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Shorebirds and waterfowl are attracted to the evaporation basins actively foraging and nesting there, and are therefore exposed to naturally occurring trace elements in drainage water resulting in increased mortality, reduced growth, impaired reproduction, and reductions in species abundance. American avocet and black-necked stilts were identified as the waterbirds at greatest risk of adverse impacts. The provisions taken by the Tulare Lake Drainage District to modify operations of the existing systems and establish compensation wetland habitats demonstrated that evaporation ponds might be operated in an ecologically safe manner.
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- Management of Evaporation Basins To Reduce and Avoid Adverse Impacts to Waterbirds
Douglas E. Davis
Charles H. Hanson
- Springer Netherlands
- Chapter 9