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Purchasing .Fabrication Assembly Distribution Figure 1.1: Multi-Level Manufacturing System for Make-to-Order Products specific resources of a type, i.e., a certain machine or a single worker, the determination of the sequence operations are processed on a ma­ chine, and the assignment of start and finish times to operations. We will modify this framework to be specifically suited for multi­ level make-to-order manufacturing systems. We assume that the facil­ ity design issue is settled, i.e., the location and the layout of the facility as well as the capacity ofthe three main resource types of the company are determined. These resource types are the engineering department, the fabrication department, and the assembly department. The engineering department is concerned with the construction of new products as well as the modification and customization of ex­ isting products. This entails the generation of engineering documents such as blue prints for manufacturing. The capacity of the engineering department is determined by the the count and qualification of engi­ neers and by the availability of construction devices such as computer aided design (CAD) systems etc.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Introduction

Chapter 1. Introduction

Abstract
A manufacturing system converts input to output with the output being, in general, of higher value than the input when measured in terms of market prices (cf. Zäpfel [336] pp. 1). The large variety of different manufacturing systems can be characterized by the input, the output, and the way input is converted to output (cf. Dietrich [78], Zäpfel [336] pp. 2). This book focuses on manufacturing systems which convert raw materials, parts, and subassemblies in a multi-level, fabrication-assembly process to customer-specific products (cf. Figure 1.1).
Rainer Kolisch

Preliminaries

Frontmatter

Chapter 2. General Issues

Abstract
This chapter is concerned with the main issues which will be of importance for the remainder of the book. We begin with the characterization of different manufacturing environments.
Rainer Kolisch

Chapter 3. Literature Survey and Classification

Abstract
This chapter provides a general survey of literature related to management of make-to-order assemblies. Particular models and methods suited for the decision problems to be addressed in Part II will not be given in detail here but in the relevant chapters of Part II. Rather, we focus on the main streams of research in the three areas assembly management, make-to-order manufacturing, and multi-project scheduling. The relevance of the first two areas is obvious. The relevance of multi-project scheduling will be clarified below. Each of these areas has a lively and intense research. Giving a complete review of the literature would hence go beyond the scope of this book. We therefore point out the main research topics pursued in each area.
Rainer Kolisch

Decision Models

Frontmatter

Chapter 4. Hierarchical Framework

Abstract
In this chapter we detail the 3-level approach for managing make-to-order manufacturing systems. As indicated by ‘framework’ it is not a fully-fledged hierarchical approach as, e.g., presented in Hax and Meal [150] and in Stadtler [292]. Rather, it is the attempt to divide the managerial problems apparent in make-to-order manufacturing systems into three quite general models and to connect these models in a hierarchical way. Depending on the practical situation, only one, two, or all three models can be applied. Possible refinements of the hierarchical approach are given in Chapter 11.
Rainer Kolisch

Chapter 5. Order Selection

Abstract
We assume a simultaneous order selection process where P ≥ 0 orders have been accumulated over a specific decision period (e.g., 1 week or 1 month) (cf. Stam and Gardiner [295]). Each order p (p = 1,..., P) is characterized by a value (such as the profit or the contribution margin), a time window where, if accepted, the delivery of the order has to take place, and a set of precedence related tasks which have to be accomplished to complete the order. Each task relates to a specific work package which has to be performed by one department of the company, e.g., engineering, fabrication, or assembly.
Rainer Kolisch

Chapter 6. Manufacturing Planning

Abstract
This chapter is concerned with the manufacturing planning level. That is, we focus on the tasks to be done in the departments fabrication and assembly. Figure 6.1 shows how the two tasks fabrication (F) and assembly (A) of the order level are exploded into parts (P1 – P2), subassemblies (S1, S2), and final assembly (A1) at the manufacturing level. The weights on the arcs give the ‘quantity per’ factors, i.e., the amount required of each part and subassembly in order to obtain one subassembly or assembly (cf. Hax and Candea [149] p. 442). The decision problem at this level is to schedule subassemblies and assemblies and to determine lotsizes for parts with the aim of minimizing cost while taking relevant interdependencies into account. In what follows we specify the performance measure and the interdependencies.
Rainer Kolisch

Chapter 7. Operations Scheduling

Abstract
Operations scheduling is the decision level at the bottom of our hierarchical planning process. Its purpose is to make detailed decisions about the start of assembly operations, the assignment of assemblies to assembly areas, and the assignment of resources as well as parts to operations. Figure 7.1 gives an overview of the decision context.
Rainer Kolisch

Solution Methods

Frontmatter

Chapter 8. Order Selection Methods

Abstract
In this chapter we propose a method for solving the order selection and scheduling problem proposed in Section 5.3.
Rainer Kolisch

Chapter 9. Manufacturing Planning Methods

Abstract
The focus of this chapter is on methods for solving the manufacturing planning problem. We will propose a rather simple construction heuristic first and a Lagrangian-based approach to obtain lower and upper bounds for the objective function value thereafter. All methods will be assessed on a set of systematically generated benchmark instances.
Rainer Kolisch

Chapter 10. Operations Scheduling Methods

Abstract
We have shown in Section 7.4 that the operations scheduling problem (7.1) – (7.9) is NP-hard. Hence, optimal algorithms are not applicable for industrial applications, where hundreds to thousands of operations have to be scheduled within minutes of CPU-time. We will therefore consider two types of heuristics: construction heuristics in Section 10.1 (cf. Kolisch [188]) and improvement heuristics in Section 10.2 (cf. Kolisch and Heß [190]).
Rainer Kolisch

Chapter 11. Research Opportunities

Abstract
There are three areas for research opportunities: a refinement of the hierarchical approach, an adaption of models and methods to specific real world problem instances, and the development of more efficient solution methods.
Rainer Kolisch

Backmatter

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