamental natural frequencies and mode shapes are extracted. Natural frequencies are validated with the experimental results.

Vijaykumar Kulkarni, C. V. Chandrashekara, D. Sethuram

### Mode Based Crack Identification of Rotor

Rotor dynamics plays an important role in design and maintenance of all rotating machine. The presence of crack directly affects the dynamic characteristics hindering the productivity and performance of turbine. The precise projection of dynamic characteristics of turbine will facilitate the detection of faults in turbine during condition monitoring. The present paper reports an effective procedure, based on the mode shape characteristics to identify and locate a single and multiple transverse crack. The developed procedure is demonstrated with illustrative examples.

Ridha Ali, T. Pooja Priya, V. Rashmi, C. V. Chandrashekara, Suneel Motru

### A Note on Implementation of Raghavan–Roth Solution for Wrist-Partitioned Robots

Kumar, Rajesh Dan, Alinjar Rama Krishna, K.This paper focuses on providing a modification in the Raghavan and Roth algorithm for solving inverse kinematics. We show that this algorithm fails for wrist-partitioned robots. The causes of failure are explored and the underlying architecture is modified to avoid the same. Other cases, where this algorithm does not provide the solution, are also discussed. The modification is illustrated through an example showing inverse kinematics of KUKA KR 5 robot.

Rajesh Kumar, Alinjar Dan, K. Rama Krishna

### Experimental Identification of Residual Unbalances for Two-Plane Balancing in a Rigid Rotor System Integrated with AMB

An experimental dynamic balancing procedure is presented for a rigid rotor system supported on conventional bearings and integrated with active magnetic bearing (AMB). The residual unbalances present in the rotor system are the major causes of fatigue failure of the system at high speeds. So, it is necessary to balance the system to avoid any damage to the system. AMBs are utilized to suppress the vibration of the system through controlled magnetic forces. In this work, AMB is utilized to suppress the vibration of the system using active control through a PD controller. The balancing procedure can be carried out with less vibration in the presence of AMB. Also, after balancing, the AMB in the system can take care of abrupt rise in system response with less power consumption in vibration control. An eight-pole actuator is utilized for generating magnetic force in the rotor system. The PD controller is developed on the dSPACE and Simulink platform for the generation of control current. The measured displacement response through eddy current probes is utilized in the influence coefficient method (ICM) to obtain the balance masses at two balancing planes for dynamic balancing of the system. The obtained balance masses are placed at the respective balancing planes, and the reduction in vibrational response is observed. In comparison with the displacement responses before and after balancing, the displacement is found to be reduced after balancing.

Gyan Ranjan, Rajiv Tiwari, Harshal B. Nemade

### Determination of Steering Actuator Mounting Points of a Load Haul Dump Machine for Optimum Performance

Articulated steering system of a load haul dump (LHD) machine is made possible with the help of one/two hydraulic cylinders mounted between the two body sections. The present article investigates the variables affecting the steering performance like maximum possible steering angle (MPSA) and minimum steering force at articulated joint. In this respect, the geometrical approach is adopted to study the steering system of the LHD machine, and how the actuator mounting points influence the steering performance. Based on the study, MATLAB® code has been developed for finding the optimum mounting points of the steering actuators for MPSA. 3D model of the LHD machine is developed based on the optimum points obtained from the MATLAB® program. The force analysis of the 3D model is carried out in ADAMS environment. Based on the results, it is found that the steering cylinders with inward type offer MPSA and minimum steering force. Also, the optimization technique illustrates that the maximum steering angle may be achieved up to 58°, which leads to angle increase by 28% of the existing LHD machine.

SreeHarsha Rowduru, N. Kumar, Vinay Partap Singh

### Dynamic Analysis of Helicopter Boom with Different Payload Configurations

Gopikrishna, R. Kishore Kumar, K. Janarthanan, Y. R.The armament layout of every military helicopter is decided by the aviation department based on a variety of factors. Amidst a variety of other constraints, the structural behavior plays a vital role in deciding the layout on the helicopter boom. It is necessary to avoid interaction of the rotor blade frequency with that of the natural frequency of the weapon system layout. Vibration analysis was carried out for various configurations, to determine the natural frequencies which are close to that of the rotor blade and therefore avoid them during flight. The finite element analysis followed by impact hammer tests was carried out to confirm the configurations. A passive damping technique is suggested to be adopted for attenuation of the vibrations due to resonance, if any.

R. Gopikrishna, K. Kishore Kumar, Y. R. Janarthanan

### Characterization of Composites Made with In-House Prepregs at Different Curing Cycle

The main objective of this work is to improve the properties of 90° carbon/epoxy laminates made with prepregs B-staged at different curing cycles. The effect of prepreg curing at 80 °C for 15 min and 100 °C for 5 min on the transverse modulus was analyzed for the epoxy system used. A series of tensile test were conducted to study the strength of material. Simultaneous Differential scanning calorimetry and Thermogravimetric analysis (SDT) is used to find the fiber volume fraction of the laminate. Void volume fraction was calculated by using ASTM D2734.

Piyush Sute, P. R. Krishna Mohan, M. Anil Kumar, P. M. Mohite, Mahesh

### A Parametric Approach to Detect Isomorphism and Inversion in the Planar Kinematic Chains

This work deals with the problem of detection of isomorphism and inversions among planar kinematic chains. To detect isomorphism and inversions a least distance matrix (LDM) is formed using the values on the basis of the parameter. Isomorphism is detected on the basis of chain string (CS) of least distance matrix (LDM). An inversion is generated by grounding a different links in the kinematic chain. Here, link string (LS) is generated for the different kinematic inversions of the chains so that we can detect kinematic inversions with the help of link string (LS).

Kunal Dewangan, Arvind Kumar Shukla

### Feasibility of Tensegrity-Based Walking Robot

Constructing robots out of tensegrity mechanisms allows one to significantly reduce weight. This paper explores the feasibility of walking gait generation in such mechanisms. Four, five, six and eight-bar symmetric tensegrity mechanisms have been investigated, and cable actuations have been used for moving ground touching nodes. The node movements were assumed to be slow enough to ignore vibration, and Monte Carlo form-finding method was used to get the stable positions at intermediate positions of a gait trajectory. It was found that only the four-bar tensegrity mechanism allowed walking gait. All the other mechanisms had scraping at the ground nodes which made gait generation practically infeasible. It was surmised that increased level of connectivity between nodes was responsible for this, and an investigation of simultaneous cable and strut actuation was suggested for further investigation.

P. K. Malik, Keshab Patra, Anirban Guha

### Design and Development of a Climb-Free Telescopic Mechanism for Harvesting from Tall Trees

Harvesting fruits or nuts from tall trees have been a great challenge in recent times. There is a shortage of skilled manpower required to harvest, and also, the risk attached to this task is high (Punchihewa PG, Arancon RN (2006) Coconut: post-harvest operations. Asian and Pacific Coconut Community). There is the absence of standard devices in the market for climb-free harvesting from tall trees likes coconut or areca nut. In this paper, a deployable mechanism concept capable of reaching tall tree heights is discussed. This design was achieved after comparing and evaluating continuous cable-type and discrete cable-type telescopic mechanisms. In addition to the telescopic mechanism design, a novel support system which can follow the morphology of the tree was also designed to avoid buckling of the telescopic structures. The overall mechanism was designed and prototyped as an efficient platform to enable accessibility to tall tree heights to which an end effector may be attached.

Bhupinder Singh, Sekar Anup Chander, Vhatkar Dattatraya Shivling

### Simulation Modeling of 37 Degrees-of-Freedom ICF Coach

The safety and comfort of the locomotives depend on the basic suspension design against the dynamic load, to meet the desired dynamic characteristics. The passenger’s comfort and goods safety in a locomotive are correlated with the performance of suspension system subjected to external excitation. In the present paper, a complex 37 degrees-of-freedom Integral Coach Factory (ICF) locomotive model is developed using discretized lumped mass system approach. The equations of motion are derived using Newton’s second law of motion. The scaled down simulation model is developed using multi-body dynamics software ADAMS. The first nine natural frequencies observed in simulation model are in good correlation with the analytical results.

Bharath B. Mahadikar, Charanpreet Singh, Akarsh K. S., C. V. Chandrashekara

### Transmission Efficiency and Surface Damage of Polymer–Polymer Gear Pair Under Wet Lubrication

Polyamide, with its low friction coefficient, high heat resistance and good moldability, is a promising polymer to meet the rising demand for lightweight, durable gears. This paper considered injection-molded polyamide 66-polyamide 66 gear pair wear performance under unlubricated and wet lubricated condition. The experiment was conducted using in-house developed power absorption gear test rig. The torque of 1.8 Nm, rotational speed 800 rev/s and lubricant SAE 75W85 was considered during testing. During the test, gear tooth temperature under unlubricated condition and lubricant temperature under wet lubricant condition was measured and monitored. The net surface temperature on the gear surface and lubricant was observed as 370 K and 303.4 K, respectively. The transmission efficiency was increased by 5% compared to the unlubricated condition. Testing confirmed that the gear exhibited surface wear at both the face and flank region in unlubricated condition. While testing under wet lubricant condition, the wear was observed on the face of the gear. Simulation result confirmed that the deflection of test gear is significantly higher in double tooth contact region shared by the face side as compared to flank side of the driven (test) gear. That could be the possible reason for test tooth wear in the face region.

Sarita Bharti, Selvaraj Senthilvelan

### Effect of Acceleration of Moving Object During Collision with Stationary Object

In an application where a robotic arm hits an object, the effect of impact is required to be assessed. A classical approach determines the effect of impact based on the velocities of the objects. Magnitudes of acceleration are ignored in the analysis. In the robotic application, velocity shall always be associated with acceleration as it is a start and stop type of motion. This paper demonstrates the need of accounting for the acceleration magnitudes also to determine the effect of impact.

Pranav V. Deosant, H. T. Thorat, Rupesh N. Tatte

### Finite Element Modelling of the Human Lumbar Vertebrae for Dynamic Analysis

Analysing and interpreting the dynamic behavioural characteristics of the human lumbar vertebrae are important in assessing symptoms related to lower back pain (LBP). Finite element (FE) modelling and analysis of the vertebral column assist in static and dynamic simulations subjected to various load conditions. Most available finite element models are either expensive and inaccessible, or inaccurate and contain errors. The present paper demonstrates the development of a simplified, refined and error-free solid model of the human lumbar vertebrae for FE analysis. Modal analysis is carried out to evince the integrity of the developed model in dynamic simulation and analysis.

Raj Arjun S. I., Parth Goplani, Pavan Suswaram, C. V. Chandrashekara

### Hybrid Steering System of Six-Wheel Multiterrain Robot (SW-MTR)

Mobile robotics has received a lot of interest among the researchers in recent years, particularly for applications in the remote areas. Six wheels multiterrain robot (SW-MTR) is a robot with semicircular rocker and bogie mechanism developed at PDPM IIITDM Jabalpur. The robot moves on different terrain including sandy area, uneven rocky area, steps of 6 cm height, boulders of 8 cm height, inclined plane of 25°, etc. For steering of the SW-MTR, the hybrid steering system has been proposed with a combination of differential steering mechanism with worm-sector steering mechanism. This paper presents the dynamic model of the hybrid steering system with specific consideration on the wheel skidding effects and load distribution on each of the six wheels. A comparison of the turning radius, contact forces between wheels and surface, torque and power consumption of the proposed hybrid steering system with other individual steering systems is also presented through simulation.

Ankit Nakoriya, Vijay Kumar Gupta

### Flexible Coupling—A Research Review

In mechanical transmission of power from motor to process unit, occurrence of misalignment between the shafts to be coupled is a well-known phenomenon. To mitigate the parallel, angular or combination of these two misalignment, wide range and types of Flexible Couplings are being used. This Research Review is intended to study past and present types of Flexible Couplings and gain insight regarding their working, applications, and performance under different variables and loading conditions. On the basis of this Research Review future work can be performed to develop a New Type of Flexible Coupling which can help to overcome shortcomings of existing Flexible Couplings.

Harshanand P. Ramteke, Girish D. Mehta

### Design of Post-Curing Inflator Using Bistable Locking Mechanism

Bistable systems have two distinct stable states, where the system stays without any application of external power. In this paper, stable states of the buckled beam are used along with a four-bar mechanism to design a locking for the post-curing inflator. Post-curing of tires is necessary to avoid deformation in nylon fabric during cooling. Current setups, available in the market, use external force loop for the application of pressure during the process causing significant bending stresses in the frame, hence making the design bulky. Further, such conventional setup limits the number of simultaneous operations on a shop floor. In this paper, we propose a bistable structure-based locking mechanism, where, loading elements are in tension instead of bending, which makes the whole setup compact. We also discussed the scope of pseudo-bistability for design consideration.

Md Zafar Anwar, Jitendra Prasad Khatait, Sudipto Mukherjee

### Stability Analysis of a Dual-Rate Haptics Controller Using Discrete-Time Root-Locus Method

Ganiny, Suhail Koul, Majid H. Ahmad, BabarIn this paper, the classical discrete-time root-locus method is extended for analyzing the stability of a dual-rate haptics controller. The given controller involves two closed-loop feedback gains, damping and stiffness (of the virtual wall), implemented at different sampling rates. Owing to the multi-variable and multi-rate nature of such controllers, analyzing their stability by the direct application of the root-locus method is not feasible. At the outset, the characteristic equation of the controller is thereby set up in a suitable mathematical form amenable to the root-locus analysis. Thereafter the analysis is carried out by sequentially considering the damping and stiffness as feedback gains. Besides helping in establishing the stability bounds readily, the classical discrete-time root-locus method provides qualitative information about the stability contours of the dual-rate haptics controller.

Suhail Ganiny, Majid H. Koul, Babar Ahmad

### Design of Compliant Iris

Arora, Vinay Kumar, Prakhar Kumar, Rajesh Khatait, Jitendra PrasadStiffness-based approach has been used to design the compliant version of mechanical iris. The rigid links of the mechanism are replaced by sheet flexures. Iris has found use as grippers and also to carry out controlled opening of aperture. This paper is based on formulating an estimate of the stiffness based on geometrical parameters. Stiffness equation relates the input moment to the output deflection. The equations are utilized to design based on the required use case.

Vinay Arora, Prakhar Kumar, Rajesh Kumar, Jitendra Prasad Khatait

### Investigation on the Effects of Nose Radius and Rake Surface of Cutting Tool for Machinability During Sustainable Turning of EN 31 Alloy Steel

Sustainable machining is an important issue in the modern manufacturing field. The use of minimum quantity lubrication during turning operation can lead to economical and hazard free process. In addition to these, the variation of tool nose radius can also lead to the reduction of temperature generation increasing the tool life. In this research study, the variation of tool nose radius was employed during turning operation on EN 31 (European Standard 31) alloy steel under dry and liquid CO2-assisted minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) condition. Also, it has been investigated to obtain a better machinability circumstance.

Sutanu Misra, Goutam Paul, Asim Gopal Barman

### Battery Performance Analysis of Static Temperature Variations for Medical Environment

Improving battery life is very essential need in all battery-based applications to improvise the component operation for longer period of time. But, the battery is easily influenced by surrounding temperature which leads to fast discharge and reduction of charge capacity. To analyze these problems, thermography instrument is used which provides better temperature measurement as well as heat flux variations in the battery. The temperature is varied at 10 °C interval for each 10 successful charging and discharging cycles. While increasing the temperature at 60 °C, the charging period is reduced to 2 h 10 min and discharging time to 2 h 18 min. Beyond this, continuous exposure of battery at different temperature makes the battery to get damaged and broken. Finally, the scanning electron microscope (SEM) images are analyzed to understand the temperature influence on anode and cathode plates.

B. Banuselvasaraswathy, R. Vimalathithan

### Derivation of the Rotation Matrix for an Axis-Angle Rotation Based on an Intuitive Interpretation of the Rotation Matrix

Hota, Roshan Kumar Kumar, Cheruvu SivaIn this paper, we present the derivation of the rotation matrix for an axis-angle representation of rotation. The problem is of finding out the rotation matrix corresponding to the rotation of a reference frame, by a certain angle, about an arbitrary axis passing through its origin. The axis-angle representation is particularly useful in computer graphics and rigid body motion. We have used an intuitive interpretation of the rotation matrix for this derivation. The intuitive interpretation is as follows: the columns of the rotation matrix are the coordinate axes unit vectors of the rotated frame as seen from the fixed frame. This interpretation of the rotation matrix helps in quick computation of the rotation matrices required to obtain the required rotation matrix. The required rotation matrix can be computed from just two rotation matrices which are easy to find and intuitive to understand. The derivation presented in simpler to understand than presented in most books and can be grasped with minimum geometric visualization.

Roshan Kumar Hota, Cheruvu Siva Kumar

### Resolving Hyper-Redundant Planar Serial Robots to Ensure Grasp

Kumar, Rajesh Mukherjee, SudiptoThis paper provides a methodology to use hyper-redundant serial robots to ensure grasp in a planar case. Hyper-redundant serial robots are resolved to mimic behavior of a snake holding onto the objects. The algorithm focuses on caging a hard object and can be extended on squeezing a soft object. The methodology requires a bound on object boundary and location as input. The tractrix-based solution results in the tail of the manipulator to helically move toward the center of the circular bound within which the object is kept.

Rajesh Kumar, Sudipto Mukherjee

### Boom Packaging with Yoshimura Pattern: Geometrical and Deformation Analysis

A number of folding mechanisms have been proposed for spaceborne deployable booms/masts based on origami patterns. The packaging and deployment of a cylindrical boom with Yoshimura pattern are analyzed in this paper. At first, the detailed design of the Yoshimura pattern is discussed, and geometrical expressions for various important parameters like radius of packaged boom, packaging efficiency and inside residual volume after complete folding are obtained to investigate the packaging behavior of the boom. Then, the deployment of a single story Yoshimura cylinder is simulated using FE software ABAQUS. The folded shape of the boom is modeled using pin-jointed wireframe technique, and a uniform nodal displacement is provided to the top polygon, and corresponding axial strains in the fold lines are analyzed numerically. The influence of the number of origami units on packaging and deformation behavior is also discussed. The results show that the fold line deformation decreases as the number of origami units increases, but this also decreases the packaging efficiency of the boom. Moreover, the expansion coefficient is defined to relate the circumferential strain with applied longitudinal strain.

Hemant Sharma, Omkar Raj, S. H. Upadhyay

### Multimodal Medical Image Fusion Based on Interval-Valued Intuitionistic Fuzzy Sets

Multimodal medical image fusion is the process of combining two multimodal medical images to increase the quality and to extract maximum information from the output image for better treatment and precise diagnosis. The fused image obtained from non-fuzzy sets lags with complementary information. Compared with fuzzy set theory, intuitionistic fuzzy sets (IFS) are determined to be more suitable for civilian and medical image processing as more uncertainties are measured. In this paper, an algorithm based on an interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy set (IVIFS) is presented for efficiently fusing multimodal medical images and the final fused image is passed through a median filter to remove noise. Simulations on few sets of multimodal medical images are performed and compared with the existing fusion methods, such as an intuitionistic fuzzy set and fuzzy transform. The superiority of the proposed method is presented and is justified. Fused image quality is additionally checked with different quality measurements, for example, entropy, spatial frequency (SF), average gradient (AG), etc.

T. Tirupal, B. Chandra Mohan, S. Srinivas Kumar

### The Influence of Ultrasound for the Protection of Animals on Highways Through Electronic Circuits

While driving in regions where creatures are regularly present, it is not unexpected to wind up in a mishap. Both wild and residential creatures might be outside and can keep running into the street. Normally, a driver’s first nature is to swerve to abstain from hitting the creature; however, that can have wrecking results, such as losing control of the vehicle and enduring genuine wounds. Swerving can deliver a domino impact, making the driver strike another vehicle or object, which can prompt far more atrocious outcomes, similar to the vehicle moving over or genuine damage to different drivers out on the road. It is essential to avoid such accidents and protect animals as well. To overcome this, new method is proposed in this paper which includes a circuit generating ultrasonic waves. It can be used as pest repellents. For generating ultrasonic waves of high frequency, a generator using 555 timer can be employed. These waves are designed to produce an extremely high-frequency sound that is beyond what humans can hear. Ultrasound is used to bring about enough irritation in animals and make them stay away from highways.

T. Tirupal, S. Fowzia Sultana

### Workspace Analysis of a 5-Axis Parallel Kinematic Machine Tool

Parallel kinematics machines (PKM) are interesting alternative designs for high-speed machining applications since they offer several advantages over their serial counterparts like high stiffness, improved dynamic characteristics, high accuracy and high structural rigidity. Conventional parallel kinematic machines are designed to have 3-DOF; however, in this work, two additional degrees of freedom have been incorporated with the movement of the base in X- and Y-direction. The configuration of 3-DOF parallel manipulator used here is 3-RPS. This paper presents a type of 5-DOF parallel kinematic machine tool architecture on which the parallel manipulator with 3-DOF sliding on the frame structure of machine tool is responsible for the translation along X-direction and Y-direction. Workspace analysis of this mechanism is proposed so as to know the reach of the tool for complex machining operations. Quantitative improvement in reachable volume over conventional 3-DOF is presented.

Anshul Jain, H. P. Jawale

### Reaction Solvability Analysis Using Natural Coordinates

Sharma, Shivam Ghosal, AshitavaIn over-constrained mechanisms, all the joint reactions cannot be solved uniquely based solely on rigid body assumptions. However, a few joint reactions may be uniquely solvable, and an approach termed as reactions solvability analysis (RSA), in this paper, can be used to find such uniquely solvable joint reactions. Existing work has implemented RSA algorithms using absolute coordinates. In this work, the RSA algorithm is used with natural coordinates and this is found to be more efficient for finding uniquely solvable joint reactions. To use natural coordinates for RSA, they need to be modified and this is discussed in this work.

Shivam Sharma, Ashitava Ghosal

### Design, Analysis and Development of Sweep Arm Scanner for Scanning Fast Breeder Reactor Core

Fast breeder reactors (FBRs) utilize liquid metals as coolant. However, in-service inspection of components using conventional optical methods is impossible in sodium due to its opacity. Ultrasonic technique is therefore employed for this purpose which requires the deployment of ultrasonic transducers (UTs) inside the reactor using a carrier mechanism. The carrier mechanism should have a proper kinematic design to access critical locations of reactor internals and ensure that transducers are positioned within close tolerances. Sweep arm scanner (SAS), as a carrier mechanism, is being developed to inspect and map the complete core of FBRs. Kinematic and dynamic analysis of motions is carried out to estimate capacity of drive motors and linear actuators.

Ashish Kumar, Y. V. Nagaraja Bhat, B. K. Sreedhar, S. I. Sundar Raj, S. Murugan, P. Selvaraj

### Kinematics of Three Segment Continuum Robot for Surgical Application

We propose a design of a multi-segment continuum robot with inherent compliance and flexibility for minimally invasive surgical applications. The multi-segment continuum robot can be guided, with high dexterity, through complex curvilinear paths. Thus, they are ideal for endoscopic and surgical procedures. In this paper, we are discussing the kinematics of a three-segment tendon-driven continuum robot. We derived the forward and inverse kinematics for the proposed continuum robot, show the workspace analysis and quantify the robot reach and dexterity. Further, we discuss the kinematic advantages and disadvantages of tendon-driven three-segment continuum robot versus double-segment continuum robot.

Shailesh Bamoriya, Cheruvu Siva Kumar

### Automatic Seed Cum Fertilizer Sowing Machine with Water Dripping on Seeds

Agriculture has reliably been the establishment of India’s bolstered improvement. As the quantity of occupants in India continues building up, the interest for things grows too. Subsequently, there is a more noteworthy requirement for multiple cropping in the farms and this requires adequate and efficient machines. The wheel period of the rainstorm is antagonistically influencing the nation’s precipitation quantity between long stretches of June to July. The late arrival of the monsoon affects the yielding capability of the crop. In this regard, farmers should be trained to cultivate in the right season using modern technologies with the minimum usage of water. This paper discusses an automatic seed cum fertilizer sowing machine with water dripping on the seeds at the time of sowing. This proposed mechanism will help the farmers to cultivate the land even if the arrival of the monsoon is late.

T. Tirupal, D. Rajasekhar

### Automatic Drip Irrigation Control System for Paddy Fields in Depleting Water Resource Areas

Agriculture needs major portion of freshwater available in the world to produce food for increasing population. In this proposed method, soil moisture sensor is placed in constant distances in the whole paddy field to measure the moisture content in the ground and measured values are sent to the controller. Humidity sensor, environmental light intensity sensor are the other sensors used in the field to measure all conditions in the paddy field to regulate the water flow rate in the irrigation system. The system also provides all data to the farmers using Internet of things to monitor the complete irrigation system in real time. 45–50% of water usage is saved because of the smart IOT-based irrigation system and the crop growth also increased because of controlled and regulated water usage.

K. Saravanakumar, M. Karthigai Pandian, T. Chinnadurai, J. Dhanaselvam

The external (surrounding) temperature variation majorly influences the battery lifetime and performance. The temperature variations lead to failure of individual cells as well as performance of the battery. Lead–acid 12 V/ 7.2 Ah battery is used for the analysis. For heating purpose, two heating coils are fitted inside the wooden chamber. Three thermocouples are connected with DAQ card to measure the temperature. For every 10 full cycle periods, the temperature is increased by 10 °C up to 60 °C. At this stage, the battery starts to explode due to high chemical reactions, fast discharging, and charging cycles. The anode and cathode plates were removed from the battery and analyzed with the help of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). From the DSC results, the change of the heat capacity of the anode and cathode plates is observed. Likewise, TGA result shows the degradation of both anode and cathode plates.

T. Chinnadurai, B. Banuselvasaraswathy, M. Karthigai Pandian, S. Saravanan, K. Saravanakumar

### Distance Operated Manipulator: A Case Study for Rose Plucking

Few applications such as cutting shrubs and trees with prickles lead to damage to the hands while cutting it conventionally. The research has been undertaken for ease of rose plucking. A distance operated manipulator is designed and manufactured to overcome the issue of cutting roses by conventional way. The working of the tool is controlled by a lever operated mechanism. By a Bowden cable, the lever is connected to a brake caliper. The force applied by fingers at the lever is amplified at the point of application due to mechanical advantage. The end-effector consists of a gripper-cum-cutter. When the lever is operated, the stem of the rose is first gripped and then shearing of stem takes place. This unique feature of mechanism results into safe harvesting. Due to its simplest construction, it is a beneficial method. Trials have demonstrated the effective use of manipulator for rose plucking.

Utkarsha K. Mehta, Srushti R. Hippargi, Bhagyesh B. Deshmukh, Roohshad Mistry

### Topology Structure Design of Fish-Based Propulsive Mechanisms

The research presented here has its centre point on imitation of fishes and the kinematics of propulsive mechanisms to be used in efficient and versatile autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). Today’s AUVs are based on submarine. The paper started with the analysis of topological structural attributes of 4–11 link mechanisms with 1–6 DOFs. Using Hong Sen Yan’s creative design theory for mechanical devices, all the possible combinations of propulsive mechanism were synthesized to generate an atlas of 1149 new propulsive mechanisms subject to isomorphism, which will provide more inputs in the design and fabrication of the AUV models.

### Impact of SOC Estimation on Primary Frequency Regulation for Sustainable Grid Energy Storage System

In the present scenario, it is very important to concentrate on grid energy storage to maximize renewable energy utilization. Nowadays, commercially feasible projects have been developed to store energy in large level by the development of battery storage technology (BST). In power system, when grid power is lost, battery storage system can deal with the renewable intermittency. Because of intermittent nature, the renewable system provides imbalanced frequency in the grid. So energy storage systems are required to balance the frequency variations by the way of charging and discharging and keep the frequency level at desired limit. Under-frequency events are to be seriously considered and when it happens. State-of-charge estimation is a crucial part in energy management system because SOC estimation involves in modeling and optimizing battery performance in terms of extension of life cycle, cost reduction, and safe operation of batteries for various applications including smart grid application. So estimation of SOC provides a key factor for optimized energy management and control system design. In this paper, equivalent circuit model-based SOC estimation is analyzed based on, mapping of the % of SOC directly with the circuit parameters such as open circuit voltage (OCV) and impedance (Z), and the availability the SOC (tk) is calculated by integrating ampere hour integral method with this one. And also, how the estimation of SOC regulates the grid frequency is also analyzed.

J. Dhanaselvam, V. Rukkumani

### Kinematic Modelling of UR5 Cobot Using Dual Quaternion Approach

Dalvi, Mohsin Chiddarwar, Shital S. Rahul, M. R. Sahoo, Saumya RanjanThis paper presents a framework based on dual quaternions for obtaining the forward and inverse kinematic models for a 6-dof (degrees of freedom) UR5 cobot. A forward kinematics model based on dual quaternions is developed for the cobot. Dual quaternion differential kinematics involving Jacobian transpose and damped least squares methods along with pose error feedback are used for determining the inverse kinematics model. Implementation of inverse kinematics methods for a given trajectory shows that Jacobian transpose method is faster, but gives more jerky motions and is less immune to singularity compared to damped least squares.

Mohsin Dalvi, Shital S. Chiddarwar, M. R. Rahul, Saumya Ranjan Sahoo

### Design of XY Air Bearing Stage for Ultra-Precision

Precision motion system is used in many industries including electronics, optics, and automotive. In silicon wafer lithography process, the resolution has gone up as high as 10 nm and still going higher. Hence, ultra-precision machines have emerged with nano-level accuracy to cater to this requirement. This paper proposes a novel ultra-precision motion stage design with long range motion. The proposed machine has H-type configuration, supported on air bearings. Ironless direct drive motor is applied for actuation with motion feedback by optical linear encoders. The workspace is 300 mm2 with maximum velocity of 1 m/s and maximum acceleration of 10 m/s2. Designed static stiffness of the machine is 398 N/μm and 156 N/μm in X and Y-axis, respectively. Dominant vibration mode is predicted at 46 Hz in vertical mode of the gantry. A PID control is implemented, allowing higher positioning performance. The maximum tracking error predicted in plane for low speed is 2 μm.

### Design and Fabrication of a Bio-inspired Soft Robotic Gripper

Compliant gripping is a promising way to protect delicate objects from the damage caused by contact pressure. Present work proposes the design of a soft gripper inspired by human fingers. The experimental fabrication of gripper is realized by means of a 3D printed hard skeleton made of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) which is actuated by PDMS-based soft dielectric elastomer actuator. Different actuator configurations are explored to demonstrate the design flexibility of the present approach. Experimental results show that both closing and opening mode of gripper actuations are possible by suitably placing the elastomeric layer. Finally, it is shown that lightweight objects can be precisely handled using three-fingered gripper having claw type configuration.

Ayush Agarwal, Ankit Baranwal, G. Stephen Sugun, Prabhat K. Agnihotri

### Experimental and Simulation Study of Haptically Enabled Robotic Teleoperation for NOTES

Saini, Sarvesh Pathak, Pushparaj ManiNatural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery (NOTES) involves the surgical treatment of a patient by reaching the location of surgery through the natural orifices of the human body. In the Robotic-NOTES, there is a bilateral teleoperation system between master and slave robots. Here, the Phantom Omni haptic device that gives motion trajectory and gets the force feedback is used as a master. The surgical manipulators, i.e., a miniature robot that follows the trajectory given by the master and interacts with the environment is used as a slave. In this work, firstly, the study of kinematic relation for the tip position and joint angles of the master and slave is carried out. Then the joint angles for a tip position of the slave robot are calculated for the trajectory planning. After that, a virtual environment is created to get the force feedback for the master from the slave while performing tissue manipulation for the virtual stomach model. Force feedback that we get in a virtual haptic environment will help in training a naive surgeon. Variation in the forces applied to the stomach virtual model and the force feedback in the master device is negligible.

Sarvesh Saini, Pushparaj Mani Pathak

### Design of Robust Backstepping Controller for Four-Wheeled Mecanum Mobile Robot

Islam, Zeeshan Ul Chiddarwar, Shital S. Sahoo, Saumya R.The use of mobile and portable robots is increasing in structured and unstructured environments. A robot with high dexterity and maneuverability in confined spaces, such as omniwheeled robots, is required for such tasks. This paper presents the trajectory tracking capability of four-wheeled mecanum mobile robot in the presence of external uncertainties and disturbances. Firstly, the dynamic equation of the robot is derived; then, the efficacy of a robust backstepping (RBS) controller was tested on a reference trajectory. Simulation results prove that the proposed controller tracks trajectory with greater accuracy than other standard controllers.

Zeeshan Ul Islam, Shital S. Chiddarwar, Saumya Ranjan Sahoo

### Dynamic Analysis of a Magnetohydrodynamic Journal Bearing of Circular Cross Section in a Rotating Coordinate Frame

An infinite journal bearing of circular cross section lubricated with an electrically conducting fluid has been considered for this study. Unlike previous studies involving such bearings encountered by the authors, a rotating coordinate system has been used for deriving the dynamic parameters of the bearing. In addition to the above, the electric field and flow rate relations have been perturbed by use of electromagnetic boundary conditions to eliminate the same from the Reynolds equation. The basic Reynolds equation and its perturbed forms have been solved analytically to derive the stiffness and damping coefficients in the rotating coordinate frame.

Debasish Tripathy, Kingshook Bhattacharyya

### Synergistic Effect of Pocket and Bionic Texture on the Performance Behaviours of Thrust Pad Bearing

Performance behaviours of a sector-shaped hydrodynamic thrust bearing have been presented herein, incorporating the combined geometry of a pocket and a fish (Rohita Labeo) scale texture on the pad surface. The governing Reynolds equation incorporating the mass conservation algorithm is discretized employing FEM and then the solution of the sets of the equations by applying FBNS method. Based on the numerical investigation, it is found that the textured pad enhances the film load capacity and reduces the friction coefficient than the conventional pad case.

J. C. Atwal, R. K. Pandey

### Analysis of a Soil-Moisture Sensor for Potential Failure Modes and Mass Manufacturing

We present techniques for mass manufacturing of a soil-moisture sensor that includes a heat probe and a temperature probe. The requirement of mass manufacturing necessitated a few changes in design of the heat probe. We also present an improved design using the standard method of reliability analysis. Potential failure modes were identified for the sensor, and the modifications to the design were made accordingly. The approach to design was aimed at improving the accuracy and repeatability of the sensor as well as making it suitable for mass manufacturing. Automating the process of manufacturing the sensor as a mechatronic system is outlined. By doing so, we aim to bring down the cost of the sensor considerably, thus enabling the use of sensors in large quantities for deployment in a field.

Mihir Mogra, Rajesh Aouti, N. S. Rakesh, Alishan Ahmed, R. Ashwin, Jose Joseph, G. K. Ananthasuresh

### Evaluation and Validation of Weld Joint Fatigue in Vibration Using Notch Stress Approach

Welds are most susceptible to the vibration loading. When subjected to loading, weld failures are observed at the throat or at the toe. Vibration fatigue evaluation is different from that of static fatigue evaluation as dynamic characteristics of the considered system play important part in stress generation. Weld fatigue under vibration needs different methodologies and one of these is explained in this paper. The paper contains details of the application of notch stress approach and its comparison with the two other approaches, namely nominal and structural stress approach.

Ashish Patil, Swapnil Bhende

### Trajectory Control and Force Control of Biomimetic Fingers by Tendon-Based Actuation System Using Bond Graph

Tendon-based actuation in natural fingers gives dexterity to execute daily life complex motions with ease. It is important to understand the biomechanical structure responsible for these motions. In the proposed work, a single link tendon-based actuation system with two biomimetic fingers has been designed and developed for trajectory and force control. This setup clearly demonstrates the concept of actuation of prosthetic finger of a partially impaired hand by using the motion of remaining natural fingers. The microcontroller plays the role of the human central nervous system (CNS) and provides pulse width modulation (PWM) signals generated through a proportional, integral and derivative (PID) control algorithm to the motor driver for actuation of the motor. The rotatory motion of the motor is converted into translatory motion of the nut by the lead-screw and slider-nut mechanism. Translation of the nut causes joint rotation of the active finger through string-tube mechanism. For joint angle feedback, optical potentiometer is used. For force feedback, force sensor based on strain gauges is designed and developed. The system is modelled using the graphical technique of bond graph, which is very useful for modelling these complex multi-energy domain biomechanical systems. In modelling the system, inertias both rotational and linear, frictional losses, string-tube mechanism modelling, losses in the motor inductance, etc., are all taken into account. The setup serves as a low-cost open-architecture-based controller for investigation of finger tendon mechanics and control.

Vijay Saini, Simran Pal Singh, Neeraj Mishra, Anand Vaz

### Design of a Two Degrees of Freedom Actuator for Rehabilitation Robotic Applications

Saurav Kumar Dutta Sandeep Reddy, B. Santosha Kumar DwivedyRehabilitation robots and many other bio-inspired applications deal with multiple degrees of freedom joints. Generally, each degree of freedom of such a joint is actuated by “an equal” number of single degree of freedom actuators which occupy a lot of space surrounding the joint and is a major hurdle in the development of orthotics and exoskeletons. This paper attempts to model a robotic system where the number of actuators used is less than the degrees of freedom of the robot, while maintaining full actuation. The model of a two degrees of freedom robotic system using only a single actuator is considered. Pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs) are used as these actuators are flexible and safe, have high power-to-weight ratio and have resemblance with human muscles. This model would be greatly beneficial in the development of rehabilitation robots as less number of PAMs would be used for actuating the degrees of freedom about a joint, while maintaining full actuation.

Saurav Kumar Dutta, B. Sandeep Reddy, Santosha Kumar Dwivedy

### Kinematics/Dynamics Analysis with ADAMS/MATLAB Co-simulation of a SolidWorks Designed Spatial Robot Arm with Control and Validation of Results

This paper presents kinematic and dynamic analysis of a 3-R robot arm with ADAMS/MATLAB co-simulation, and its control with PID and PID-based fuzzy logic controller; finally, simulated results are compared with numerical method in MATLAB, for kinematics/dynamic analysis, a three degree of freedom robot arm with all revolute joint is designed in SolidWorks, designed model is exported in ADAMS, and exported plant motion is controlled with the MATLAB/Simulink software. ADAMS software is now widely applied to most of the areas such as robotics, automobile, mechanism and so on for an automatic dynamic analysis of the mechanical system. The virtual model plant created by ADAMS software is approaching the real model dynamics analysis in MATLAB with numerical methods, and it can provide a credible result for the real model simulation with ode45 numerical method test and analysis.

Vikash Kumar

### Joining Aluminum Open Cell Sponge by Friction Stir Welding

Metallic sponges delivered from aluminum 6XXX series are a standout among the most as of late created ultra-lightweight cellular metals. Metallic sponge features exceptionally high-energy ingestion limits with low density and are consequently utilized for boundless applications in the production of ultra-lightweight cellular parts. The manufacture of cellular component parts, for example, high-temperature air or liquid filters and implants, is potential requirement zones relying upon the cell structure size and type of the metal sponge. Metal sponge of closed cell type is ordinarily appropriate for structural uses though open cell sponge; in general, it will be favored for utilitarian applications. Advancement of satisfactory joining innovations for these materials is a basic advance for their far-reaching modern use. The present paper portrays a strong solid-state welding technique that is fit for giving sound joints between aluminum 6XXX macro-porous sponge arrangements. The joining is accomplished by friction stir welding technique abbreviated as FSW through heat generation, softening of material and plastic deformation following the going of non-consumable rotating high-speed steel [HSS] cylindrical tool through the gap between the two solid edges of the sponge to be joined. Having optimized the welding conditions and without utilizing filler metal strong edges were created. The subsequent welds had comparable mechanical properties to that of solid FSW-welded aluminum 6XXX series.

A. Chandru, S. V. Satish

### Harmonic Response Analysis of Photovoltaic Module Using Finite Element Method

Bhore, Chaitanya V. Andhare, Atul B. Padole, Pramod M. Chavan, Chinmay R. Gawande, Vishal S. Prashanth, V. Surya Chary, R. BalagopalNowadays, photovoltaic modules are installed superjacent to cars, ships, trains, metro stations, high rise buildings, etc. where they are subjected to dynamic loads, most significantly through wind and base excitation. Due to these dynamic conditions, vibrations are induced in photovoltaic modules. These vibrations affect the performance and life cycle of photovoltaic module in long run. Therefore, vibration analysis is necessary to understand nature and intensity of vibrations induced in the photovoltaic modules to ensure that they are in acceptable limit. In this paper, the effect of forced vibration on PV module is studied. Harmonic response analysis is performed using finite element method to understand the effect of forced vibrations. Finite element analysis is done for a particular wind speed and different mounting conditions of PV module. The response spectrum is found for excitation frequency ranging from 0 to 100 Hz in sweep generation mode. Vibration responses are plotted in terms of displacement spectrum. This study will provide basis for designing of structures or mountings, which will help in reduction of induced vibration, hence improving life and performance of PV module.

Chaitanya V. Bhore, Atul B. Andhare, Pramod M. Padole, Chinmay R. Chavan, Vishal S. Gawande, V. Surya Prashanth, R. Balagopal Chary

### Development of a Micro-forming System for Micro-extrusion Process of Micro-pin in AZ80 Alloy

Manufacturing of components for micro-systems is a key enabling technology for a new generation of miniaturized devices. The micro-forming is to manufacture the parts or part features with the dimensions in sub-millimeter scale. The process has great potential to become a promising micro-manufacturing method. Micro-forming technology poses much higher demands on accuracy, velocity and mass production, and the common forming machines cannot satisfy these requirements. Micro-forming equipment with high speed and high precision has become an important research field for industrial application. In this work, micro-extrusion ability of bio-absorbable AZ80 alloy is examined using a novel micro-extrusion equipment consisting of forward extrusion assembly and a loading setup. This work aims at discussing the size effect-related deformation behaviors which will help to understand the mechanisms and fundamentals of the size effects in micro-extrusion process. The realization of such a productive forward extrusion assembly poses significant advantages when compared to the conventional manufacturing technologies in the production of nano- and micro-parts.

D. Rajenthirakumar, N. Srinivasan, R. Sridhar

### Topological Analysis of Epicyclic Gear Trains—Symmetry and Redundancy

This proposal is for carrying out topological analysis of epicyclic gear trains (EGTs) starting from the graph theory based model. With respect to a given EGT (graph), the topological analysis is a phase of conceptual design where the designer determines all the possible combinations of input, output, and fixed links in an EGT. In this phase, symmetry analysis of an EGT is vital, as it becomes easy to discard kinematically equivalent input-output-fixed link combinations. Furthermore, it is essential to evaluate those input-output combinations causing one or more redundant links. Addressing these twin objectives, graph theory based methods are presented and elucidated with examples.

V. R. Shanmukhasundaram, Y. V. D. Rao, S. P. Regalla

### Condition Monitoring and Identification of Misalignment with Initial Unbalance of Flexible Rotor-Bearing System

Shaft misalignment, rotor unbalance, rubbing, bearing faults and cracks are the commonly observed faults in the rotor-bearing systems. Vibration signature has been considered to be one of the best ways to detect and diagnosis subsequent condition monitoring of rotor-bearing faults. A flexible shaft with a rigid disc supported by flexible bearings at both the ends has been considered for the present critical observations. The bearing is considered as a spring with linear stiffness and damping. Further, Timoshenko beam theory is considered to describe mathematically the model of rotor element. We used finite element analysis to obtain the critical whirling speeds of rotor-bearing system for different modes at various system parameters with the illustration of Campbell diagram and Fourier spectrum. Vibration spectrums in the transverse direction are illustrated for different modes of vibration using successive approaches of Hamilton principle, Galerkin’s method and Newmark’s integral method. Condition monitoring of vibration spectrums considering rotor unbalance and shaft misalignment as well as their identification has been analysed with FFT, time responses, phase portrait and Poincare’s map, numerically and experimentally.

Sankalp Singh, Hanmant P. Phadatare, Barun Pratiher

### Effect of Unbalance with Bearing Flexibility on Vibration Phenomenon of Geometrically Nonlinear Rotating Shaft with Ball Bearing

Free and forced vibration analysis of a geometrically rotating shaft supported on ball bearings has been studied using the numerical method and compared with the results obtained experimentally. This study is concerned with vibration analysis of geometrically nonlinear rotating model with a rigid disk. The shaft has been designed under the frame of Euler–Bernoulli beam theory with additional effects such as rotary inertia, gyroscopic effect, higher-order large deformations, and rotor mass unbalance in order to replicate an equivalent practical model of rotor-bearing system. The mathematical expressions have been derived to demonstrate the nonlinear free and forced vibrations of the rotating shaft coupled with rigid disk in two transverse planes. Solutions of the nonlinear equation are being obtained using method of multiple scales as well as numerical methods. Effects of rotor parameters such as bearing stiffness and damping coefficient are examined with help of this nonlinear mathematical model. The obtained results are portrayed for a better understanding free and forced vibration analysis with time response, FFT, phase portrait, and Poincare’s map. The present outcomes enable an understanding on how the system dynamics influenced with the variations in the values of different parameters.

Hanmant P. Phadatare, Sankalp Singh, Barun Pratiher

### Analysis of Parametric Influence on Control of a Two-Link Flexible Manipulator Incorporating a Payload

The control problem for the trajectory tracking of a flexible two-link manipulator incorporating a payload described by a nonlinear model is addressed in the present work. The influence of parametric variation of system attributes on the design of PD inversion-based nonlinear control of a two-link manipulator has been demonstrated. The kinetic energy expression for the system is obtained by using the position vector in generalized coordinate system. The Euler–Lagrange’s approach in conjunction with the assumed mode method is utilized to obtain the dynamic model of the system composed of four nonlinear ordinary differential equations which are simulated, and the results have been graphically illustrated. The effect of system parameters such as payload mass, joint mass, system inertia, and physical and geometric properties of the links are explored by comparing the simulation outcomes. Moreover, the presented results exhibit that the system parameters have a significant effect on the input–output characteristics and should be accounted for while designing such systems.

Pravesh Kumar, Barun Pratiher

### An Assistive Chair Using a Series-Elastic Actuator

Kushwaha, Ankur Agrawal, Yash Khandai, Sandeep Hari, K. V. S. Ananthasuresh, G. K.Series-elastic actuators are mechatronic devices used for force control. They consist of an actuator in series with a spring in conjunction with a sensor for measuring the actuator displacement and another for spring displacement. A controller helps deliver required force profile by driving the actuator in a feedback mode as per the measured displacements and the applied load. We present design, prototyping, and testing of a series-elastic actuator integrated with a slider-rocker linkage. This device is retrofitted to a chair such that the user is assisted while sitting and rising. Multi-body dynamics using Simscape and control system design are discussed.

Ankur Kushwaha, Yash Agrawal, Sandeep Khandai, K. V. S. Hari, G. K. Ananthasuresh

### Natural Control of Virtual Models of Mechanisms Using Leap Motion for Interactive Learning

The study of mechanisms is imperative in every mechanical engineering programme. Diagrams and videos are the most popular methods of teaching the kinematics of mechanisms. However, such approaches create a one-way communication environment, wherein students consume information without much practical understanding. Occasionally, physical models of mechanisms are used for instruction, but this approach is expensive and limited to simple mechanisms. This paper presents the use of Leap Motion sensor, which reads input from the user’s hand, to manipulate 3D models of mechanisms in a virtual environment. This allows the student to interact with the model of a mechanism to facilitate his/her understanding of it. The proposed method can also be used to control physical prototype of mechanisms.

### Automated Calibration of Cervical Spine Motion Segment Finite Element Model for Physiological Kinematics

Calibration of material model parameters for the validation of spine finite element (FE) model involves the tuning of parameters in multiple spinal components. A method to automate calibration of spine kinematics was developed in this study, which will find application in subject-specific model development and biomimetic mechanisms. Downhill simplex method was used to find the optimum value of twenty-four material parameters in a single motion segment FE model of cervical spine. The model consisted of two vertebrae and the disc and ligaments in between them. Flexion and extension loading cases and combined flexion-extension loading were considered for the automated model calibration. It was seen from the study that a combined consideration of the loading cases is required to obtain a model calibrated in multiple loading directions as spinal components have different contributions in different loading conditions.

Dhinesh Natarajan, Jobin D. John, Gurunathan Saravana Kumar

### Identification of Inertial Parameters and Friction Coefficients for One-Link Manipulator

Dynamic identification of a manipulator is necessary to know its inertial parameters as well as friction coefficients (Coulomb and viscous) at the kinematic joints. Here, the dynamic parameters and friction coefficients at the revolute joint of a one-link planar manipulator were identified through experimental data. The manipulator was moved in horizontal plane (no joint torque due to gravity) to identify the moment-of-inertia about the joint axis effectively, as the inertia force is dominant. For horizontal plane motion, the Coulomb friction coefficient at the revolute joint was considered as constant, while the viscous friction coefficient varied with respect to the joint rate. The constant viscous friction coefficient leads to the erroneous results for wide range of joint rate. Trapezoidal trajectory (at velocity level) was used to identify the dynamic, Coulomb, and viscous friction parameters through measurement data. The identified dynamic parameters were found in good agreement with the CAD model data of the manipulator. The identified parameters were validated for another trapezoidal trajectory and for a sinusoidal trajectory. From the experimental results, it is shown that the Coulomb friction coefficient is constant for horizontal plane motion, whereas viscous friction coefficient is the function of joint rate.

Anil K. Sharma, S. K. Saha, Virendra Kumar, Soumen Sen

### A Task-Based Dimensional Synthesis of an Upper-Limb Exoskeleton: A Hybrid Configuration

Gupta, Sakshi Gupta, Sameer Agrawal, Anupam Singla, EktaThis paper deals with the human-robot compatibility issue of upper-limb exoskeleton through a dimensional synthesis problem. The work is a contribution to solving misalignment. In this paper, the objective is the task-based dimensional synthesis of a wearable upper-limb exoskeleton for emulating natural human motion. A planar hybrid architecture is used for the purpose, with a four-bar connected to another four-bar in series. The task is selected based upon the standard rehabilitation exercises, only for the planar motion (parallel to sagittal plane). To achieve the proposed objective, the work has consisted of the formulation and solving of a constrained optimization problem, with reachability, design limits and solution continuity as constraints. Genetic algorithm is used for problem-solving. The results are detailed for proposed manipulator for the upper-limb exoskeleton, showcasing variation in design limits and constraints.

Sakshi Gupta, Sameer Gupta, Anupam Agrawal, Ekta Singla

### Topology Refinement from Design to Manufacturing Using Image Processing-Based Filtration Techniques

Topology optimization is an established method for mass reduction of a machine and structural components. Recently, this method is used to reduce industrial manipulator links by considering minimum compliance or stress as an objective function. In the present work, central link of three-DOF articulated manipulator is chosen for topology optimization. The initial material domain is optimized based on solid isotropic material with penalization (SIMP) approach using optimality criteria method. A MATLAB code is developed, which captures performance values such as maximum deflection and von Mises stress of the manipulator link. Further, topology and performance values obtained from MATLAB results are validated using simulation software ANSYS workbench 18.1 packages. The generated optimal topology closely resembles the MATLAB results. The obtained topology contains thin and irregular connections, which results in high-stress values and consumes significant manufacturing time and cost. Here, a methodology is proposed to simplify such elements with reduced stress and simple geometry without adding considerable volume. The proposed methodology is based on image processing techniques that are fused together in a systematic sequence for binary scaled images corresponding to density parameter matrix. The developed filter though this methodology is validated with stress analysis and shows unidirectional stress reduction nature.

### Soft Robotic Gripper for Agricultural Harvesting

Historically robots have been a compilation of rigid parts or objects which move relative to one another to transfer motion. One of the main drawbacks of this classical method has been the physical restrictions and rigidity of the structure of the components. Conventional robots are made of rigid materials that limit their ability to elastically deform and adapt their shape to external constraints and obstacles. It is also harder to use these robots in any industry which require a certain degree of sensitivity and delicacy when interacting with the environment. Soft Robotics is a relatively new subfield of Robotics with incredible potential to change the industry due to their construction from highly compliant materials. Soft robots have increased flexibility and adaptability as well as improved safety when working around humans. In this work, we have described our attempts at the design and fabrication of few soft robotic grippers. We have experimented with three types of liquid silicone rubber materials with different properties and tried fabricating one-fingered, three-fingered and four-fingered soft pneumatic actuators. We have demonstrated grasping in lifting few objects of different shapes and sizes. The gripper developed has the potential to be used for harvesting in agricultural fields.

S. M. G. Vidwath, P. Rohith, R. Dikshithaa, N. Nrusimha Suraj, Rajeevlochana G. Chittawadigi, Manohar Sambandham

### Surface Profile Accuracy of Deployable Mesh Reflectors Based on Focal Offset

A deployable structure based on the tension truss concept is used to develop unfurlable, large-aperture reflectors for space applications. The paraboloid surface of the reflector is approximated by a reflective mesh attached to a cable network consisting of triangular facets. Existing approaches try to minimize the root mean square error between the faceted surface and the local quadratic approximation of the paraboloid for designing the cable net. An alternate approach for computing the surface accuracy of the faceted reflector surface is proposed here based on the proximity of the reflected rays to the receiver of the antenna. The offset distance of reflected rays from the focus or offset error is a more geometrically relevant indicator for determining the accuracy of the facets. An offset paraboloid reflector of 3 m aperture diameter is designed for which the surface errors are computed using both the approaches. These errors are computed for individual facets, and their distribution throughout the reflector surface is compared.

Shenoy S. Siddesh, R. Harisankar, G. K. Ananthasuresh

### Design and Control of a Low-Cost EMG-Based Soft Robotic Ankle-Foot Orthosis for Foot Drop Rehabilitation

Gudapati, Nitish Kumaran, Koushik Deepak, S. V. Mukesh Kanna, R. Jinesh, R. Poddar, HimadriStroke patients often suffer from foot drop, a gait abnormality caused due to the paralysis of the anterior portion muscles of the lower leg, causing an inability or impaired ability to raise the foot at the ankle joint. This condition leads to extremities of the foot being dragged along the ground while walking, causing tripping and other accidents. Braces or splints that fit into shoes are prescribed to help hold the foot in a normal position. For rehabilitation, most patients are trained to walk with canes, and therapists prescribe physiotherapy for a series of short, intensive sessions. These solutions are expensive and slow processes as they require the presence of skilled personnel. In this paper, we present a novel design and control methodology for a 1-DoF Soft Active Ankle-Foot Orthosis (AFO) to address these issues. The AFO is designed to augment the human musculoskeletal system. The AFO is actuated using McKibben muscles (pneumatic artificial muscles), which are driven pneumatically. They are cost-effective and lightweight, offering a significant advantage over motor-driven orthoses. The orthosis is controlled using electromyography (EMG) signals from the muscles involved in the motion of the ankle. The use of EMG for control is found to be a better option than existing methods due to its non-invasive nature.

Nitish Gudapati, Koushik Kumaran, S. V. Deepak, R. Mukesh Kanna, R. Jinesh, Himadri Poddar

### Comparison of PPC and LQR Controller for Stabilization of Cart Pendulum System: Simulation and Real-Time Study

In the present work, mathematical modeling, simulation, and real-time study has been carried out for stabilization of cart pendulum system. Euler-Lagrange method is used to derive the mathematical dynamic model of the system. The actuator dynamics is included with developed model of the system to achieve more realistic model. Two different feedback controllers, Pole Placement and Liner Quadratic Regulator are used to control the inverted pendulum at unstable equilibrium system. Simulink environment is used to carry out the analytical simulation and the experimental work was conducted on Googoltech Linear Inverted Pendulum (GLIP) setup. The experiment results found in close agreement with analytical solutions. Both controllers have been compared to check the efficacy of the developed controllers. It has been found that LQR controller has 55.5% less amplitude of oscillations of pendulum at unstable position and 47.9% less control input as compared to Pole Placement controller.

Gurminder Singh, Ashish Singla

### Effective Education Using a 2-DOF Five-Bar Mechanism

Innovative methods to teach kindergarten students are on the rise which use virtual environment like a mobile phone or a tablet. However, the students who get great joy in using these gadgets are moving away from actual writing on a paper or slate. In this paper, the authors have proposed a simple mechanism which can be controlled to draw a shape, a numeral, or a letter. It consists of a five-bar mechanism which has 2 degrees-of-freedom (DOF) and can control the position of the end-effector (EE). The novelty of the proposed mechanism is that it has an iris mechanism at the EE. The student has to hold a pen/pencil and start following the motion of the EE, which draws as per the command from a computer. The pen/pencil has a contact patch and if it touches the inner circle of the iris mechanism, the computer notes it down and the student loses a point. The iris mechanism can be opened and closed to have different difficulty levels for the students, thus making its usage more challenging. A working prototype was tested with few children, and based on their feedback, a newer version is being developed and has also been reported in this paper.

Shourie S. Grama, Prithvi Bharadwaj Mellacheruvu, S. Prasanth, V. Prathosh Kumar, S. Vignesh, Rajeevlochana G. Chittawadigi

### Renewable Energy System Using Thermoelectric Generator (RESTEC)

Continuous variable transmission (CVT) systems are widely used in all-terrain vehicles (ATV). Over long runs, the sheaves of CVT generate sufficient amount of heat energy and get damaged due to friction between the sheaves and belt mainly due to clutch slippage during acceleration and deceleration. This further deteriorates the condition and performance of the vehicle, and breakdown is also discovered as a worst-case scenario. A novel method has been developed and implemented by creating a renewable energy system to maintain the temperature of CVT and improve longevity. The renewable energy system makes use of thermoelectric generators (TEG) working on the principle of Seebeck effect to utilize the heat dissipated from the exhaust chamber of engine which comprises of 80% of the waste energy of the ATV and is used for cooling the CVT.

Ritwik Dhar, Param Shah, Parth Kansara, Niti Doshi

### Bending and Free Vibration Analysis of Exponential Graded FG Plate Using Closed-Form Solution

This article is intended to study the bending and vibration response of the exponentially graded FGM plate using the closed-form solution. The governing equations of motions are formulated on the basis of Hamilton's principle, whereas the Navier method has been used to solve the governing equation with simply supported boundary conditions. The results have been validated for non-dimensional deflection values of a square plate subjected to transverse loading. Apart from these, the exponential gradation model has been considered for calculating the effective material properties of a functionally graded plate and its mechanical properties are assumed to vary in the thickness direction. Bending analysis and non-dimensional frequency has been evaluated for various modes of vibration of functionally graded thin and thick plates.

Dheer Singh, Yogesh Kumar, Ankit Gupta

### Structural Responses of Geometrically Imperfect Functionally Graded Plates with Microstructural Defects Under Hygrothermal Environment

This article deals with the structural analysis of geometrically imperfect functionally graded plates (FGM) with microstructural defects (porosity) under a hygrothermal environment. The mathematical formulation is based on non-polynomial-based quasi-3D higher-order structural kinematics developed by the authors. The comparative studies have been carried out by comparing the obtained results with the published results. Finally, the influence of various parameters such as moisture contents, thermal environment, and various defects on the vibration and bending of FGM plates has been studied.

### Simplified Aerodynamic Modeling of a Bird Robot Using the DeNOC Matrices

To design an efficient flapping wing aerial vehicle, a simplified aerodynamic model of a bird robot is presented in this paper. A bird robot was divided into three modules, namely, main body, right wing, and left wing. The main body of the bird was considered as spheroidal prolate, and the wings as rigid plate with airfoil cross-section. The robotic bird was considered as tree-type multibody system, where the main body is parent and wings are children. Each wing was connected to the main body using a two-degree-of-freedom (DoF) joint, which provides twisting and flapping motions to the wings. The kinematic configuration of the bird model was represented using the modified Denavit–Hartenberg (DH) parameters. The flapping and twisting of the wings generate both lift and forward thrust for the bird flight. The equations of motion of the robotic bird were derived using the DeNOC matrices. The constant drag and lift coefficients were considered for the main body of robotic bird; however, variable drag and lift coefficients were used for the aerodynamic modeling of the wings. The sinusoidal trajectory was considered as the desired joint motion for twisting and flapping of the wings. A proportional-derivative (PD) controller was used for the force forward simulation of the robotic bird. A relation between the flapping frequency and lift force on the main body was established.

Anil K. Sharma, Sasanka S. Sinha, Rajesh Kumar, S. K. Saha

### Parallel Mechanism-Based Master–Slave Manipulation

The paper presents the development of a parallel mechanism-based master–slave (M-S) manipulation. The paper discusses the generalized 6 degree of freedom (DoF)-based M-S arrangement. The feasibility of architectures possessing specific advantages is discussed. The cases starting from two to six DoF parallel manipulators are dealt. The aspect of one-to-one joint space correspondence, workspace mapping and issues related to direct kinematic problem is discussed. The mechanical master–slave manipulator design, motion transmission and control of stationary-active (St-Ac) axis parallel manipulators are demonstrated. The importance of parallel mechanism-based M-S arrangement over serial mechanism-based M-S in complementing the application space is shown.

Ravinder Kumar, S. K. Sinha, T A. Dwarakanath, Gaurav Bhutani

### Comparative Stiffness and Damping Analysis for Various Flow Controlling Devices of Hole Entry Worn Hybrid Conical Journal Bearing Under the Variation of Speed

The choice of proper flow controlling device plays a significant part in determining the performance parameters of hybrid conical journal bearings. During the operation, they are subjected to variation from low to high speed to meet the need of today’s industrial demand. The objective of this paper is to study the comparative dynamic performance analysis of capillary, CFV and orifice compensated, hole entry, worn hybrid conical journal bearing under varying speed by analytical method. The finite element analysis technique is used to solve the modified Reynolds equation. The numerically simulated results show the appreciable change in the performance characteristics due to change in the compensating device with variation in speed with worn/unworn condition of bearing.

Vikas M. Phalle, Sanjay R. Pawar

### A Comparative Study of Three Methods for the Computation of Determinants of Univariate Polynomial Matrices

Safar, V. Nag, Anirban Patra, Bibekananda Bandyopadhyay, SandipanThis paper compares three different methods for computing the determinant of a univariate polynomial matrix. From a systematic empirical study involving 100 trials of each numerical experiment, it appears that the method of FFT-IFT-based interpolation and evaluation performs the best in terms of both speed and accuracy of computation. The utility of this method is further demonstrated by a successful application to the classical problem of forward kinematics (FKP) of the general Stewart-Gough platform manipulator (SPM).

V. Safar, Anirban Nag, Bibekananda Patra, Sandipan Bandyopadhyay

### A Comparative Study of Different Numerical Scanning Strategies for Finding the Safe Working Zone of a 3-DoF Parallel Manipulator

Patra, Bibekananda Safar, V. Bandyopadhyay, SandipanIdentification of the safe working zone (SWZ) of a parallel manipulator can be an important part of its path-planning process or design. Computationally efficient and accurate methods are required to make these demanding calculations practically feasible. This paper looks at the Cartesian and polar variants of a 2-D numerical scanner which are applicable for 3-degrees-of-freedom (DoF) planar or spatial parallel manipulators and presents a detailed analysis of their relative speeds, advantages and disadvantages, based on a case study involving the spatial $$3$$ 3 -RRS manipulator. Results of such a study provide the analysts with a deeper understanding of the functioning of the scanner, which in turn, helps the computation of the SWZ of other manipulators in a fast and reliable manner.

Bibekananda Patra, V. Safar, Sandipan Bandyopadhyay

### Motion Control of a Phalange Using Tendon-Based Actuation System: A Bond Graph Approach

Daily interactions with the environment by the hands such as grasping, manipulating, writing, pull/push, carry, and playing music require specific forces and some precise movements provided by the various elements of the human hand. Skeletal muscles play a significant role in locomotion of upper as well as lower limbs. The muscle tendon unit involves nonlinear characteristics. A biomechanical model has been proposed to control the motion of a phalange, actuated through the muscle tendon unit by a virtual phalange, a part of the control by the central nervous system. The authors propose a bond graph based mathematical model to control the motion of a phalange through a virtual system using tendon actuation. Simulation results validate the proposed bond graph model.

Sandeep Kumar Uppal, Anand Vaz

### Taguchi Optimization for Wear Behaviour of Drum Brake Shoe Interface

The effect of parameters on wear behaviour of drum brake shoe is optimizing using Taguchi method. Pin samples made from brake shoe material is tested on pin-on-disc test rig against disc of same material as of drum. The effects of variation in load (40, 60 and 80 N), sliding speed (300, 600, 900, 1200 rpm) and track diameter (40, 60, 80 mm) on wear rate of shoe surface were examined. From signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) and analysis of variance (ANOVA) of experimental results, the major parameter responsible for wear of drum brake shoe is found and different conditions are suggested for improvement in wear life and reliability of brake.

Vaibhav A. Kalhapure, H. P. Khairnar

### Analysis of a Hydrodynamic Journal Bearing of Circular Cross Section Lubricated by a Magnetomicropolar Fluid

An infinite journal bearing of circular cross section lubricated with a fluid containing magnetic micropolar inclusions has been considered for this study. Unlike most analyses dealing with ferrofluid bearings where the magnetic forces are mainly dealt with as separate entities with their own physics, in this study the idea of micropolar fluids has been extended to consider magnetic inclusions. A rotating coordinate system has been used for deriving the dynamic parameters of the bearing. In addition to the above, the electric field and flow rate relations have been perturbed by use of electromagnetic boundary conditions to eliminate the same from the Reynolds equation. The basic Reynolds equation and its perturbed forms have been solved analytically to derive the stiffness and damping coefficients in the rotating coordinate frame.

Debasish Tripathy, Kingshook Bhattacharyya

### Twin-Plate Turbine Using Parallel Four-Bar Mechanisms

Turbines are used for the generation of electric power using hydel, air flow or wind. In a conventional wind turbine, the angle of attack of the wind changes as the cups or plates rotate. However, if the angle of attack remains perpendicular to the plate, the effort of the wind on the turbine rotation would be higher. In this paper, a novel concept of a turbine is proposed that ensures that the plates always remain perpendicular to the direction of wind flow. This is achieved by using parallel four-bar mechanisms. A simplified mathematical model is presented along with that of Persian turbine, of similar form. The analyses were compared, and the proposed mechanism was found to generate more power than Persian turbine. Physical prototypes of both the turbines were fabricated and tested, and the proposed turbine was found to support the theoretical calculations.

Bhanu Vardhan Chennoju, Sai Vikas Coca, Rajeevlochana G. Chittawadigi

### Intuitive Manipulation of Delta Robot Using Leap Motion

Delta robots are parallel manipulators used extensively in industries to perform pick-and-place and sorting operations. While the latter is usually integrated with a vision system, the former requires users to teach robot positions and corresponding actions that it has to repeatedly follow, using teach pendants. The teach pendants are generally bulky and require thorough training to be used upon. In this paper, the authors propose usage of Leap Motion, a hand tracking device, to manipulate a delta robot. The kinematics of the robot and the methodology used to integrate Leap Motion and the manipulator developed by them are presented in this paper. The robot was successfully controlled, and it was found to be intuitive for the end-user.

P. Giridharan, Rajeevlochana G. Chittawadigi, Ganesha Udupa

### A Computation Model of Contact Interaction Between the Scaphoid and Its Neighboring Bones Using Bond Graph Approach

Wrist modeling, as an idealized mathematical representation, is increasingly important in the analysis of complex wrist biomechanics. Contact mechanics at a wrist joint is intricate due to non-uniform geometry of mating bones and intermediate cartilage layer. A bond graph-based model of contact interaction of the scaphoid bone, one of the carpal bones, with its neighboring bones is presented in this work. The geometries of mating bones are considered in the form of a point cloud. The behavior of the intervening cartilage layer is modeled using a nonlinear stiffness and damping field. The scaphoid bone is connected through ligaments with its neighboring bones. Each ligament is modeled as a linear, tension only spring element in combination with a linear damper. The scaphoid bone is under the action of gravitational force. Investigations of the contact area between mating bones and generalized forces on scaphoid bone and its ligaments are discussed. The proposed model may also be an alternating iterative process between FE-models and kinematic rigid body models.

Arvind Kumar Pathak, Anand Vaz

### Mathematical Model of SMA Spring Actuator in a Miniature Flexible Tube Robot

Shape memory alloy (SMA) has the potential to be used as an actuator in miniaturized and flexible models. In this paper, an existing theoretical model is used to predict the force capabilities of an SMA spring in challenging applications like a miniature flexible tube robot for tumor irradiation applications. A heat transfer model based on Joule heating is used to predict the temperature variations with time. A Brinson model-based phase kinetics together with constitutive model predicts the variation of martensite fraction and recovery force with temperature. The results help to estimate the force capabilities of an SMA spring when used as an actuator.

Nisha Bhatt, Sanjeev Soni, Ashish Singla

### Analysis of Inner Block in a Roller Chain Using Glass Reinforced Composites

Roller chains are used in power transmission; the materials used in a roller chains are generally steel. In the advancement of composite materials in various fields for its high strength-to-weight ratio, its high tensile strength and its lower density reduce mass as well. This paper does an finite element analysis of inner block which comprises two plates, bushes and roller with fiberglass composites such as E–S Glass and compares them with the material that is more prominently used—medium carbon steel

V. Gyaneshwar, V. Sivasankaran

### Study on the Effect of Process Parameters on Machinability Performance of AA7050/B4C Metal Matrix Composite on Wire Cut EDM

The present investigation has been initiated based on the wire electric discharge machining of Al7050/7.5 B4C stir cast metal matrix composite. Taguchi L9 orthogonal array has been used to analyses the concurrent effect pulse current (Ip), pulse-on time (Ton) and servo voltage (Sv) on material removal rate (MRR) and surface roughness. From Taguchi analysis, it is observed that the optimal setting of process parameters for maximum MRR is Ip3Ton3Sv3, whereas for minimum surface roughness, the optimal configuration of process parameters is Ip3Ton2Sv1. The error estimated between predicted MRR and surface roughness with experimental MRR and Surface roughness at the optimal setting of process parameters is within ±5%. Analysis of variance shows that Ip contributes maximum towards MRR and Ton contributes maximum towards surface roughness.

Arvind Kumar, Subhan Pandey, Virendra Singh, Ram Naresh Rai

### Biomechanical Response of Seated Human Body Subjected to Vertical Vibrations Using Coupled Matrix Model

Human body subjected to vibrations experiences multidimensional motion. Seated human body subjected to vertical vibrations exhibits two-dimensional motion in the sagittal plane. An eight degrees of freedom coupled human body model of a seated human with backrest support is developed to depict vertical and fore-aft head motion. The model consists of four rigid masses representing thigh pelvis, lower torso, upper torso, and head. Multi-objective genetic algorithm-based optimization has been used for model parameter identification by minimizing the difference between the experimental and model-derived seat to head transmissibility. The human body model is then integrated with a vehicle model to obtain optimum seat parameters.

Raj Desai, Anirban Guha, P. Seshu

### Categorization of the Indian Males’ Foot Data for Age 18–25 Years Based on Plantar Footprints

This study aims out the purpose and outcomes of research performed to evolve a reasoned categorization method of the elderly foot assortment, and it is rooted on framework derived from the plantar footprint. DIERS Pedoscan pressure plate and the corresponding system including DIERS Statico-3D systems were used to obtain plantar footprints from 30 men, aged between 18 and 25 years. Hallux-Valgus (HV) Angle and Chippaux-Simark Index (CSI) have been utilized, and foot assortment has been categorized. Mainly five disciplines were separated into groups, disciplines with Hallux-Varus Foot, Normal Foot, HV Foot, High Arched Foot, Normal foot and Flat Foot, grounded on the acquired result. For a more precise calculation, being able to record it in the identical method, for all disciplines, the authors have evolved a process to assess the mid-plantar footprint middle area for a more precise calculation. Distinctions between different age batches have been controlled by having defined age group and revealing the unavoidable modelling with crafting shoe shapes, protective constituents and footwear accordingly. The superior apt of the shoe on foot in young age can be attained under definite levels and requires reforming of shoe shape. The customization of the product is rationalized by incorporating having biomechanics-based foot data and distinguishes categorization of this, decreased tests numbers and expanding a footwear technological operation effectiveness.

Pawan Mishra, Sachin Kumar Singh, Vinayak Ranjan, Sonu Singh, Sabyasachi Souguny

### Mechanization of Peppermint Oil Extraction Plant of Rural India

Peppermint leaves have wide medical applications. However, the traditional methods of peppermint oil extraction require high labour and large number of workers. It is least profitable, and post-harvesting method adopted is not safe for workers and farmers. Several surveys are conducted in various districts of Uttar Pradesh States(India) like Bahraich, Barabanki, Ramnagar, Sitapur and Lakhimpur, and the existing problems are compiled in this paper. The complaints of the workers and complications that occur post-harvesting of peppermint leaves to oil extraction are considered. The major problem are the long time taken to fill the drum (boiler) (with the peppermint leaves), the uneasy method of handling the drum, compression of leaves and the hazardous removal of burnt leaves. The paper contains the detailed list of problems and its classification based on the findings during the survey. The old and traditional method is being analysed, and economical suggestions, for farmers of rural India, are given through various proposed models. With the proposed mechanized model, the efficiency of plant can be improved effectively.

This paper presents the imperfection sensitivity of skewed functionally graded (FG) flat plates under dynamic loading. The material properties are assumed to be varied along the thickness direction. The plate kinematic is assumed according to Reddy’s higher-order shear deformation theory (HSDT). A function causing the imperfection is considered in the transverse direction. The governing differential equation is assessed using Lagrange’s equation. The numerical results are ascertained using the finite element method (FEM) conjointly with the Newmark integration technique. A nine-nodded C0 continuous isoparametric finite elements are employed to attain the dynamic response efficiently. The convergence and comparison tests are accomplished to validate the performance of the proposed model. Parametric study is also performed by taking different parameters like volume fraction index, imperfection amplitude, and skew angle. The present study concludes that the skewness and imperfection significantly affect the structural response.

### A Bond Graph Model for the Estimation of Torque Requirements at the Knee Joint During Sit-to-Stand and Stand-to-Sit Motions

Sit-to-stand (SiTSt) and stand-to-sit (StTSi) are some of the frequent but crucial motions executed by the human body during daily life activities. During these motions, information of torque required at the knee joint is necessary for the development of knee assistance devices. In this work, a bond graph model has been developed to estimate torque requirements at the knee joint during SiTSt and StTSi motions. The bond graph offers graphical representation of a system, causality and power transactions between the subsystems, and algorithmic derivation of system equations. Word Bond Graph Objects (WBGOs) have been used for their compact representations of large systems. The model comprises two seven-link sub-models, one is virtual and the other is actual. The virtual sub-model is considered to be a part of the central nervous system (CNS). It generates the required joint angles for SiTSt and StTSi motions for desired movement trajectories. Based on these joint angles required, joint torques are provided to the actual sub-model through proportional–derivative (PD) controllers. Variations in the torque requirements have been estimated during SiTSt and StTSi motions, and the simulation results are presented.

Vivek Soni, Anand Vaz

### Detecting Cancerous Cells Using Data Augmentation In Deep Cascaded Networks

Jain, Akshay Chaturvedi, Pallavi Gupta, LalitaIn this article, an approach has been introduced for detecting cancerous cells. Image processing techniques have been used, based on cancer cell area using CNNs. A very intriguing aspect of this experiment was that from a very small image dataset, a large number of images were generated using information augmentation which was then taken as the training set data. The suggested scheme detects cancer behaviors through a convolutional neural network in images of celled samples. Previously, the same attempts failed to stay away from the database dependencies, which were somewhat proportional to the number of images in datasets, so we used a method called data augmentation on smaller sets of images. The scheme preprocesses the input image by grayscale, binarization, inversion, median filtering, and flood-fill procedures. Depending on the sort of feature to be identified, the preprocessed image is then cancerous cell detected. This methodology was used for several sets of pictures, and the system was optimized with the feedback from those tests. For independent cancer cell detection with narrower datasets, the suggested technique can be efficiently used, which will greatly accelerate the study of cancer and open greater dimensions.

Akshay Jain, Pallavi Chaturvedi, Lalita Gupta

### Free Vibration Analysis of the Sandwich Curved Panels with the Gradient Metallic Cellular Core

In this study, free vibration analysis of the sandwich curved panels with the gradient metallic cellular core is presented. The present finite element model is established on higher-order shear deformation theory using curvilinear coordinate system. The sandwich curved panel consists of two isotropic face sheets and an FG metallic cellular core layer. The internal pores in the core layer follow different types of distributions. The material properties of the gradient metallic cellular core layer of the sandwich curved panel vary in the thickness direction as a function of porosity coefficient and mass density. The present model is validated with the limited results available in the open literature, and few new results are also discussed that can be utilized as a benchmark solution. The influence of porosity coefficient (e0) and pore distribution types on the free vibration characteristics of the sandwich curved panel with the gradient metallic cellular core are also analyzed.

### A Study on Clean Coal Technology in the Indian Context

Coal was, is, and will continue to be the backbone of global electricity generation. This is because coal as a fuel is one of the most cost-effective ways to provide affordable, safe, and reliable electricity at the scale that is needed to achieve genuine access to modern electricity services world-wide. However, the conventional processes involved in mining are associated with quite few accidents rendering injuries to the workers. In addition, a huge amount of greenhouse gases (GHG) is also emitted during the process. Thus, the process of mining coal must undergo a paradigm shift in terms of the machinery and equipment employed which will not only bring about a safe working environment for the workers, but also an efficient, economic, and eco-friendly method. In this regard, the present article analyses the initiatives adopted by an Indian coal mining organization located in Odisha to promote workplace safety, environment conservation, and economic viability which are also the three major aspects of sustainable development. A comparative study between the conventional coal mining process and the cleaner way of coal mining expressed in the form of the energy consumption has also been presented by deploying the surface miner technology. The subsequent savings in the form of energy, cost, and reduction of carbon emissions have been highlighted.

Swayam Sampurna Panigrahi, Purna Chandra Panigrahi

### Lubrication Characteristics of Newtonian-Lubricated Hydrodynamic Bearing with Partial and Fully Textured Surface

In the present numerical-based study, the effect of triangular shape textured on the bearing steady-state performance has been investigated. The triangular shape texture having different values of depth size, number of textures and location has been used in the study to find the load carrying capacity and coefficient of friction and compared with untextured bearing. The pressure and fluid-film thickness in the lubricant flow domain having characteristics of iso-viscous and Newtonian fluid, which is governed with Reynold’s equation, have been solved by discretizing the domain into four-noded quadrilateral isoparametric elements by using finite element method. Four different cases of texture distribution, namely full textured region (0°–360°), first half textured region (0°–180°), second half textured region (180°-360°) and increasing pressure textured region (144°–288°) on the bearing surface have been studied under low and average eccentricity ratios of 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6. The performance enhancement ratio has been also calculated in order to finalize optimum design parameters. The results indicate that surface texturing in an increasing pressure region has a positive effect on the bearing performance enhancement ratio, when the bearing operates at lower eccentricity ratio of 0.2 and texture depth of 1.0.

Sanjay Sharma

### Big Turbo-Generator Shaft Vibrations Control Using Magnetorheological Fluid Damper

In this paper, a passive magnetorheological (MR) fluid damper is used to control vibrations generated in big turbo-generator shaft. The turbo-generator shaft is modeled using finite element method. The torque vibrations appeared in generator during different electrical faults are simulated using d-q-0 model using predictor–corrector method. The modified Bouc–Wen model is used to simulate the MR fluid damper. The complete dynamic system is modeled using MATLAB. The simulation results showed that MR fluid damper effectively reduces the rotor vibrations, but for better control of vibrations an active MR fluid damper can be more effective.

Tarun Kumar, Rajeev Kumar, Satish Chandra Jain

### Antagonistic Actuation of Pneumatic Artificial Muscle (PAM) with Chain-Sprocket Mechanism

In this work, a system has been designed with the help of a chain-sprocket mechanism to lift a load for particular applications with the help of a pneumatic artificial muscle (PAM) actuator. The system will mimic the human arm where one PAM and spring are in antagonistic arrangement just like the human biceps and triceps. The PAM behaves as the biceps and the spring as the triceps muscle to provide additional support to the system. The PAM will contract when the air pressure is supplied and actuate the system to reach the desired position. With the help of this system, the experiment can be performed to obtain various system parameters for a wide range of the muscle. The system is designed focusing on its flexibility for multiple types of experiments with different dimensions of pneumatic muscles. Finally, the hysteresis present in the muscle has been plotted and compared to verify the developed system. The developed system with the chain-sprocket mechanism is very useful to understand the dynamics of the PAM, and as well as the designer and researcher can use this for various applications in the field of medical and robotic industries.

Bhaben Kalita, Arunjyoti Borgohain, Santosha K. Dwivedy

### Deep Neural Network Approach for the Prediction of Journal Bearing Static Performance Characteristics

Deep neural network approach is an excellent way of performance predictions of mechanical systems due to the advancement in computational technologies. In the present document, the predictions of static performance characteristics are made for the hole-entry hybrid journal bearing. Maximum pressure and minimum fluid film thickness values are obtained using FEM and used as target output for feedforward backpropagation neural network model. In this model, hidden layers and number of neurons in these layers are decided heuristically. Logistic activation function is used for hidden and output layer neurons. Using the developed model, predictions for journal bearing performance are made within and out of the prescribed range of input parameters. The percentage error obtained for neural network training, testing and predictions is very small (−1.0% < error < 1.0%). It is concluded that a lot of time is saved in predictions using deep neural network approach compared to the mathematical analysis the journal bearing performance. The use of multiple hidden layers for journal bearing performance predictions and multiple data sets for input and output neurons is the novelty of the present work.

Sunil Kumar, Vijay Kumar, Anoop Kumar Singh

### Kinematics and Foldability Analysis of Bennett Mechanisms and Its Networks

Bennett 4R mechanism is a one degree-of-freedom spatial mechanism having four revolute (R) joints and four kinematic links. In this research, two types of Bennett 4R mechanisms were taken to check their range of motion or working range using MATLAB SimMechanics toolbox. It was found that working range for type 2 Bennett 4R mechanism was better than type 1 Bennett 4R mechanism. Kinematic characteristics of both Bennett 4R mechanisms were also discussed. Then, range of motions for both the types of Bennett 4R mechanisms was also found by connecting it in a network. Each network is an interconnection of nine Bennett 4R mechanisms of same type. Coupler curves of Bennett 4R mechanisms were also plotted in MATLAB. Type 2 Bennett 4R mechanism has better foldability than type 1 Bennett 4R mechanism, and therefore, it is more compact after folding. Range of motion was then found out for Bennett RRRS mechanism. Bennett RRRS mechanism was obtained by replacing the last revolute joint in a 4R Bennett mechanism by a spherical joint. It was observed that working range for Bennett RRRS mechanisms and Bennett 4R mechanisms was found to be same.

Tony Punnoose Valayil

### Nanofibers for Sustainable Filtration: A Waste to Energy Approach

Air, a crucial requirement of human life, has been increasingly polluted day by day with rapid growth of industries, especially fossil fuel-driven ones, deforestation and urbanization. It has been severely affecting our lives and environment. One active as well as passive source of air pollution is cigarette smoke which has various health concerns. This smoke on the one hand releases complex aerosols like vapor oxides, tar and particulate pollutants in the surroundings, and on the other hand, cigarette buds get accumulated in land and ocean, thus affecting the ecological aspects of the environment, which demands for the requirement of efficient smoke filtration with proper disposal of used filters. This study analyzed the use of PAN nanofibers in cigarette smoke filtration with reusability in energy applications. PAN nanofibers showed 42.61% porosity with increased tortuosity; yet permeability was at par with commercial cigarette filters. The nanofiber filters gained weight up to 115% because of absorbed pollutants after a complete cigarette smoking test. Positive electrical conductivity upon carbonization and catalytic contribution in electrochemical tests was observed for the nanofiber filters.

Prakash Giri, Ashish Kakoria, Sahil Verma, Sumit Sinha-Ray

### Effect of Heat Treatment on Wear Behaviour of Austenitic Stainless Steel

Stainless steel is one of the most widely used steels for structural applications. This paper quantifies the effect of heat treatment on the wear resistance behaviour of stainless steel 304 grades using pin on disc method. Ageing at different temperature ranges imparts hardness to the SS304 specimen which in turn affects the wear resistance characteristic. Different wear parameters have been calculated using Archard’s equation and wear scar diameter method. Microstructure has been studied using optical microscopy. Scanning electron microscopy has been used to investigate the wear mechanism.

Waris Nawaz Khan, Furkan, Rahul Chhibber

### Design and Development of Intelligent Moving Machine Using LabVIEW

The intelligent moving machine is designed for fast response, cost effectiveness and it avoids the obstacle in its path so it is called safe intelligent moving machine (SIMM). An introduction of intelligent behavior of moving machine that can adapt the change as like environment. Also describes the application of intelligent machines. This work presents design and development of an automatic intelligent system for industrial environment using LabVIEW and its real-time hardware implementation. The machine moves forward, backward, left and right through the signals supplied by the control station. LabVIEW programming has been proved to be more efficient than microcontroller to track this intelligent moving machine with the help of DAQ. The additional feature is that our vehicle is also identifying the obstacle in its path when it moving and generates necessary control commands to avoid it.

Amit Yadav, Ajeet Gaur, D. K. Chaturvedi, A. K. Saxena, Dharvendra P. Yadav

### Effect of Poling Orientation in Performance of Piezoelectric Materials

The present study proposes enhancement of harvested power and voltage by tuning the poling orientation in piezoelectric materials. The dependency of piezoelectric strain coefficients on performance is presented mathematically and to demonstrate the effect, a cantilever-based energy harvester having platinum substrate is considered with seven different materials. It is observed that PZT-2 shows an improvement of 598% in harvested power and 165% in voltage by poling tuning to 45°. Similar poling tuning helps PZT-7A to improve 325 and 106% in power and voltage generation, respectively. Huge improvement of 1425% in power and 290% for voltage is observed for PMN-0.35PT. PbTi03 shows a minimal improvement at poling angle of 30°. The performance of materials like Ba2NaNb5O15 and PVDF gets deteriorated with an increase in poling orientation. The peak values of power and voltage are observed at different poling angles for different piezoelectric materials. The least magnitudes of power and voltage generation occur at poling angle of 90° for any material system.

Jitendra Adhikari, Rajeev Kumar, Vikas Narain, Satish Chandra Jain

### Parametric Analysis of Vertical Contact Mode Triboelectric Energy Harvester

Triboelectric energy harvesters (TEHs) are a fast growing, recently presented mechanical energy harvesting technology. Because of their versatility, they can be manufactured in various configurations, and hence have a broad number of applications. The TEH is capable of harvesting mechanical vibrational energy. In this paper, simplified model of TEH system using simple coupling of commercial polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) with a thin copper (Cu) is presented. Based on the simplified model, real-time output characteristics of TEH at fixed value of resistance are derived using Simulink. The parametric study of the design parameters has been carried out, and the effects of these parameters on harvested power are illustrated for sinusoidal motion cycles. The thoroughly validated theoretical model is a very powerful tool for directing the design of the system structure and material selection, and performance optimization with regard to TEH's application conditions of TEH. The output characteristics of triboelectric energy harvester are validated with the existing literature.

Satish Kumar, Rajeev Kumar, Vikas Narain, Satish Chandra Jain

### Mathematical Model of Sliding Mode Triboelectric Energy Harvester

A triboelectric energy harvester converts mechanical energy to electrical energy, which is then collected and used to charge a rechargeable battery. This battery may be used to power small electronics devices for a myriad of applications such as temperature and humidity sensors, accelerometer or GPS tracking devices. In this paper, mathematical model of sliding mode triboelectric energy harvester has been developed to predict the harvested energy under mechanical motion, constant speed and accelerated motion. Numerical results reveal that harvested energy depends upon the type of motion, dielectric constant and surface charge density of triboelectric material. Further, experimental study has been conducted to validate the numerical result, and there is significant error between numerical and experimental result. Experimental setup will be further improved.

Tarun Pratap Singh, Satish Kumar, Rajeev Kumar

### Free and Forced Flexural Vibration Responses of the Laminated Composite Plates

In this paper, the investigation of the free and forced vibration response of the laminated composite plate is carried out. This analysis is based on the first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT) in conjunction with the finite element method. The steady-state response has been obtained in the time domain using the Newmark method. Free vibration responses of laminated composite plates obtained have been compared with the results available in the literature and by modeling in ANSYS showing excellent agreement. The parametric study has been accomplished to investigate the effect of geometric parameters thickness ratio, load amplitude, and damping factor on the free and forced vibration behavior of the laminated composite plate.

### Shape Control of Piezolaminated Structure Using Poling Tuned Piezoelectric Actuators

A technique known as poling direction tuning is proposed to improve the material performance of piezoelectric based actuators. The piezoelectric material used in actuation applications of thin structures operates in d31 mode; hence, a method is devised to increase the value of piezoelectric coefficient, d31. Poling direction of the piezoelectric material is altered to activate d31, d33, and d15 modes, simultaneously. The performance of actuator is evaluated at different poling angle and poling angle for best performance is found. A simply supported plate with a layer of actuator piezoelectric material at the bottom is used for simulation studies. The computational technique used for calculating the time history of the structure is a finite-element method. The controlled shape using a fixed actuator voltage is calculated for different piezoelectric materials under consideration. Influence of poling angle on the shape control of the structure is scrutinized and is found to vary from material to material. A large enhancement due to poling tuning is seen in the properties of Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.35PbTiO3 (PMN-0.35PT), whereas other materials show very less improvement or even decay in the properties.

Saurav Sharma, Rajeev Kumar, Mohammad Talha, Vikas Narain

### Power Optimization of a Wind Turbine Using Genetic Algorithm

Modeling and optimization of the wind turbine for better power and performance have become the demand in the development of renewable energy. Power coefficient (Cp) is an important parameter which determines the efficiency of the wind turbine and it depends on the velocity of the wind, blade pitch angle, and tip speed ratio of the turbine. Selection of the appropriate value of these parameters while designing a wind turbine will provide the optimum value of coefficient of performance. In this paper, the optimum value of the power coefficient is obtained by using the genetic algorithm optimization technique. The optimum value of the power coefficient is found to be 0.46 which is increased by 0.05 than that of the value obtained from blade element momentum theory.

Prakash Poudel, Rajeev Kumar, Vikas Narain, Satish Chandra Jain

### Automated Design for Cam Profile Using CATIA V5 and Its Fatigue Life Assessment Using ANSYS

Nowadays, the design constructional process is almost exclusively aided with CAD/CAE systems. Industries offering custom products are often putting the design engineers under pressure. They are squeezed to create proposals and drawings as fast as possible. A design engineer is subjected to a series of design iterations prior to the final required design in any CAD package. The major concern of a design engineer is to develop the required product through minimum design iterations at the least time, which is possible only through automating the repetitive tasks. By automating time-sensitive and often repetitive upfront activities, we have more time to innovate and add value to the products, consequently increasing throughput improving the quality. This paper is to illustrate a method to automate the repetitive tasks included in the designing process in a commercial CAD software. Here, we take the example of a popular mechanical part, i.e. cam to illustrate automation in the CAD package CATIA v5. The aim of this work is to automate the 3D modelling of different types of cam profiles within the CATIA v5 environment by using visual basic programming (VBA) language and integrating it with a user form from the conventional designing procedures. The developed user form using VB programming will enable any engineer to create the 3D design of the part even without any prior knowledge or skills in CAD/CATIA v5. It is observed that 90% time will be reduced by using this automated designing and also chance of errors also reduces. After designing a part, the engineer is then concerned about how long the designed part will last, i.e. life. So, determining the life of the part is also an important task. The second part of this paper is the life assessment of the designed cam due to the dynamic loads acting on it. Fatigue life of the cam is estimated by simulating the cam-follower motion in ANSYS 18.

Krishnajith Theril, M. R. Jithin, Bobby Xavier, Haris Naduthodi, P. A. Abdul Samad, C. Arun

### Vibration Control of Smart Cantilever Beam Using Fuzzy Logic Controller

This paper presents active vibration control of smart cantilever beam using collocated piezoelectric sensor and actuator. The vibrating response of piezolaminated cantilever beam is modeled using lumped mass approach. Fuzzy logic controller is used to control the vibration, and 49 rules have been established to develop the controller. Input sensor voltage and rate of change of sensor voltage are considered as inputs while actuator voltage is considered as output. Eight combinations of different membership functions have been considered. Finally, it has been observed that Gaussian-type membership function controls the vibration fast.

Kamalpreet Singh, Rajeev Kumar, Mohammad Talha, Vikas Narain

### Multi-body Analysis for a Four-Bar Mechanism Using RecurDyn and MATLAB

A planar four-bar mechanism is the simplest and the smallest movable closed chain linkage. It consists of four revolute pairs and is therefore often referred to as 4R mechanism. This paper presents the kinematic and inverse dynamic force analysis of a planar four-bar mechanism (in crank rocker configuration), assuming the motion of one crank as input. The equations for the forces and moments of respective links are obtained in the matrix form by combining the dynamic equilibrium equations and the kinematic relationships of each element by using Newton’s second law of motion and Euler’s equation. The numerical computation was performed using MATLAB. Alternatively, RecurDyn was used to perform multibody dynamic analysis, and the results of two are compared and found in good agreement. The planar four-bar mechanism can be seen in many everyday appliances, like in car wipers, bicycles, door frames (opening and closing), etc., and therefore, has several real-life applications.

Naman Chaudhary, Arpan Gupta

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