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2024 | Buch

Making India Disaster Resilient

Challenges and Future Perspectives


Über dieses Buch

Various natural and man-made hazards are nowadays increasingly considered as disasters, particularly by individual and communities are lacking in awareness and where a system as a whole has no adequate management mechanism. Consequently, the world is facing serious negative outcome in form of loss of life, injury, disability, loss of property, infrastructure, and economic disruption followed by psycho-social disorders. Other than this, disasters adversely affect wildlife and environment in long terms. Developing countries are worst sufferers as these regions are poorly prepared for potential hazards at one hand and are exposed to disasters due to the complexity of (socio-cultural, economic and physical) vulnerability. Government, World communities, NGOs are recognizing the problems and are trying to build resilient communities to reduce disaster impact at various levels.
Year 1990-99 was observed as the decade for natural disaster reduction by United Nations (UN) and United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR) was established to support and coordinate this movement. Year 2015 has been very important in the history as three global agreements have been signed by global communities (Sustainable development goals, Paris agreement and Sendai framework for DRR). Where, SDGs are extension of MDGs to make the planet more sustainable. It proposed 17 goals and 15 years’ time frame adopted in the year 2015. SDGs target various social, cultural, economic, challenges followed by wildlife, environmental protection through knowledge share and technological innovation among all member countries. In December 2015, UNFCCC reached a landmark agreement to combat climate change and to accelerate and intensify the actions and investments needed for a sustainable low carbon future known as Paris agreement. Sendai Framework 2015 is voluntary, non-binding agreement which recognizes that the state has the primary role to reduce disaster risk but that responsibility should be shared with other stakeholders including local government, the private sector and other stakeholders. This framework focuses on the pre-disaster management rather than post disaster relief and recovery.
This book is an insight into the various issues related to the emerging disasters (both natural and man-made), vulnerable communities, and government initiatives taken with a geographical focus on India. This volume contains selected chapters written by faculty and research scholars. This book is an empirical work on disasters vulnerabilities and management which will benefit researchers, academicians, professional, practitioners and policy makers.


Chapter 1. An Introduction to Disaster Management: Evidences from India
For the past two years, people around the globe have been continuously under the wrath of the pandemic. This global outrage of the novel coronavirus turned out to be a challenging “Biohazard”. The unexpected outbreak of the virus bowed out to be one of the worst disasters that have affected the worst so far. Disasters do not arise of proclamation. Prediction of a possible mishap cannot always be detected. For instance, the recent Ukraine–Russia crisis that began in late February 2022 resulted in war. This unpredicted consequence resulted in a huge number of refugees including other vigilant loss of life, infrastructure, property, flora-fauna, and it was even attributed to micro-climate changes in the region due to nuclear attacks.
Vishwa Raj Sharma, Chandrakanta


Chapter 2. Urban Flooding as an Emerging Challenge: Evidences from Chennai City
Urban encroachment has increased with very high pace in the late twentieth century, which has resulted in the agglomeration of people in a very small area. This in turn leads to negative impact on aquatic as well as terrestrial ecosystem. Adverse effect like floods, water logging, water scarcity, water-borne diseases and other negative impacts destroys human life and socio-economic prosperity to a great extent. Such problems occur because of inadequate control of urban area and haphazard growth which shows bad impact on the urban drainage system, solid water management, hygiene, potable water and river flooding to urban flooding. Researchers have been and are underway in the area of natural and human-made disasters to study the exclusive effect of such unforeseen events. Urban flooding is becoming a recurrent phenomenon in various Indian cities like Delhi, Mumbai and Chennai. With the key objective to identify the causes of urban floods in Chennai and its socio-economic impact on the entire city, the local perception about the urban floods has been analysed as a reference for further adaptation. What can be done to prevent such events and what administration has to do? Primary survey as well as secondary data sets has been referred for collecting various data related to flood event. Reports from Indian Meteorological Department citing very strong El-Nino and various other factors led to very heavy rainfall has also been accessed. The study is based on descriptive and analytical research, whereby both qualitative and quantitative approaches have been used to analyse the data. There is no doubt about that state government of Tamil Nadu has failed to control the water drainage system in Chennai. Based on the international experience in terms of urban floods and comprehend indigenous knowledge about the urban floods, and its impact, a household survey was conducted in December 2016 at Chennai in Tamil Nadu. Arc GIS, several statistical techniques have been used to get the desired result. After the discussion, it was evaluated that plastics, poor drainage system, blockage in the runoff, concretisation of the city and settlements on both sides of river channel were some of the factors obstructing the outflow of water from the city to the sea, resulting in urban floods.
Shahid Jamal, Anjan Sen
Chapter 3. Understanding Flood Risk and Livelihood Resilience in Begusarai
Flooding is the deluging of a normally dry area caused by a high flow or discharge of water into an established stream, such as a river, stream or drainage channel, or a water pond near the node where there is occurrence of precipitation and overflow from the banks result in diffusion of water in the plains. The past study of flood trends shows that humans have gradually moved focus from flood control to adaption in order to limit the effects of flooding on various livelihood activities. This is in part due to the realization that flood control measures have constraints because of the fluctuating climatic changes, policy implementation challenges and limitations of flood prediction methods. Also some factors are often non-controllable, like the fact that major tributaries originate from neighbouring countries and as a result water flow is not always in control of the home state or nation. The study is based around the sustainable livelihood framework which assesses residents’ access to livelihood assets across five categories with an aim of better understanding of the ways in which people develop and sustain their livelihoods.
Chapter 4. Recent Disasters in Kerala: Evidences from the Field
The Western Ghats, (The Western Ghats are older than the Himalayan mountain chain and are internationally recognized as a ‘hot-spot’ of biological diversity. They run parallel to India’s western coast and traverse Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Goa, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Gujarat.) a United Nations Educational, Scientific, Cultural Organization (UNESCO) World Heritage Site, is one of the ‘hot-spots’ of biological diversity in the world. The mountain range covers an area of 140,000 km2 in a stretch of 1600 km parallel to the western coast of the Indian peninsula, traversing the states of Tamil Nadu, Goa, Kerala, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Gujarat. However, in recent times, the Western Ghats that were once covered in dense forests now has lost much of its natural beauty. Today, a large part of the range has been logged or converted to agriculture land for tea, coffee, rubber and oil palm or cleared for livestock grazing, reservoirs and roads. The growth of population around the protected areas and other forests has also led to habitat destruction, increased fragmentation, wildlife poaching and human–wildlife conflict. The biodiversity and ecosystem of the Western Ghats are threatened by pollution, mining and deforestation. Only one-third of the region is under natural vegetation, and much of this is degraded. A large part of the original natural vegetation was lost or converted to cultivated lands, coffee and tea plantations and hydroelectric reservoirs. Driven by economic development, population growth and the rising demand for power, agriculture commodities and minerals, pressures on the region’s natural ecosystem are intensifying. Kerala, in particular, has had its fair share of disasters in recent times. God’s own country is highly vulnerable to natural disasters and the changing climatic dynamics because of its location along the seacoast. Kerala is also one of the most densely populated Indian states making it more extremely vulnerable to damages and loses on account of disasters. Floods being the most common of natural hazard in the state. Nearly 14.5% of the state’s land area is prone to floods. Between June 1 and August 18, 2018, Kerala experienced the worst floods in its history since 1924. During this period, the state received cumulative rainfall that was 42% in the excess of the normal average. According to the reports of the state government, 1259 out of 1664 villages spread across its 14 districts were affected. The devastating floods affected 5.4 million people, displaced 1.4 million people and took as many as 433 lives. Kerala is immensely vulnerable to disasters due to the fact that the study area is a tourist attraction as well as a home to numerous people. The area is densely populated. Bad dam management in the past has been one of a major reason for flooding in the area.
Varnav Somwal
Chapter 5. Floodplain Mapping Using HECRAS Model and Geospatial techniques—A Case Study of Varanasi City
Varanasi, an ancient city of India, lies on banks of River Ganga, one of the largest rivers of the world. Varanasi is proposed to be developed into a Smart City in the first phase of Indian Smart City Mission. The resilience of a city is its ability to persevere in the face of an emergency, so it can continue functioning despite serious challenges. Flood is a frequent phenomenon for Varanasi, but in recent years, it was deluged. The flood-risk zones mapping makes the first step of flood control measures. In this chapter, a one-dimensional hydraulic model, i.e. HEC-RAS has been integrated with Remote sensing and GIS techniques to map the floodplain zones of Ganga River located around the city of Varanasi. The pre-processing includes geometry setup such as digitizing the stream centerline, right bank and the left bank of the river. SRTM DEM is used in ArcGIS software extension HEC-GeoRAS 4.3 for pre-processing of GIS data, i.e. derivation of the channel geometry for input to HEC-RAS. Next, HEC-RAS simulations were performed to generate a water surface profile for a given design flood condition. Finally, simulated results have been imported in ArcMap 10.1 and being overlaid with the DEM for obtaining flood risk zones and flood inundation maps. Floodplain map analysis shows that more than 300% area has a probability of inundation as compared to the normal flow of the river. The results of this research will be helpful in developing a smart Varanasi, which will offer a safe habitation to its residents.
Vishal Mishra, Anuj Tiwari, Prabuddh K. Mishra

Climate Change and Land Use

Chapter 6. Contending Global Warming by Popularising Environment-Friendly-Fuel Compressed Natural Gas (CNG)
The release of greenhouse gases into the air leads to depletion of ozone layer, which in turn causes global warming and several associated natural disasters. Vehicular emissions due to use of fossil fuels is the principal cause of atmospheric pollution, and Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) is a cheaper eco-friendly alternative, as it produces fewer undesirable gases. However, high price of CNG vehicles is a major barrier to wider and quicker adoption as a fuel. Public mass-transportation vehicles swiftly adopted CNG since they could easily recover the installation cost. The purpose of the present study is to explore how social marketing approach can be used to make CNG a success among private vehicle owners. This will go a long way in reducing hazards related to air pollution and aid in managing possible atmospheric disasters. The research comprises three case studies—CNG in public transport buses in Delhi; Maruti Udyog Limited; and the CNG kit market. The study found that though legal notification can forcibly engineer a shift to CNG, a voluntary shift would require convincing the public about the benefits of CNG, and removing any doubts associated with it. CNG vehicles are not popular among customers due to several perceived fears like, price of fitment, concerns of safety, reduced boot space, and waiting time at CNG filling stations. This was revealed during analysis of data collected from 250 households in Delhi and NCR, which prevented people to switch to CNG. Designing a people-oriented campaign or social marketing strategy can cause social acceptance of green fuels, by building awareness and addressing perceived fears, making the CNG kits affordable, and opening more CNG fueling stations. Partnership among all the stakeholders should be encouraged. The government should have a vibrant policy to phase out fossil-fuel-operated vehicles, and promote CNG, to reduce the occurrence of atmospheric hazards and disasters.
Soma Sengupta, Anjan Sen
Chapter 7. Increasing Vulnerability of Arabian Sea Towards Cyclonic Storms
India has a coastline of about 7516 km. Even though the North Indian Ocean (NIO) only spawns 7% of cyclones, its devastating effect is comparatively very high in India. Cyclone genesis in Arabian Sea was very less compared to Bay of Bengal due to its unfavourable climatology for cyclone genesis. Changes in the climatology of Arabian Sea are increasing its vulnerability to tropical cyclones. This study reveals the impact of climate change in the increasing vulnerability of Arabian Sea to cyclone genesis.
A. Athul, Sushma Gulria
Chapter 8. Mapping Agricultural Drought Vulnerability at a Regional Level Using GIS—A Case Study
Drought is a highly complicated yet least understood of all the other natural disasters. It is due to the lack of rain and shortfall of humidity. The existence of the farming drought’s early warning framework can be remarkably valuable in a call for enhancing the drought readiness and to reduce the impacts of drought. During this examination, a GIS-based method was used for assessment of horticultural drought susceptibility for the hydropower undertakings of Larji watershed of Kullu region. Larji hydropower project (126 MW) undertaking was planned to be built in June 1984 on Beas River as a power advancement plot and in a tender to outfit the massive hydropower potential available in the State. Binwa watershed, located in Kangra area of Himachal Pradesh, comprises of a stroke of Lesser Himalayas and Shivalikrough inclines. The key indices that are to be assessed to describe the farming drought susceptibility are Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), Land Use Land Cover (LULC), and Land Surface Temperature (LST). According to the drought’s impact aspect due to these indices, the weight is specified. On account of the weights, overlay analysis is set up to provide drought susceptibility zones in the investigation. Thematic maps of every index will be formed using GIS software based on allowed loads. The results of the indices are such as NDVI ranges from − 0.1968 to + 0.625, LST varies from − 9.88 to 44.18, NDWI ranges between − 0.224 and + 0.278, and the Land Use Land Cover classification classified the forest cover, degraded forest, fallow land, barren land, and glacier. Based on the weights given, the study shows drought susceptibility’s steps in the region with a reasonable range of values. This is a startling issue because it is in the perennial river’s downstream locale and Larji dam. The guide that arises out of this local drought susceptibility can facilitate leaders to generate valuable farming drought mitigation tactics.
C. Prakasam, R. Saravanan, Varinder S. Kanwar


Chapter 9. HRVC Assessment of Urban Fire Hazard: A Case Study of Malviya Nagar, Delhi
The cities in India have the poorest fire safety records of any of the developing countries. Homes and public buildings are generally built and expended for requirements without considering the safety measures. Commercial outlets within the residential areas are common phenomena in urban areas of India. There is a critical need for awareness and urgent debate about the growing vulnerability of urban dwellers in the context of unregulated spatial growth and development. In last few years fire hazard became a major problem for urban dwellers in India and caused huge number of death, loss of property and environmental degradation. Delhi is also known as heavy fire-risk city because of its ever-growing population, unplanned construction, crowded places, high-rise buildings and commercial and industrial growth in NCR. The city is also known for ignoring the safety laws to favor the economic activities. The recent incident happened in Khirki Extension a crowded residential area of Malviya Nagar was one such example. In this context the study analyzed the spatial distribution of fire incident occurred in different areas of Delhi in last few years, their impacts on residents and causes which constitute and increase vulnerabilities. The study also suggested some measures to manage the fire in urban areas.
Vishwa Raj Sharma, Kavita Arora, Kamal Bisht
Chapter 10. Forest Fire Severity Mapping Using Geospatial Techniques: A Case Study of a Part of Bandipur Reserve Forest, India
The changes in climate directly affect fire frequency and severity, which are likely to critically have an effect on the attribute of forest ecosystem. The present study aims to investigate the severity mapping of forest fire occurred in the year 2019 in Bandipur Reserve forest, India, using geospatial techniques. In the present study, distinct band ratios like Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR), Normalized difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) were obtained using Landsat 8 OLI images of bi-temporal data (pre-fire/post-fire). Using bi-temporal data, Difference of Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index was obtained by subtracting the Pre/post-fire data to get the burn severity. Initially, the displacement of pixels in the burned and unburned area in the pre/post-fire NIR-SWIR and NIR-R was studied, the capacity of the two indices pre- and post-fire (bi-temporal) and post-fire (uni-temporal) was studied to analyze which one is more sensitive for severity levels discrimination. Based on the outcome, it was taken into consideration that the most appropriate way to study forest fire severity by index classification, and it was to differentiate between the pixels with unburned and burned with respect to NBR pre/post-fire difference value (dNBR). Further, both the image indices were reclassified to distinguish the pixels with high, moderate, low and very low severity. The two different sets of raster usually contain some numerical value. These two raster are overlaid and mathematically merged together to give new single output layer. The burned area were analyzed using MODIS fire points, helped in the locating hotspot area in Bandipur Reserve. This kind of study can avail valuable knowledge to prevent and monitor forest fires, and to understand the response of forest ecosystem.
Shashwati Singh, Prabuddh Kumar Mishra, Varun Narayan Mishra
Chapter 11. Fire Hazards in Anaj Mandi (Grain Market), Old Delhi: Vulnerability and Resilience
Fire is one of the crucial resources since its discovery and played a pivotal role in civilization to the modernization of Anthropos. Its misuse by human converts fire as a resource to resistance and when the resistance of fire becomes furious that creates fire disaster. India and particularly its capital city is highly vulnerable to fire, which is evidenced through the 31,000 and 85 calls yearly and daily respectively by Delhi population to fire department to douse it. To explain this vulnerability of Delhi, disastrous fire incidence of Anaj Mandi, dated 8th of December 2019, which deceased 45 people and impacted economically, socially and psychologically to thousands of population, so pronounced as “Disastrous Devil of December” has been taken into account. Why and how Anaj Mandi is vulnerable and what are the solutions to make it resilient are described in this research paper. For the study, both primary and secondary data sources are taken into account. The study found that poor design, haphazard construction, improper electric wiring, lack of public awareness, illegal industries, congested lanes, absence of fire safety measure, etc. makes Anaj Mandi vulnerable to fire. Disastrous Devil of December was developed and decorated by authorities, societal organizations, locals and individuals by their close coordination. Unawareness is at utmost as more than 75% of the population are unaware of fire safety measures. The best strategy for making Anaj Mandi and Delhi fire resilient is the three-tier model based on the A4 Phase of the fire disaster development cycle, a society-based and K3 principles or individual-based model. This research paper provides a detailed analysis of the fire incidence of Anaj Mandi in old Delhi.
Shubham Kumar Sanu
Chapter 12. Assessment of Fire Disaster Risk Reduction in Higher Educational Institutions in Delhi
Disaster risk reduction (DRR) in education is a key issue in all countries to build resilience to disasters. In the post-2015 framework for DRR, the important of education and awareness-raising program has been agreed as the top priorities in the policy of disaster. Awareness program of education and efforts is everyone’s responsibility rather than governments and the media implementing and promoting agencies only. The aim of the study is assess the extent of understanding about disasters knowledge among college students and staffs. This research used a cross-sectional study design for disaster risk reduction planning wherein it attempts to assess the disaster-related knowledge, preparedness, adaptation, awareness, and risk perception among the students. This paper has been based on the primary survey. The questionnaire was prepared with open- and close-ended questions. This questionnaire was used to collect basic data and respondent’s perception about the disaster management. A survey was conducted in one of the Higher Educational Institute of Delhi University using questionnaire, field observation, interview techniques, informal interviews, interaction and discussion with students, teacher and non-teaching staffs. A sample of 200 respondents was taken consisting of students, teachers and non-teaching staff in Dyal Singh College. The data has been analyzed using statistical and cartographic techniques. This mitigation measure of disaster risk reduction is important in enhancing resilience capacity and ensuring sustainable development pathways and provides various man-made and natural disaster relief processes for disaster management. These research papers suggest a policy to improve the transformation of scientific knowledge into policy and to increase mutual understanding, partnership and collaboration for better policy outcomes in the goal of sustainable development and disaster management.
Abhay Shankar Prasad, Bindhy Wasini Pandey, Rajesh Kumar Abhay, Priyanka

Earthquake and Other Related Hazards

Chapter 13. Earthquake Awareness and Preparedness Survey of Yamuna River and Surrounding Region of Delhi
Earthquakes are caused by sudden shaking of the earth, and its occurrence in ever-expanding city like Delhi poses a serious problem in the city. Delhi, falling in the seismic zone IV, is highly vulnerable to such a disaster. If an earthquake of great intensity strikes the capital, the extent of damage to life and property is unimaginable. In the coming years the frequency of occurrence of such a disaster has increased. In such alarming situation there becomes a need to identify vulnerable areas of the city which will be most affected by an earthquake of moderate to high intensity. The present study thus attempts to identify vulnerable areas likely to be affected by an earthquake. Primary survey forms major part of the study. A sample of 350 respondents from five selected areas of the city was conducted with the help of questionnaire, and results were obtained. Different maps and diagrams have been prepared with the help of GIS technique and other software. Also some suggestions were also given to reduce the impact of such a disaster that will be helpful for an individual, government department, policymakers and planners.
Vishwa Raj Sharma, Neha Arora, Swarnima Singh, Kshetrimayum Krishnadas
Chapter 14. Mapping Fire, Earthquake and Bio-hazard in Delhi: A Micro-level Study
Delhi, being India’s capital territory, is a massive metropolitan area that is extremely vulnerable to various types of disasters because of the widely spread built-up area that houses the population from all over the country. Delhi lies in Seismic Zone IV14, which makes the area sensitive to disasters. Another major problem that Delhi is currently facing is of proper garbage disposal, since the density of the population is high, tons of waste is generated. A fair share of the waste generated also includes biomedical waste. Delhi generates more biomedical waste than it can process. The area chosen for the present study is Chirag Delhi and Sheikh Sarai, located in south Delhi. This area is urbanized, and a home to a large number of people. The area is populated, poorly managed and highly vulnerable to disasters. The study area also has two colleges situated near the residential area because of which the area is subjected to a lot of traffic jam. The purpose of choosing this area for this study is its vulnerability to disasters like fire, earthquake and biohazard. The study area has pockets with high rise buildings or ill-designed high-risk areas without specific consideration for earthquake resistance. Moreover, the area lacks proper waste management. It has been identified that the area is a highly vulnerable place when it comes to hazards like fire, earthquake and biohazards. The people living there are in a constant threat for their lives. One of the major problems is that the community lacks dedication and determination, which has been tested through a schedule and observation method, to change their circumstances and bring about a change in the area that would benefit them and their families.
Vineka Sanoria, Chandrakanta
Chapter 15. Surface Deformation Modelling Using C-Band SAR Data—A Case Study on Shimla Town, Himachal Pradesh, India
SAR datasets play an active role in monitoring the active deformation not only due to its high radiometric resolution, but also increased temporal resolution (12 days) and greater swath coverage. The European Space Agency (ESA) provides SAR dataset through its twin constellation of satellites Sentinel 1A and 1B which has a huge impact in data analysis not only for deformation studies, but also in other thrust areas and earth related studies. The study area chosen for the deformation modelling is Shimla Municipal Corporation. According to Seismic Vulnerable zone classification by India, Shimla is present in Zone IV with high vulnerability. The region is also highly prone to disasters such as earthquake, landslides, flash floods, improper building construction due to natural and anthropogenic causes. The deformation rate has been calculated between 2014 and 2015. The datasets were acquired from Sentinel Data Hub organized by ESA. Four C—Band Sentinel—1A SLC TOPSAR data at ascending orbit with dual polarization has been used for deformation analysis. Precise orbit files were applied to the data and then each successive data was coregistered as Master and Slave Image. Three interferograms were formed and used for the analysis. These images were then subject to further pre-processing such as topographic phase removal and phase filtering to smoothen the interferograms. The unwrapped image was acquired by analysing the image through SNAPHU in Linux environment. The output received was converted into displacement data through band math into mm units. The results indicate that the surface has subsided nearly−33 to−100 mm/year between 2014 to 2015 and 2016 to 2017. The surface has an upliftment of 39 to 45 mm/year between 2015 and 2016. The result obtained in this study from measuring active monitoring of ground deformation and rate will help stake holders and government authorities to take necessary steps in constructing built-up lands and other environmental related projects.
C. Prakasam, R. Aravinth, Kanwar S. Varinder, B. Nagarajan

Disaster and Gender

Chapter 16. Gendered Spaces, Climate Change and Resilience in a Squatter Slum of Global South
Climate change is affecting the cities of almost all the countries of Global South. Slums, in the already over-spilling cities, are at the receiving end of the worst impacts of disasters resulting from the climate change. Women and children are the most affected in times of disasters and also the most neglected. The paper studies how women in the slum Bela Gaon adapt to disasters—in this case floods and rising waters of River Yamuna. The study delves into the relationship between education, financial status of women and the condition of houses, strategies of facing disasters and division of spaces within the community. Findings point out to a deep relationship between women empowered by financial independence and education to spaces divided by gender, house structure and losses incurred due to climate change and disasters.
Mamta Sharma, Jag Mohan, Anjana Mathur Jagmohan

Human Aspects: Impact, Vulnerability and Governance

Chapter 17. Community Participation in Disaster Risk Reduction: A Case Study of Chamoli District, Uttarakhand
The Himalayan terrain is highly fragile and presently faced with the dilemma of maintaining a balance between development and ecology and environment conservation with changing climate resulted into increasing number of disasters. In the recent past, cloud burst and flash floods events are on rise in case of 2013 Kedarnath Tragedy, which resulted into huge loss of life and property. Hence, there is a need for a systematic linkage between disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation to advance sustainable development. Therefore, if the affected communities are involved in the process of disaster risk assessment and reduction, the impact of disaster can be minimized to a great extent, and therefore developing a suitable community-based disaster management technique is required. This paper presents a preliminary finding on community engagement in disaster risk assessment, management and strengthen the capacity of communities to cope up with the disaster involving the concept of community-based disaster management (CBDM) by using local knowledge at Kandey and surrounding villages in Chamoli district of Uttarakhand. Emphasis was placed on collection of disaster experience and skills development of locals in the identifying and characterizing of various hazards in villages with special emphasis on landslide and preparedness for coping with disaster. The methodology has basically proposed in two stage: assessing of community vulnerabilities, capacity of multiple hazards in selected settlement by community engagement and participation characterized by training and skills development for multi-hazards risk assessment and disaster risk mitigation. Participatory rural appraisal (PRA) and participatory mapping have been effectively used to identify risk elements and coping capacity of the community in case of any future event. Finally, a disaster management plan has been prepared through community participation in the form of simplified maps showing safe shelters, escape routes, medical facilities, etc. The study provides the example of the utility of community-based disaster management approach for solution toward the effective mitigation of landslide and associated hazards especially in developing countries.
Suman Das, Ashis Kumar Saha
Chapter 18. Regulatory Framework for Regional Cooperation on Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) in India and Globe
All member states of South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) are prone to recurring natural disasters as well as disasters induced by humans. South Asian countries have experienced a wide-ranging geological and hydro-meteorological disasters may it be severe droughts, floods, cyclones, landslides, earthquakes or tsunamis causing not only irreparable loss to life but also shattering the economy of these member states. Huge population, poverty and corruption make the region more vulnerable and augment the magnitude of any disaster manifold. The impact of these disasters is not restricted within the physical and political boundaries of these states but is discernible across the borders. Though in almost all the SAARC countries there has been a successful mapping of the legislative and institutional framework in the region for the purpose of disaster risk reduction, but the major lacunae lie in the inadequate cooperation amongst the countries at the regional and international level. Sustainable synchronisation, alliance and mainstreaming of a comprehensive legal and institutional framework are required to be adopted and implemented in this region which ensures a rapid response mechanism dealing with disasters providing not only adequate and timely relief but also assistance which is more humanitarian.
Upma Gautam, Deeksha Bajpai Tewari


Chapter 19. Summary and Concluding Remarks
At this juncture, many parts of the country have been facing various disasters in varying degrees where some regions are heavily vulnerable to hazards. This book is an attempt to trace an in-depth and comprehensive.
Vishwa Raj Sharma, Chandrakanta
Making India Disaster Resilient
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Vishwa Raj Sharma
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