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Über dieses Buch

This book honours the contribution Professor Pascale Quester has made to academia and higher education, through her research, teaching, and leadership. It provides readers with a comprehensive, contemporary perspective on marketing practice with an emphasis on the role of marketing in making a difference. Organisations are interwoven with the society in which they operate and are thus commonly expected to shoulder some responsibility in advancing that society. While there has been significant academic and practitioner focus on corporate social responsibility (CSR), research is often limited to the organisational benefits and implementation of CSR initiatives, this book presents a broader perspective. It highlights a variety of players and approaches that are making a difference to their various stakeholder groups, specifically in the areas of sponsorship, consumer behaviour, education, health and innovation.



Making a Difference—Sponsorship and Sport


The Question of Sponsorship Effectiveness

This chapter summarises the effects of sponsorship on consumer behaviour. Sponsorship is a marketing communications strategy that pairs a brand with an event to enable the brand to benefit from the audience of the event and from the target audience’s positive associations with the event. The effects of sponsorship have been widely researched. Pascale Quester has contributed significantly to research in this area, having published more than 20 papers on event sponsorship, substantially improving knowledge to enable managers and event organisers to maximise sponsorship benefits. This chapter reviews prior research relating to the effects of sponsorship and its moderating variables. Specifically, this chapter recaps the findings about the main effects of sponsorship and identifies some avenues for further research. Then, it reviews the role of perceived brand-event fit, consumers’ event involvement and self-congruity with the event, consumer nationalism, consumers’ gender, education and age, as well as sponsorship activation in sponsorship effectiveness.

Marc Mazodier

Leveraging Research on Activation: Quester and Thompson’s (2001) Impact on the Field of Sponsorship

Sponsorship activations—that is, the ancillary marketing communication actions purported to enhance the association between sponsees and sponsors—are what make sponsorships come to life. Activations are generally considered to be critical elements of a sponsorship strategy; for some, perhaps even more so than the sponsorship itself. The work of Quester and Thompson (2001) was a landmark contribution to the study of sponsorship activation on conceptual, empirical, and methodological grounds. It led the way to a host of studies and, to this day, still strongly influences sponsorship research. This chapter highlights why at the time Quester and Thompson (2001) was a significant leap forward in the context of the existing sponsorship literature, calling attention to the fact that this article presented the results of the first study to put to the test the common belief that increasing the intensity of sponsorship activation is beneficial for sponsors. This chapter also makes the point that the rigorous methodological approach of Quester and Thompson (2001), which cleverly addressed issues of both internal and external validity, enhanced the impact of their research in the field of sponsorship. Finally, the chapter discusses the research studies that followed up on Quester and Thompson’s (2001) study, the current research topics that echo its contribution today, as well as the future research directions that it suggests.

Francois A. Carrillat, Alain d’Astous

Sponsorship-Linked Attitudes of Employees of Sponsoring Firms: SMEs Versus Large Organisations

Corporate sponsorship is often used to develop positive attitudes towards a brand or a firm, among its customers and/or potential customers. Depending on the size of the organisation, corporate sponsorship may involve high-profile entities (such as the Olympics), or smaller local groups or individuals, but the prominence of large entities means that sponsorships by large organisations attract most media and research attention. A less commonly studied effect of sponsorship is the effect on the attitudes of the sponsoring organisations’ own employees. In this area, as with consumer-focused sponsorship, large organisations are likely to have substantial advantages. Large firms have the resources to leverage their sponsorship both internally and externally. Large organisations also have the expertise to effectively communicate their sponsorship-relationship to internal audiences. Yet smaller organisations may also be successful in engaging employees by sponsoring local entities at far lower cost, and providing opportunities for employee participation in the sponsorship. This research compares sponsorship-linked attitudes of 405 employees at small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and large organisations. Despite large organisations’ bigger budgets, sponsorship-linked attitudes were not significantly lower among SME employees. For one measure, sponsorship-linked organisational identification, SME employees rated significantly higher than employees of large organisations. The findings suggest that sponsorship can result in positive employee attitudes, even in SMEs—and may in fact be even more cost-effective for SMEs. These results may be due to increased communication within SMEs, or because SME employees may have stronger affiliations with sponsored entities. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

Aila Khan, Suzan Burton

Connected Stadium: A Pillar for Football Clubs’ Marketing Development?

In this chapter, we explore the notion of connected stadium and its affiliate concepts of stadium 2.0 and m-stadium. The connected stadium is indeed a game-changer in the sport industry as it brings within the premises of a stadium a new range of consumption behaviours, based on technology, connectivity and instantaneity. By doing so, the connected stadium comes with new stakes and ambitions for brands, spectators and the clubs operating their stadium. More importantly, the connected stadium stands at the crossroad of two major societal and consumption trends: second screen and the Internet of Things. Yet, this major technological shift does not come without deep cultural questioning, especially in France, where stadiums are still seen as a theatre for performances rather than a place to spend time... and money! Following an introduction into the notion of the connected stadium and its use across multiple stakeholder groups, the chapter concludes with a discussion of what the future holds.

Charles Bal, Nathalie Fleck

Making a Difference—Social Marketing and Ethics


Promoting Public Health: Understanding the Limitations of Marketing Principles and the Need for Alternative Approaches

This chapter comments on marketing and social marketing principles and how they may or may not apply to major public health challenges. Marketing insights make it clear that the primary focus of public health efforts needs to be on upstream rather than downstream approaches. In the typical absence of adequate funding to undertake the basic principles of marketing at the downstream level (e.g. segmentation and competitor analysis) and the inappropriateness of delivering to consumers what they say they want (a fundamental assumption of the marketing concept that doesn’t usually work in public health), marketing knowledge needs to be applied in different ways to improve well-being at the population level. The two health issues of ageing and obesity are presented as examples of cases in which (social) marketing strategies will not be effective unless implemented as recommended in the literature—they need to be thoroughly researched, strategically implemented, well-resourced, and persistent in nature.

Simone Pettigrew, Michelle I. Jongenelis

Contemporary Young Consumers and Food Consumption—Implications for Social Marketing Research

Marketing has undergone profound changes during the past 30 years with a shift from television advertising to digital marketing and development of more engaging campaigns between brands and individuals. This change has also affected young consumers (i.e. children aged less than 13 years), who attracted marketers’ attention in the mid-1980s, who have ever since been marketing aggressively to this group across multiple media channels, engaging in the so-called “cradle-to-grave” marketing. Research shows that exposure to food advertising is associated with biased product evaluations extending into adulthood and the last two decades have also noted a substantial increase in the rates of childhood obesity and overweight levels worldwide. Although research about young consumers and their food consumption started more than 40 years ago, current discussion centres predominantly around the impact of food advertising on children and extant knowledge remains fragmented and inconclusive in relation to a number of external, as well as internal influences. In particular, it is still unclear how children choose healthy and less healthy foods under the influence of different socialisation agents and their own consumer knowledge about advertising or nutrition. Extant gaps impede effective policy development and successful social marketing campaigns since the full extent of children’s susceptibility to food advertising remains unclear. This paper was inspired by work conducted under PhD candidature supervision by Prof. Pascale Quester and provides a review of social marketing literature to highlight the gaps in our knowledge and delineate important directions for future social marketing research in relation to young consumers’ food consumption.

Liudmila Tarabashkina, Roberta Crouch

The Ethicality of Immersive Sponsorship Within a Children’s Edutainment Centre

In a shift away from traditional advertising, brands are increasingly embedding themselves into children’s lived experiences. Immersive brand placements within educational vehicles such schools, textbooks and edutainment centres are worthy of an ethical examination as children may find it difficult to understand their persuasive intent. This study investigates the ethicality of immersive sponsorship within a children’s edutainment centre. Pre, post, and follow-up interviews were undertaken with 17 children and one of their parents who visited the heavily branded edutainment venue, Kidzania. Applying a deontological perspective, the results suggest that immersive sponsorship is inherently wrong, as children aged twelve and under are generally unable to determine the persuasive intent of the sponsoring brands. Embedded within an educational and entertaining setting, the children engaged with the brands in a very positive light, unaware of persuasive intentions and unable to apply a cognitive defence. In contrast, the vast majority of parents perceived the immersive sponsorships to be ethical. Those who applied a relativist argument saw the act as ethical in the cultural context of our contemporary and commercialised world, and specifically the city of Dubai. In contrast, those who applied the utilitarian approach argued that the act was a form of corporate social responsibility, producing a net benefit for society by helping to fund and run a realistic educational experience, and increasing the confidence of the child participants. While the opposing conclusions make it difficult to provide clear policy guidance, one recommendation is to focus on advancing the marketing literacy of children.

Damien Arthur

Emotional Advertising to Attenuate Compulsive Consumption: Qualitative Insights from Gamblers

Compulsive consumption behaviours such as smoking, drinking, and gambling are serious public health concerns that impact consumers globally. Research examining emotional advertising appeals that specifically induce help-seeking in the problem gambling context remains limited. A qualitative study through the use of focus groups was conducted to inductively explore gamblers’ perceptions of effective health messages, investigating how, why, and which emotional advertising appeals would best impact on their decision to seek help. Participants proposed that positive, negative, and mixed emotional appeals can be utilised to most effectively communicate with gamblers. In addition, response efficacy (the extent people believe a recommended response effectively deters or alleviates a health threat), self-accountability (an assessment of the degree to which oneself is responsible for the situation), and perceived benefits (beliefs about the positive outcomes associated with help-seeking behaviour) are also highlighted as important message elements. This study should serve as a starting point to develop effective health messages in compulsive consumption contexts, including gambling.

Svetlana De Vos, Roberta Crouch, Jasmina Ilicic

Making a Difference—Customers and Brands


Revisiting the Long and Winding (Less Travelled) Road: The Road to Chaos in Marketing

In this chapter I revisit the fruitful but also very time consuming paper Pascale Quester and I published in 2010. We consider here a group of consumers that are all the same and adopt a given product with the same probability p. This simplest case leads to nothing of interest. However we add a sociological model based on imitation and reactance. This law of social imitation was validated on both theoretical and empirical levels. It consists of a very simple equation that is non-linear (Eq. 4). This dramatically changes the richness of the consumers’ behaviour. Because of their social interactions, the group can be stable, oscillating or even chaotic. More precisely, we have shown six different dynamic regimes depending on the individuals’ probability of adopting the product p0. This shows very clearly that a group is not the sum of the individuals. More than this, very elementary individual behaviour can aggregate within an interacting social group, leading to complexity and chaos.

Recteur Alexandre Steyer

The Case for Altruism in eWoM Motivations

The Internet has revolutionised how consumers interact by facilitating the free exchange of information and opinions between individuals across the globe. However it is still not clearly understood why individuals help strangers by volunteering information, sharing opinions and making recommendations online. Surprisingly, much of this activity appears to involve non-reciprocal sharing, raising the question why would an individual share information or offer advice online with those they are unlikely to encounter again? Individuals who are contributing online have no guarantee of receiving anything in return for their efforts whereas freeloaders can benefit without making any contribution. The purpose of this work is to explore altruism in the context of eWoM in order to further the understanding of consumers’ motivation to share information and opinions online. Altruism has been identified in the literature as a motive for eWoM although its’ significance has been consistently overlooked by researchers and marketers. Whilst much online activity may be motivated by self-interest some individuals do appear to act more altruistically by offering advice, knowledge and expertise with the intention of helping others. Moreover, altruistic consumers share information and opinions without any expectation of reward. This makes them a reliable source of unbiased information for consumers seeking recommendations and an important spokesperson for marketers communicating their brands.

Michelle Killian, John Fahy, Deirdre O’Loughlin

Customer Experience of Value in the Service Encounter

Customer value is regarded as the fundamental basis for all marketing activity. It is also described as a source of competitive advantage for any organisation. In the critical service encounter, customer experience of value can improve business performance via customer satisfaction and/or customer loyalty. Customer satisfaction and customer loyalty are two imperative non-financial indices for measuring business success in a service-dominated organisation. Past studies suggest customer satisfaction can lead to customer loyalty. However, a satisfied customer may not be a loyal customer. Moreover, a review of literature on customer value, customer satisfaction and customer loyalty suggests the importance of exploring the role of customer value in understanding the relationship between customer satisfaction and customer loyalty for an organisation. How can the customer’s experience of value impact the transformation of customer satisfaction into customer loyalty? Furthermore, what type of customer value experience in the service encounter is effective in strengthening the relationship between customer satisfaction and customer loyalty? In other words, what type of customer value will keep satisfied customers loyal? This article aims to explore the possible answers for those questions and provide mangers and service employees with insights into making a difference to the satisfied customer’s loyalty through customer experience of value.

Shu-Ching Chen

Multiple Celebrity Endorsement

The use of multiple celebrity endorsers, to advertise a single brand, is becoming increasingly common. While the idea of using multiple endorsers is not entirely new, research on the topic is scant. This research contributes to the celebrity endorsement literature by introducing a previously unexplored dimension of source congruence: portfolio-brand fit. This research conceptualises fit as a multidimensional construct and offers empirical evidence for its impact on consumer brand evaluations. The conceptual model is based on information processing models. The conceptual model was tested in two different presentation formats for a fictitious brand in an experiment using a consumer sample. We measured the key variables using seven-point scales. Data were collected using online surveys. We tested the hypothesised model using SEM. The results provide support for the predicted effects. Results show that fit affects consumer attitudes toward multiple celebrity endorsement positively and attitudes toward the endorsed brand indirectly. Fit affects clarity of positioning of the endorsed brand differently in different presentation formats. The results suggest that managers should consider portfolio-brand fit in selecting the endorsers and should consider the potential impact on the brand’s positioning when choosing multiple celebrity endorsement. Marketing practitioners should also consider the differential effects of fit in different types of multiple celebrity endorsement.

Sik Chuen (Max) Yu, Ravi Pappu

Can Country of Origin Branding be a Competitive Advantage for Agri-Products from Emerging Countries?

Country of origin research continues to generated interest and remain relevant in spite of the wide body of existing literature realised from studies generate around the world over many decades. The chapter presents a proposed conceptual framework of consumer decision pathways respective to agriculture based products, particularly those produced in emerging, underdeveloped economies. The proposed model illustrates the possible mediating effects of country of origin cues via low versus high involvement/motivations associated with low tech versus highly technical product endowment. The model further suggests that higher levels of technical product endowment will require more cognitively based assessments by consumers as compared to products based on lower levels of technology (like Agri-products) that will be assessed with a more affective approach. The chapter expands these concepts to present a possible matrix showing some suggested strategic approaches in the use of COO cue in country branding to leverage expected consumer responses and processing modes.

Amal R. Karunaratna, Roberta Crouch

Decomposition of Country of Origin Effects in Education Services: A Conjoint Analysis Approach

Research in the area of international marketing has shown that consumers’ assessments of product quality may change (positively/negatively) according to country of manufacture, country of design and/or country of parts of the products. While this notion has been established in the product context, no research has attempted to isolate similar effects of the country of origin construct in relation to service offerings. This research deconstructs the country of origin (COO) construct for international services along country of origin of the brand (COB), country of origin of where the service is delivered (COSD), and country of origin of the person providing the service (CPI). A total of 143 respondents participated in the online survey undertaken in Australia. The service to be evaluated in the experiment was education service. Results of conjoint analysis in education service confirmed the effects and the importance of the proposed COO dimensions on consumers’ expectations of service quality. More specifically, the experiment revealed that CPI is more important than COB and COSD on consumers’ expectation of service quality.

Daniel Aruan, Roberta Crouch

Making a Difference—University Education and Innovation


Knowing Me, Knowing You: Mentorship, Friendship, and Dancing Queens

The relationship between a supervisor and a research student can ‘make or break’ the student’s success and pursuit of original contribution to knowledge development. Although the nature of the supervision relationship has evolved over time, studies about supervisor-student relationships have not fully examined the influence of the key factors associated with relational exchange. In this paper, we develop a conceptual model depicting the antecedents of supervisory relationship satisfaction. In developing the current paper, we draw from the extensive relationship marketing literature and are inspired by the relational model of focal sponsorship exchange by Farrelly and Quester (2005). Our arguments are also supported by a comprehensive reflection of the research supervision relationship between Professor Pascale Quester and the first author of this paper, as well as that between the second author and his supervisor. We argue that supervisor’s trust and commitment in the relationship are two key drivers of student’s and supervisor’s satisfaction with the relationship. We also propose congruence moderates these key relationships such that the relationship is stronger with higher congruence.

Vinh N. Lu, Brett Scholz

Beyond the Obvious: Facets of Diversity in Marketing Student Groups

Student cohorts at higher education institutions worldwide are more diverse than ever due to international student mobility and a greater inclusion of previously underrepresented groups within the higher education system. Despite the potential effects of diversity on student academic performance and wellbeing, related studies have commonly been limited by a focus on cultural diversity. To better understand the importance of cultural diversity, we expand the literature by exploring various types of diversity simultaneously. A two-step research process, including a series of in-depth interviews and a survey, was used to examine the extent to which different dimensions of diversity, including characteristics brought to the group (language skills, academic goals and extroversion) and those that emerge during the group process (external commitments, commitment to task and adherence to rules), can influence the students’ satisfaction with the process and satisfaction with the outcome. Furthermore, bi-directionality of communication and information-sharing emerge as processes that mediate the influence of diversity, in particular influencing the effect of differences in academic goals and differences in language skills, on group satisfaction with the process and outcome respectively. Implications for marketers are provided.

Claire Eloise Sherman, Carolin Plewa

Student Engagement: A Multiple Layer Phenomenon

Universities are seeking to actively and strategically manage student engagement through providing opportunities for students to interact and engage with the institution on a range of levels and in different ways. However, this increasingly complex and multi-layered nature of student engagement within a tertiary education environment is not well understood. Through qualitative focus groups and a series of interviews with undergraduate and postgraduate students, this study explores and articulates the cognitive, emotional, behavioural and social dimensions of engagement that depict the nature of student engagement. This is one of the first studies that considers social engagement as a dimension of the broader engagement construct and provides an illustration of social engagement at different levels within a tertiary education setting. Further, we demonstrate that engagement occurs with three key focal objects (or levels) embedded within the university structure; the lecturer, course and the institution itself. Hence, this paper contributes to the literature by providing a multi-layered consideration of student engagement and demonstrating the nested nature of engagement across the broad service system (the university), the narrow service system (the course), and the individual dyadic level of engagement (the student-lecturer interaction). These findings could be further considered and empirically tested in other engagement contexts (e.g. employee engagement, customer engagement).

Jodie Conduit, Ingo O. Karpen, Francis Farrelly

Marketing—Making a Difference for Entrepreneurial Universities

In the knowledge economy, Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) are facing increasingly competitive environments. On the one side knowledge is now produced in a variety of organisations, so therefore universities are no longer the only producers or sources of knowledge. Universities are also competing with other education providers due to the growing offers of commercial education providers with a strong vocational dimension, and the emergence of new technologies in the higher education market offering virtual programs (Ferreira et al. 2007). Against this background HEIs are now operating in markets where it is imperative for them to make usage of marketing instruments if they want to succeed and remain sustainable. In this vein, the two core activities of HEIs, research and education, are addressing different markets and target groups. Consequently HEIs need to apply marketing, its toolbox and instruments to be successful in those markets, and they need to be entrepreneurial to access them. In this paper the markets for research in HEIs are examined more closely. The paper describes the particularities of a Marketing approach for science and recommends a comprehensive “Science-to-Business Marketing” approach, exhibiting and combining knowledge from different Marketing disciplines.

Thomas Baaken, Todd Davey, Sue Rossano

Improving Innovation Process Performance and Service Quality in Innovation Networks

The prevalence of innovation networks is ever increasing, with the role of universities in national innovation systems increasingly being emphasised. This chapter investigates the use of an innovation management application (IMA) by the technology transfer office of a university-focused innovation network that focuses on commercialisation of technologies developed by university researchers. Innovation process performance emerged as an important mediator between characteristics of the innovation management application (compatibility of the technology, perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness) on attitude towards the technology, and toward the intermediary’s innovation orientation and service quality. Our research addresses marketing issues in the innovation context by relying on IMA as a means for fostering the underlying processes. Furthermore, the results extend the emerging literature on innovation process performance by not only establishing its relevance for an innovation network context but also by demonstrating its role as a mediator between IMA characteristics and attitude towards technology. The chapter concludes with an outline of managerial implications and future research directions.

Carolin Plewa, Giselle Rampersad, Indrit Troshani, Tobias Kesting
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