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In the face of emerging new threats, the EU's capacity to build a distinctive role in crisis management remains problematic. Analysing EU policies and actions, this collection sheds light on the EU's role in managing crises and peacekeeping, exploring avenues for a strategic EU vision for security and defense.



Introduction: The Role of the EU in International Peace and Security

1. Introduction: The Role of the EU in International Peace and Security

In recent decades the European Union (EU) has quantitatively and qualitatively increased its commitment to crisis response. This has come as a result of the many challenges that have emerged, particularly in a post-Cold War context, where old and new problems have surfaced in a changed political context, prompting a more active response from the EU. The end of the Cold War and the two decades that followed brought to the international agenda new outlooks in terms of the challenges and opportunities ahead, which assumed a clear intra-state and transnational dimension. International terrorism, illicit trafficking and organised crime along with multifaceted challenges to the state’s ruling authorities, civil warfare and intra- and inter-state violence are some examples of the multi-dimensional nature of threats to international security and stability. Growing interdependence and the dismantling of old barriers have allowed for regime transition and the recognition of new states in what became the post-Soviet space, along with the expression of freedoms hitherto constrained under communist rule.
Maria Raquel Freire, Maria Grazia Galantino

Conceptual Approaches to EU Crisis Management


2. Peacekeeping between Politics and Society

International politics in the past 25 years will not only be remembered for the fall of the Soviet system, for the end of the bipolar system, for the fundamentalist terrorist threat, but also for some institutional and social developments representing significant novelties. Among these are without any doubt the Peace Support Operations (PSO), currently known as peacekeeping.
Fabrizio Battistelli

3. CSDP and Democratic Legitimacy: Public Opinion’s Support in Times of Crisis

The issue of legitimacy lies at the core of the debate on policy integration in the European Union (EU). In the specific area of security and defence, the role of institutional settings or the normative and discursive foundations of legitimacy have been widely discussed (Bono, 2006; Mayntz, 2010; Schmidt, 2013; Stie, 2010). Less extensive is research on the more political and sociological meaning of legitimacy (Battistelli et al., 2012), which is related to the democratic process of policy legitimisation. As security policies in general, and peace operations in particular, are highly political and ideological in nature, and as their objectives go far beyond the halting of violence or the management of open conflicts, they have to be legitimate.
Maria Grazia Galantino

4. Women and Peace Operations

During the past decade, gender has become an increasingly relevant factor in the design, implementation and evaluation of international peace support operations. On the one hand, awareness of the gender dimension of armed conflicts and the need for gender mainstreaming into this type of operations emerged as a major requirement in the political agenda of international defence and security organisations. The brutal evidence of the disproportionate degree of sexual-based violence in conflicts (IRIN, 2007; Seifert, 1992; Skjelsbaek, 2001; Bastick et al., 2007), as well as of peacekeepers’ sexual misconduct and involvement in human trafficking and exploitation (Allred, 2006; Baaz and Stern, 2009), were at the basis of what some have called a new gender regime in international security (Carey, 2001).
Helena Carreiras

5. EU-NATO Relations in Crisis Management Operations: The Practice of Informality

The relationship of the European Union (EU) to the ‘other Brussels-based organisation’, meaning the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), can be characterised as one with many contradictions. Despite the overlap of 21 states that are members of both the EU and NATO, the relationship between the two has been strained. The development of the EU as a security actor possibly trespassing on the prerogative of NATO remains a contentious issue. Ever since the EU gained a defence and security policy of its own, there has been a certain rivalry or ‘beauty contest’ (Varwick, 2006) between the two organisations. Moreover, although NATO and the EU have established arrangements for regular consultation at different levels, the agenda of the joint meetings of the North Atlantic Council (NAC) and the Political and Security Committee (PSC) of the EU are restricted to discussions on the ‘Berlin Plus’ operation in Bosnia only. Particularly in the area of operational cooperation the limitations of official EU-NATO interaction come to the fore. EU-NATO competition over missions is already built in, in the sense that NATO’s non-Article 5 missions overlap to a large extent the EU’s Petersberg tasks. The organisations have taken on similar responsibilities. NATO and the EU are both conducting operations in Macedonia (Allied Harmony, Concordia), Afghanistan (ISAF/NTM-A, EUPOL-A), Kosovo (KFOR, EULEX), Sudan and off the coast of Somalia (Ocean Shield, Atalanta).
Margriet Drent

6. A Functional Approach to the Construction of Peace: Including Natural Resources Management in (the Design of) EU Peace Operations

To tackle today’s complex security challenges, the European Union (EU) has endeavoured to develop an integrated defence and security policy, and a so-called ‘comprehensive approach’ that mixes together civilian and military means. Both undertakings have their share of conceptual and operational challenges, but they hold the promise of considerable improvements in the EU’s conception and conduct of peace operations. Still, major hindrances remain, both at an intra-EU level and between the EU and its partners, among which issues pertaining to national sovereignty stand in importance.
Bruno Hellendorff

7. Analysis of Stakeholders and Groups of Interests in Conducting European Union Peace Operations

Under contemporary conditions, the environment of international peace operations implementation is increasingly complex. The security environment, risk factors and other factors that need to be addressed are becoming more and more complicated. International organisations are improving their doctrines and ideas on the logic and procedures for decision-making in these operations. In many cases, when making decisions regarding international peace operations there is a need to take into account the interests of a wide range of individuals and groups (stakeholders). Also, when analysing the results of the missions, one should have in mind (among other factors) the degree of satisfaction of stakeholders’ interests as well as which groups are affected positively or negatively.
Tsvetan Tsvetkov

The EU in the Field


8. EULEX Kosovo: A Test of the EU’s Civilian Crisis Management

Contemporary peacekeeping operations and missions have increasingly focused on providing sustainable peace and have thus gained in complexity. At the same time, they have developed from predominantly military to joint military and civilian activities, with the civilian ones representing the larger part. This has resulted in an increase in the number of participating actors, with various governmental, non-governmental and intergovernmental organisations taking on important roles not only in the humanitarian field but also in social and economic fields and the reconstruction of state institutions.
Marjan Malešič

9. The EU’s Role in Crisis Management: The Case of the EUMM

Since its establishment and throughout the formal and informal dimensions of its integration process, the European Union (EU) has always been confronted with issues of peace and violence, not only internally but also externally. However, the specific context of emergence of the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP)/European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP) was characterised by evolving security threats which included terrorism, failed states and violent intra-state conflicts, calling for a different approach in what concerns the EU’s response capacity to crisis and violence within and outside its borders. Besides, the EU has also the difficult task of seeking consensus among its member states with regard to why, where and how to deploy peace missions, responding both to internal political and economic dynamics, as well as to the overall institutional goal of promoting security within and beyond its borders. This chapter analyses, therefore, the deep interconnections between the process of decision-making and the external elements that influence it.
Maria Raquel Freire, Paula Duarte Lopes, Daniela Nascimento

10. Civilian Entities in EU Missions: A Comparison of the Slovenian, Italian, Belgian and Danish Approaches

Contemporary international operations and missions are complex activities undertaken by the international community which consist not only of a military component but also of a civilian one. The nature and the goals of peace operations have changed over time, and formerly neutral activities have become an integral part of national policies, with national interests playing a crucial role. This has led to organisational and legal changes in those countries that contribute to peace operations, with the goal being to help achieve the objectives of the operations and to increase efficiency.
Jelena Juvan, Janja Vuga

11. EUFOR Chad/CAR Mission on the Protection of Civilians: A Distinctive EU Way to Peace Operations

The European Union (EU) conducted a military operation in eastern Chad and north-eastern Central African Republic (EUFOR Chad/CAR) from 28 January 2008 to 15 March 2009. Its mandate was to contribute to the protection of refugees from the Darfur region and internally displaced people, to facilitate the delivery of humanitarian aid, and to contribute to the protection of UN personnel, under the mandate provided by United Nations Security Council Resolution 1778 of 25 September 2007. This operation was conducted under the European Security and Defence Policy (now Common Security and Defence Policy, CSDP), with the agreement of the governments of Chad and the Central African Republic. EUFOR Chad/CAR has been the most multinational military operation deployed in Africa so far, with 14 EU member states present in the field, 19 in theatre, and 22 at the operation headquarters (OHQ) at Mont Valérien (France). It was a bridging operation where the EU prepared the ground for the UN Mission in the Central African Republic and Chad (MINUCART), which focused among other things on the training of local police as part of a broader international multidimensional presence. After the one-year mandate expired, MINUCART took over the military component.
Cristina Churruca

12. EUTM Mali: A Rapid Response Operation Launched in an Open Conflict

The offensive launched by the National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad (MNLA) against the military bases of Menaka, Tessalit, Aghueloc, Andéramboukane and Tizawaten in January 2012 marked the renewal of a Tuareg rebellion in Mali. Faced with the poor management of the conflict by state authorities and the inability of the Malian armed forces (MAF) to deter the rebels’ military success, a mutiny of soldiers in Bamako led on 22 March 2012 to a coup and the overthrow of President Amadou Toumani Touré (ATT).
Bérangère Rouppert

13. The EU and Multilateral Peace Operations: After Afghanistan

By the end of 2014, European nations will have all withdrawn their combat troops from Afghanistan. In many cases, a small number of troops from Europe will remain to perform the role of mentors and trainers and Special Forces will presumably continue to operate as part of the US’s Operation Enduring Freedom, killing and capturing terrorists. However, European and, indeed, North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) troops will no longer be involved in fighting the campaign against the Taliban. As the 2014 deadlines approach, it is perhaps worth considering what the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) mission in Afghanistan has taught European member states and their armed forces about military intervention in the twenty-first century, for the operation has been the most unexpected, contentious and difficult in which Europe has been involved since the end of the Cold War. This chapter intends to draw some conclusions not only about the prospects for European peace operations but also for European military capability more generally during the post-Afghan decade.
Anthony King

14. Conclusion: Towards a Strategic EU Vision for Security and Defence

The aim of this concluding chapter is twofold. Primarily, we highlight and review the main issues raised in the chapters, drawing together a collection of diverse approaches and research findings. While systematically examining them, we elaborate further with a view to identifying the main challenges in the process of building a strategic EU vision for security and defence.
Maria Grazia Galantino, Maria Raquel Freire


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