Skip to main content
main-content

Über dieses Buch

Under the current multilateral trading system, most business entities have turned their attention away from focusing exclusively on their domestic market to the management of international business transactions on the global market. Around the world, this trend has increased the demand for education and training on the principles of international trade and, more practically, the administration of international business transactions.

This book aims to give upper-level undergraduates and graduate students a comprehensive understanding of the administrative and practical aspects of international commerce. It seeks to provide students, as the potential future practitioners of international trade, with the ability to gather and administrate the information needed to decide on and manage complex international business transactions, including in- and outsourcing problems, exports and imports.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

1. Introduction

Learning Objectives
1.
Establishment of a foreign trade department in the students’ actual (or assumed) companies to increase the efficiency and productivity in conducting international trade under public and private regulation on international trade;
 
2.
Efficient market research of the students’ selected items under public and private regulations governing international trade;
 
3.
Function of an export plan suitable for the legal environments extant in the target market and its importance;
 
4.
Selection of the items proper to specific markets, which should be flexibly modified and adopted according to the legal circumstances of the export market;
 
5.
Factors to be considered when enforcing international sales contracts for newly-developed and environmentally friendly products as opposed to other existing products with which consumers are more familiar;
 
Eun Sup Lee

2. Overseas Market Research

Learning Objectives
1.
Efficient ways to induce potential customers to be interested in the students’ selected items based on their comparative advantages over competitive items in the target market;
 
2.
Factors to be considered when attracting potential customers to the (assumed to be selected) items in the exporting market, compared with the factors to be considered in the domestic market where students’ (assumed) companies are well recognized by the customers;
 
3.
Functions and importance of established international business networks, based on mutual reliance in conducting international trade particularly with newly developed items;
 
4.
Strategies for the cultivation of new markets abroad, with an item which is newly developed and not yet commercialized in the domestic market compared with the case of existing products which have been successfully commercialized in the domestic market;
 
Eun Sup Lee

3. International Trade Contracts

Learning Objectives
1.
Writing and formatting international trade contracts;
 
2.
Defining and clarifying the relevant technical terms, including inquiries and invitations to contract, quotation, and offer, so as to give legal force to effective contract formation;
 
3.
The importance and contractual function of unconditional and unqualified communication of acceptance;
 
4.
The concept of contract by conduct compared with contract by expressed acceptance;
 
5.
Newly established judicial trends reflecting the principle of “mirror image rule” in relation to the battle of forms;
 
Eun Sup Lee

4. Terms of International Trade

Learning Objectives
1.
Responsibilities of the concerned parties to international trade under the special terms of international sale of goods;
 
2.
Specific characteristics of the special terms of international trade from the viewpoints of both the seller and buyer;
 
3.
Contractual relations between the exporter and importer under the special terms of international trade;
 
4.
Basic conditions regulating foreign trade;
 
5.
Passing of property between the seller and buyer under the specified terms of international trade;
 
6.
Passing of the risk between the seller and buyer under the specified terms of international trade;
 
7.
Contractual function and importance of the certification of quality and pre-shipment inspection under the international trade contracts;
 
8.
Special problems relating to general conditions supplied by the trade associations in doing international trade;
 
Eun Sup Lee

5. Payment Collection in International Trade

Learning Objectives
1.
Importance of shipping documents which should accord with the terms of the letter of credit for the collection of payment through negotiation with the concerned banks and treatment of the shipping documents which are not in accordance with the terms of the letter of credit;
 
2.
Function of the bill of lading and air way bill in negotiating with the bank;
 
3.
Contractual function of commercial invoices in letter of credit transactions;
 
4.
Nature of the bill of exchange from the viewpoint of facilitation of international trade;
 
5.
Proceedings of transactions through bills of exchange under the documentary letter of credit;
 
6.
Treatment of documents delivered contrary to instructions under the terms of letter of credit;
 
7.
Characteristics of the letter of credit from the viewpoints of the exporter and importer.
 
Eun Sup Lee

6. International Transportation

Learning Objectives
1.
Importance of carriage of goods in export transactions;
 
2.
Course of business in the carriage of goods by sea;
 
3.
Contractual and statutory effect of bills of lading and other transportation documents in international maritime transportation;
 
Eun Sup Lee

7. Marine Cargo Insurance

Learning Objectives
1.
Function and importance of marine insurance contracts in doing international trade;
 
2.
Risks covered and risks not covered (“or excluded”) under the variable marine insurance terms made by ICC;
 
3.
Comparative analysis between the terms under Lloyd’s Marine Policy and the Institute Cargo Clauses A, B and C;
 
4.
Process to make claims under the marine cargo insurance;
 
Eun Sup Lee

8. Foreign Exchange Risks

Learning Objectives
1.
Function of foreign exchange transactions viewed from the international business transaction;
 
2.
Importance of forward exchange transactions from the viewpoint of risk management of companies involved in international trade;
 
3.
Necessity to do forward exchange transactions in international trade; particularly, in the case of long-term transaction contracts;
 
4.
Foreign exchange position, and management of foreign exchange risks;
 
Eun Sup Lee

9. Electronic Commerce

Learning Objectives
1.
Development and practical use of Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) in international business transactions;
 
2.
Importance and functions of standardization of EDI methods of communication from the viewpoints of promotion of facilitation in conducting international trade;
 
3.
Function and importance of UNCITRAL model laws and conventions to promote international electronic commerce;
 
4.
Factors to be considered in doing international electronic business transactions in comparison with the case of off-line transactions;
 
5.
Efficiency and productivity in doing international electronic commerce compared with off-line commerce;
 
6.
Factors to be considered in making transportation and cargo insurance contracts in international trade through electronic commerce compared with the case through off-line transactions;
 
Eun Sup Lee

10. Claim and Dispute Settlement

Learning Objectives
1.
Difficulties and costs to pursue the enforcement of foreign judgments and arbitral awards in doing international trade;
 
2.
Contractual element of arbitration with relation to the international trade contract;
 
3.
Judicial element of arbitration with relation to the international trade contract;
 
4.
Legal framework of arbitration with relation to the international trade contract;
 
5.
Ad hoc and institutional arbitration with relation to the international trade contract;
 
Eun Sup Lee

11. Application to Practical Fields

Abstract
International trade transactions are generally made step by step from the stage of formation of contract to the enforcement of contract. In the industrial field, several steps out of the following could be overlapped or be omitted, but the following generally covers the processed stages.
Eun Sup Lee

Backmatter

Weitere Informationen

Premium Partner

    Bildnachweise