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This book offers essential information on China’s human spacecraft technologies, reviewing their evolution from theoretical and engineering perspectives. It discusses topics such as the design of manned spaceships, cargo spacecraft, space laboratories, space stations and manned lunar and Mars detection spacecraft. It also addresses various key technologies, e.g. for manned rendezvous, docking and reentry.
The book is chiefly intended for researchers, graduate students and professionals in the fields of aerospace engineering, control, electronics & electrical engineering, and related areas.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

1. Introduction

Abstract
Manned space flight is an activity in which human beings drive a manned spacecraft into space for scientific research and resource development and application.
Hong Yang

2. Overall Technology of Manned Spacecraft

Abstract
Manned spacecraft, also known as manned spaceship, is launched by a carrier rocket into space to orbit the Earth or make a maneuvering flight on orbit. The spacecraft has an artificial environment suitable for astronauts to work and live in. After completing the mission, part of the manned spacecraft returns to the atmosphere and achieves a soft landing with the aid of parachutes and buffer devices.
Hong Yang

3. General Technology of Cargo Ship

Abstract
Cargo ship is an important foundation and guarantee for the construction and long-term operation of space station. As a near-Earth orbit spacecraft, the space station needs to be supplemented with non-renewable resources such as constantly consumed propellant and nitrogen. In order to give full play to the advantage of manned on-orbit maintenance, it is necessary to transport spare equipment and replace faulty ones to prolong the on-orbit flight life of the space station. The supplies consumed by astronauts in their on-orbit work and life need to be transported from the ground to ensure long-term on-orbit astronaut stay.
Hong Yang

4. Design Technology of Space Laboratory System

Abstract
Space laboratory, also called spacelab, is an aircraft that can carry out many scientific experiments in a manned space flight. The Soviet Union, the USA and the European Space Agency (ESA) were the first to develop a space laboratory in the 1970s and 1980s. China’s space laboratories, including Tiangong-1 target spacecraft and Tiangong-2 space laboratory, were launched in September 2011 and September 2016, respectively
Hong Yang

5. Design Technology of Space Station System

Abstract
The space station is a kind of manned spacecraft that runs on low Earth orbit for a long time and can be used by astronauts to live and work.
Hong Yang

6. Manned Rendezvous and Docking Technology

Abstract
Rendezvous and docking (RVD) is a key technology in manned space station engineering. This technology has been applied in complex large-scale space missions such as the on-orbit assembly and construction, long-term operation and on-orbit service of the space station and manned lunar landing.
Hong Yang

7. Manned Reentry and Return Technology

Abstract
The process in which a spacecraft arrives directly along its original orbit—or along first the original orbit and then the changed orbit—at the atmosphere of the destination celestial body, passes through the atmosphere safely and uses the atmosphere to decelerate, and finally lands safely on the celestial body is called the process of entering the celestial body’s atmosphere, or simply the entry process. The entry process is one segment of reentry trajectory process with the worst and most complicated environment. The characteristics of the entry period, especially deceleration overload, aerodynamic pressure and surface temperature, directly affect the design of the configuration, control and thermal protection structure of the reentry spacecraft. The realization of the entry process involves a wide range of scientific and technological fields, mainly including aerospace dynamics, aerodynamics, thermal protection structure, control and navigation technologies, rocket thruster technology, TT&C technology, recovery and landing technologies and other fields. For a deep-space exploration return vehicle, its entrance corridor must be confined to a very small range in order to confine its maximum overload and maximum heat flow to a certain range.
Hong Yang

8. Manned Landing and Recovery Technology

Abstract
Spacecraft recovery and landing technology is a comprehensive engineering technology, which involves a wide range of special technologies, including overall design technology, structure and mechanism technology, thermal protection technology, aerodynamic deceleration technology, landing buffer technology, electro-explosive device (EED) technology, radio technology, power control, supply and distribution technology and others. The spacecraft recovery technology originated from the sounding rocket recovery system. As early as the early 1930 s, the pioneers of modern rocket technology used parachutes to recover the rocket body or payload during the early flight test with small test rocket, in order to analyze the working conditions and data of various rocket components during the test. Such parachute deceleration system is called recovery system. This system on a manned spacecraft is generally called recovery and landing system due to the existence of human beings on the spacecraft.
Hong Yang

9. Emergency Life-Saving Technology

Abstract
The purpose of manned space emergency lifesaving is to ensure the safety of astronauts (the probability that astronauts will not suffer casualties during the whole process of a manned space activity).
Hong Yang

10. Technology of Orbital Propellant Refueling

Abstract
With the deepening of human spaceflight activities and the gradual increase of spacecraft size, the demand for orbital propellant refueling has become more and more important. The technology of orbital propellant refueling is of great significance for prolonging the spacecraft life and reducing its cost. At present, most of the spacecraft around the world use the propulsion systems based on chemical propellants (such as liquid two-component propellants nitrogen tetroxide and methylhydrazine). Large spacecraft (such as manned space station) have the characteristics of high value and long service life. In order to improve the economic efficiency of spacecraft, orbital propellant refueling is globally used to prolong their service life.
Hong Yang

11. Technology of the Management and Control of the Combination

Abstract
Manned spacecraft combinations refer to the multi-vehicle combinations formed by the rendezvous and docking and on-orbit assembly of two or more independent vehicles, including a combination formed by docking a single-module space laboratory with a transport spacecraft (e.g., “Salyut” series space station, “Skylab” sky laboratory and China’s “Tiangong 1” and “Tiangong 2” space laboratories) and large space stations (such as the “Mir” space station and the International Space Station) formed by assembling the multi-module spacecraft on orbit.
Hong Yang

12. Maintainability Technology of Manned Spacecraft

Abstract
The maintainability of a manned spacecraft refers to the ability of the manned spacecraft to maintain or restore its specified state under specified conditions and time when conducting maintenance in accordance with the specified procedures and methods.
Hong Yang

13. Application Technology of Space Manipulator

Abstract
The manipulator is an automatic operating device that can imitate some action functions of human hands and arms to grab and carry objects or operate tools according to a fixed program. It can replace people’s heavy duty to realize the mechanization and automation of production and can operate in harmful environment to protect human safety. Therefore, it is widely used in machinery manufacturing, metallurgy, electronics, light industry, atomic energy and other sectors.
Hong Yang

14. Technology of Manned Environmental Control and Life Support

Abstract
The main difference of manned spacecraft from non-manned spacecraft lies in its “manned” nature. When operating on orbit, the manned spacecraft is exposed to a vacuum cold black environment with microgravity and high cosmic radiation.
Hong Yang

15. Technology of Extravehicular Activity

Abstract
Extravehicular activity refers to the mission that astronauts use extravehicular spacesuits to leave the pressurized module of a spacecraft, walk outside the spacecraft or on the planetary surface and carry out the relevant operations. In order to meet the requirements of long-term on-orbit safe and reliable operation, the space station must have the capability of on-orbit maintenance and assembly. Astronauts are required to complete a series of extravehicular operation tasks, such as structural assembly, on-orbit replacement, on-orbit maintenance and other tasks that cannot be completed by a remotely controlled robot alone. The technology of extravehicular activity has become an indispensable key technology to support the operation of the space station and expand its application services.
Hong Yang

Backmatter

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