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Hard machining is a relatively recent technology that can be defined as a machining operation, using tools with geometrically defined cutting edges, of a work piece that has hardness values typically in the 45-70HRc range. This operation always presents the challenge of selecting a cutting tool insert that facilitates high-precision machining of the component, but it presents several advantages when compared with the traditional methodology based in finish grinding operations after heat treatment of work pieces. Machining of Hard Materials aims to provide the reader with the fundamentals and recent advances in the field of hard machining of materials. All the chapters are written by international experts in this important field of research. They cover topics such as: • advanced cutting tools for the machining of hard materials; • the mechanics of cutting and chip formation; • surface integrity; • modelling and simulation; and • computational methods and optimization. Machining of Hard Materials can serve as a useful reference for academics, manufacturing and materials researchers, manufacturing and mechanical engineers, and professionals in machining and related industries. It can also be used as a text for advanced undergraduate or postgraduate students studying mechanical engineering, manufacturing, or materials.



Chapter 1. Machining of Hard Materials – Definitions and Industrial Applications

In its broad definition, hard machining is machining of parts with a hardness of above 45 HRC, although most frequently the process concerns hardnesses of 58 to 68 HRC. The workpiece materials involved include various hardened alloy steels, tool steels, case-hardened steels, superalloys, nitrided irons and hard-chromecoated steels, and heat-treated powder metallurgical parts. It is mainly a finishing or semi-finishing process where high dimensional, form, and surface finish accuracy have to be achieved [1].
Viktor P. Astakhov

Chapter 2. Advanced Cutting Tools

In this chapter the basic design principles and the current state-of-the-art for cutting tools specially designed to be applied on difficult-to-cut materials are described. One by one, the main aspects involved in tool design and construction will be explained in depth over the following sections, completing a general view of the tool world, to provide easy comprehension of the whole book. Materials for the substrates, coatings, and geometry are explained, with special attention to recent developments. A section is devoted to new machining techniques such as high-feed and plunge milling, turn milling and trochoidal milling.
L. Norberto López de Lacalle, A. Lamikiz, J. Fernández de Larrinoa, I. Azkona

Chapter 3. Mechanics of Cutting and Chip Formation

This chapter presents the basic knowledge on mechanics of the machining process in which the workpiece material hardened to 45–70 HRC hardness is machined with mixed ceramic or cubic boron nitride tools. Specific cutting characteristics, including cutting forces and cutting energy, and chip formation mechanisms are discussed in terms of process conditions. Additionally, currently developments in finite-element modelling are overviewed and some representative results are provided.
Wit Grzesik

Chapter 4. Surface Integrity

Surface integrity comprises the study of the alterations induced during the manufacture of a component that might affect its properties and service performance. Therefore, additionally to geometric irregularities (surface texture and both dimensional and geometric deviations), the study on surface alterations (such as metallurgical alterations, cracks and residual stresses) induced by hard-part machining is of utmost importance, especially in the case of components subjected to dynamic loading. Consequently, this chapter is focused on the investigation of the influence of tool material and geometry and cutting parameters on the surface integrity of components subjected to hard-part machining and, when applicable, comparisons are drawn with grinding and non-conventional processes, especially electrical discharge machining (EDM).
Alexandre M. Abrão, José Luiz Silva Ribeiro, J. Paulo Davim

Chapter 5. Finite-element Modeling and Simulation

This chapter deals with the finite-element method (FEM) of hard machining, mainly turning (two- and three-dimensional (3D)). Results about the influence of working conditions and tool geometry (cutting-edge finishing) on tool forces, temperatures, and stresses when machining AISI 52100 steel are presented. In addition, information about residual stresses obtained through 3D FEM analysis is shown. The aim of the chapter is to demonstrate the possibilities of FEM for understanding the chip formation process in hard turning and to show its capabilities in areas like tool insert design and prediction of the surface state of the machined workpiece. First, a brief summary of the state of the art on hard machining is presented. Then FEM capabilities and limitations are shown. After that, results of process simulations will be provided and compared with those obtained in the literature. Finally, overall conclusions are pointed out and future research direction is discussed.
P.J. Arrazola

Chapter 6. Computational Methods and Optimization

This chapter aims to illustrate the application of computer-based techniques and tools in modelling and optimization of hard-machining processes. An overview of the current state-of-the-art in this wide topic is reflected. Computational methods are explained not only for modelling the relationships between the variables in the cutting process, but also for optimizing the most important parameters. The characteristics of these techniques are exposed and their advantages and shortcomings are compared. Foreseen future trends in this field are presented.
Ramón Quiza, J. Paulo Davim


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