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Understanding the pathways through which climate change will impact food security is essential to creating robust food systems. First, we present scientific evidence to show that climate change will decrease crop and livestock productivity in India. Second, we show that climate change will impact health and labor productivity by increasing susceptibility to communicable and non-communicable diseases. Finally, we show that climate change will affect agricultural production and increase the vulnerability of poor regions and poor households, worsening inequities. We propose measures to actively cut down emissions, strengthen safety nets, increase policy commitment to tackle climate change and improve investments and access to technology to both mitigate its effects and increase scope for adaptation.
GHG contributes to warming of temperatures by their ability to absorb and emit radiant energy from thermal infrared radiations. The primary GHGs in the earth’s atmosphere are carbon dioxide (CO 2), ozone, nitrous oxide methane and water vapor. Human activity in the post-industrial era is the prime contributor to CO 2 increasing from 280 ppm in the early 1800s to around 400 ppm in 2014 (ppm—parts per million). This is a 40% increase over the 250 years, the highest ever in the paleo experience of the earth. Nearly 80% of these CO 2 emissions come from industrial processes and the burning of fossil fuels while the rest of the 20% comes from deforestation, land clearing and degradation of soils. Increase in global GHG emissions have increased average global temperatures by around 1 degree Celsius (IPCC, 2014).
In the paper by (Mall et al., 2006), authors show evidence that changes to temperature and rainfall will become evident by 2040 in India.
In Chap. 8, we discussed the problem of lack of water access in more detail. Hence we do not delve further into the topic in this chapter.
Note that there have been no updates to these numbers since then. All the new MoEF reports continue to refer to these numbers.
Carbon sinks are natural or artificial reservoirs that absorb and store atmospheric carbon with physical and biological mechanisms. Forests and land covered with vegetation are one type of carbon sink.
India is one of the largest producers of electricity through wind energy in the world.
Building regulations to construct environment friendly urban infrastructure that are energy efficient have been encouraged and regulations for industrial waste management and recycling of solid waste have been introduced as a part of mitigation strategies (MoEF, 2008). A comprehensive commentary on the policies under the NAPCC and the actions taken by the government can be found in the reference (J. Ahmad, 2013).
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- Managing Climate Change Risks in Food Systems
- Chapter 10
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