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Water quality impairment primarily through land use intensification contributes to waterborne disease through drinking water, contact recreation, contact with toxic algal blooms, and eating shellfish. Disease pathways are similar to other western countries but with the more rural character of New Zealand, pathogen contamination has a dominance of zoonotic agents such as Campylobacter. For the management approaches of these pathways New Zealand has adopted World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations with requirements for water safety plans for drinking water supplies, guidelines based on the Annapolis Protocol for contact recreation, an alert framework for cyanobacteria based on WHO guidelines, and, hazard analysis and critical control points for commercial shellfish harvesting. However, the status of drinking water supplies in Canterbury indicates large areas graded as unsatisfactory or unacceptable. Only 56% of monitored lake and river sites are graded as suitable for contact recreation. Eighty percent of river recreational sites have exceeded the alert criteria for toxic algal mats and nearly 30% have exceeded action criteria.
Based on nested adaptive systems analysis shortcomings in the management approaches are identified. Water safety plans for drinking water provide a sound basis for considering contaminant failure pathways, however, the approach does not address socio-economic issues like affordability . Recreational water quality management actions for unacceptable bacteriological or toxic algae levels are limited to public warnings that water bodies are unsuitable for contact recreation . This is similar for recreational harvesting of shellfish where a public health warning is the primary management action for phytoplankton levels exceeding health criteria. The hazard analysis and critical control points approach for commercial shellfish harvesting is much more comprehensive but management actions are focused on product contamination and do not address sources of contamination. The analysis highlights the need for management interventions to include proactive catchment management to prevent contamination. It also shows the need for sufficient organizational scale to achieve technical critical mass for water infrastructure management while maintaining local political control to manage the affordability of interventions.
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- Management of Waterborne Disease
Bryan R. Jenkins
- Springer Netherlands
- Chapter 9
Systemische Notwendigkeit zur Weiterentwicklung von Hybridnetzen