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Über dieses Buch

This is a unique edition in a new format: a combination of text and video material in a book and accompanying CDs. The idea to produce a work to represent the bottom line of scientific and industrial development at the - ginning of the 21st century came from leading scientists. This book undertakes analysis, description, and development prognoses of machine-building technologies and production automation (including examples of basic research of the development and optimization of re- world production processes, as well as methods and results of experimental research and presentation of some of the most modern and innovative manufacturing processes) which should form a basis for the automated production technologies of the future – in the 21st century. This book offers an interdisciplinary presentation of unique material and combines for the first time theoretical and practical results of the last decades from the most important branches of machine building in ind- trial-developed countries (automotive industry, agricultural machine bui- ing, electrical engineering and electronics, machine-tools industry, aircraft industry, instrumental industry, control systems, and consumer goods - dustry) in a scientific-technical edition. This should make this book int- esting to a wide range of readers. It is aimed at those who because of their knowledge and talent will become the elite engineers of their respective countries: doctoral and undergraduate students, to young prospective and qualified engineers, to advanced beginners and well-known scientists and researchers.



Global Aspects of Manufacturing


Chapter 1. The Role of Mechanical Engineering in the 21st Century

The present global state of engineering technologies reflects primarily the progress made during the 20th century. Astonishing results and successes have been achieved in many respects, but there is also evidence of a growing number of negative by-products — environmental pollution is reaching alarming levels due to fast-growing industrial activities, malfunctions of large production plants of all kinds, accidents and damage caused by the negligence of people (even if accidental), and exhaustion of an increasing number of global resources; but economic and social damage is also caused by the growing discrepancy between technical competence in different regions, and the everlasting quest for power and military superiority which stops the owners of the relevant technologies from letting others participate in their exploitation. However, many of the negative consequences of an ever-growing manufacturing world can be alleviated substantially by continuously improving the machines involved in terms of how they are made and operated (Frolov 1998, 1999a).
K. V. Frolov

Chapter 2. Globalization of Production: Consequences for Product Design and Technology

This chapter mostly presents the position of the manufacturer who is fully responsible for his product (the main contractor); the viewpoints of those carrying out the manufacturing (e.g., under subcontract), and others interested in globalized production (GP) — such as politicians and banks — are not considered.
F. H. Rehsteiner

Chapter 3. Fractal Company — A Revolution in Corporate Culture

Production engineering owes its recognition as a scientific discipline — approximately 100 years ago — to a methodical study of the industrial enterprise as a system for manufacturing goods. Since then it has been a fundamental matter of concern to distinguish and describe its principles and patterns. One of the first to do so was the British economist Adam Smith (1723–1790), who, using a needle manufacturer as an example, described the advantages of the division of labor to be derived from the creation of specialized work places. In the USA, Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856–1915) founded the concept of “scientific management.” Taylor’s system, based on the systematic study of work processes and the optimum organization of the time required to complete them, became acknowledged in America as the “best method of working.”
H. J. Warnecke

Chapter 4. Adaptable Production Structures

Companies in processing industries operate today in a turbulent environment. This is mainly caused by technology, the globalization of markets, and the permanent change in supply and demand. Effective survival strategies can only be developed if structures are adapted constantly [15, 26].
E. Westkämper

Chapter 5. Life Cycle Engineering

The issue of environmental preservation has attracted increasing worldwide attention in the last few decades. This is attributed to factors such as the ever-growing world population and greater affluence. The demand for wealth by the less-developed countries is threatening to exhaust the reserves of natural resources and increase the amount of pollution the earth can cope with. Environmental preservation requires the collective effort of various sectors, including the governments, corporations, companies, and individuals to effectively solve the problems. To ensure sustainable development, the manufacturing sector has to reduce the use of nonrenewable raw materials and the impact on the external environment, while preserving or improving the functionality of products. Manufacturers are becoming more responsible for the environmental performance of their products throughout the product life cycle, from extracting raw materials to the disposal of the products at their end-of-life (Alting and Legarth 1995).
S. K. Ong, A. Y. C. Nee

Trends and Developments of Advanced Manufacturing — Scientific Basis


Chapter 6. Fundamental Aspects of Mechanical Engineering

The human society cannot exist and develop without continued production manufacturing which, in turn, cannot be achieved without the application of machines. Their manufacture is a special area of human activity based on the laws of mechanical engineering.
A. M. Dalskii, A. S. Vasiliev

Chapter 7. High-Speed Machining

High-speed machining is an advanced production technology with great future potential. However, as has been in many other realizations of technological progress, the implementation of fundamental knowledge of highspeed machining into the manufacture of industrial products took a relatively long time. In this particular case, the period of approximately 60 years was not only due to a cautious attitude of the industry, but also to the production facilities existing at the time when the first findings became available from research not meeting the requirements of high-speed machining.
H. Schulz

Chapter 8. Aspects of Manufacturing Systems Integration

Chapter 8 presents research conducted within the field of modular manufacturing machine synthesis. Our focus within this field lies in optimizing the technological processes of the initial stage. It is easier and less expensive to optimize a process in the initial stage than to alter finished equipment. Our concept employs a computer-aided search in the initial stages of process planning. The concept has already proved valid for mass and serial manufacturing. Therefore, we are further developing the concept to suit flexible manufacturing systems, our main goal being to create cost-effective solutions for various types of manufacturing.
A. I. Dashchenko, W. Pollmann, O. A. Dashchenko

Chapter 9. CAPP Systems for Machining, Assembly, and Disassembly Operations

After an introduction to the importance of CAPP systems and a short overview of the main working principles, algorithms and problems, this chapter discusses some issues regarding the application of CAPP systems in the fields of machining, assembly and disassembly. Examples of successfully tested CAPP systems are presented and discussed. Some conclusions regarding the predictable future developments of CAPP systems are finally drawn.
M. Santochi

Chapter 10. Modeling of Machine Tools and Assembly Systems

As it is known, statistical simulation is based on using statistical laws of work (functioning) for technical systems and it is used for analyzing complex manufacturing systems (MS) with parameters that can be evaluated by calculations with great difficulties (and sometimes it is impossible to evaluate them). The examples of such lines are machine-tool or assembly lines consisting of several flexibly connected areas — sections with magazines for semi-finished products between them, with synchronous and nonsynchronous transports on the areas with successive, parallel or combined area arrangements.
A. I. Dashchenko, W. Pollmann, O. A. Dashchenko

Chapter 11. Cybernetic Structures, Networks, and Adaptive Control of Work Systems in Manufacturing

This contribution presents some thoughts on the importance of cybernetics, the new scientific discipline developed by N. Wiener ai][3], to manufacturing science and technology. The foundation of the approach is the Elementary Work System (EWS). This is analyzed from cybernetic and information viewpoints. The subject’s competence, as a decisive factor for structuring, operating and controlling the EWS, is discussed in detail. The influence of human factors on the competence is explained. The control of the EWS should consider information as well as cybernetic laws. The conventional factory system and an EWS adaptive network are briefly discussed.
J. Peklenik

Trends and Developments of Advanced Manufacturing — Examples of Real Implementations


Chapter 12. Rapid Prototyping in Manufacturing

Rapid prototyping (RP) is the name applied to a group of novel part-manufacturing processes relying on the rapid solidification of a loose material. They are supposed to be faster and more flexible than conventional forming techniques and therefore particularly suited to producing prototypes in a very short time.
F. H. Rehsteiner

Chapter 13. Challenges in Electronic Production

Increasing demands on the quality and functionality of electronic systems have contributed to a growing diversity of component packages. This has lead to surface-mount devices (SMD) replacing through-hole technology (THT) devices, with the exception of components for high-power applications and those subjected to a high mechanical strain (e.g., plugs and sockets). These technologies should be distinguished when classifying two types of packages: those components with two connections (e.g., resistors, diodes, and capacitors) and those with three or more connections (e.g., transistors and integrated circuits).
K. Feldmann

Chapter 14. Electronic Vacuum Technologies

Electronic vacuum technology (ET) is an engineering field in which material processing is based on the flow of high-energy particles (e.g., electrons, ions, atoms, and molecules). ET is also known as “electron-ion- plasma technologies” and “elion technologies.” Many ET processes are used to create nontraditional machines, the most important of which is the creation of vacuum-technology processes.
L. I. Volchkevich, Y. V. Panfilov

Chapter 15. New Solid-State Lasers and Their Application Potential

In recent years, Nd:YAG lasers have been increasingly used in many fields of high-power applications that formerly were the domain of CO2 lasers. This was mainly due to several consequences of the lower wavelength of their radiation, such as a higher absorptivity, lower sensitivity against laserinduced plasmas, and, in particular, the use of flexible glass fibers for beam handling. Disadvantages such as poor beam quality and low efficiency are being effectively reduced by recent developments in diode-pumped systems. This chapter discusses some promising concepts based on different pumping techniques and crystal geometries — rods, discs, and fibers — from the viewpoint of attainable beam quality and methods of power scaling.
H. Hügel

Chapter 16. New Information Technologies in Industrial Activity of the Enterprises (IAE)

The rapid technological development of powerful information and communication technologies (ICT) has a major impact on enterprises and on their business processes. Along with globalization and internationalization, information and communication technologies are changing the working culture, the enterprise organization, and the workflow. The main changes are:
  • — from a working culture based on paper to one based on digital models,
  • —from a tayloristic organization to a holistic organization based on product and process data management, and
  • — from 2-D presentation-based decisions to decisions based on virtual product development and virtual manufacturing.
R. Anderl

Chapter 17. Modeling of Manufacturing and Technological Processes in CIM

A new era for civilization on earth began at the first part of the 20th century: the era of the post-industrial society (Bell 1976). Its main engineering economic features are the following (Gornev et al. 1997; Gornev 1998c):
  • — information and information service are the basic elements for the whole modern and future society,
  • — scientific knowledge is formed as independent elements of productive forces which are the basis for the invention and manufacture of the new science’s consumer goods,
  • — if the basis of industrial society is machine technology, then the postindustrial society is formed under the intelligent technology influence. And, if capital and labor are the main elements of the industrial society, then information and knowledge are the main elements of the postindustrial.
V. F. Gornev, V. V. Emelyanov, S. I. Iassinovski

Advanced Manufacturing Equipment


Chapter 18. New Machine Tools and Systems

The machine tool industry is enjoying a period fast innovation, driven by end-users that have rediscovered the importance of production, after a long period during which finance and marketing seemed to be the sole instruments to reach industrial success. Innovation is also pushed by internal pressure: European manufacturers must keep proposing new solutions to face the evolution of a market that is increasingly competitive.
M. Mandelli, T. Nagao, Y. Hatamura, M. Mitsuishi, M. Nakao

Chapter 19. Reconfigurable Manufacturing Systems

Manufacturing companies in the 21st Century will face unpredictable, high-frequency market changes driven by global competition. To stay competitive, these companies must possess new types of manufacturing systems that are cost-effective and very responsive to all these market changes. Reconfigurability, an engineering technology that deals with costeffective, quick reactions to market changes, is needed. Reconfigurable manufacturing systems (RMS), whose components are reconfigurable machines and reconfigurable controllers, as well as methodologies for their systematic design and rapid ramp-up, are the cornerstones of this new manufacturing paradigm.
Y. Koren, U. Heisel, F. Jovane, T. Moriwaki, G. Pritschow, G. Ulsoy, H. Van Brussel

Chapter 20. Robot Technology

The demand for high-quality automation solutions remains constant. Existing deficits and rapid advances in innovations, especially in the fields of information and sensor technology, aim to improve the abilities of robots with regard to their performance to adapt to changing manufacturing conditions, their ability to be quickly configured to carry out production tasks, and their intuitive operation in all operating modes from installation and operating tasks right up to maintenance. Subsequently, many new areas of use are being opened up for robot systems in production and service. In many cases, the intelligence of an automation system for performing tasks is still insufficient. As well as further developing intelligent system behavior, the path is increasingly being followed whereby the intelligence and skill of the operator is used to perform tasks cooperatively. The objective here is to develop systems, components, and processes for communicating and interacting with assistance systems which offer the user the possibility not only of direct control but also of having mechanical sub-tasks carried out independently (“laborer”). The sensory as well as the actuatory forming of the assistant allow for the development of completely new forms of interaction in complex or complexly modeled surroundings.
R. D. Schraft

Chapter 21. Methods for Nondestructive Testing and Diagnostics of Automatic Equipment and Technological Systems of Machines

The philosophy of safety and quality management has changed from «to react and correct» to the principle “to predict and reduce the losses”.
V. V. Klyuev, E. G. Nachapetjan, V. V. Scherbakov

Future Trends


Chapter 22. Prospects of Technology Development

The 21st century has come with the great impact of information revolution to change our society towards the new creation of the information society with much emphasis on individual pleasure through convergence of time, distance, and place, with instantly networked communication and information processing. Its nature of uncertainty is due to the inexperienced new individual-based communication and network, which may be received with confusion and chaos on the traditional mind; however, it will be transformed into an excellent opportunity of challenge and dynamism for the upcoming generation. Factory automation and robots will perform to merge our traditional industrial society with the new information society. And factory automation and robots with networked intelligence will generate an unlimited opportunity as a bridge to bundle two cultural behaviors in manufacturing. New vision for the future will be provided with our insights on factory automation with information technology.

Chapter 23. Perspectives of Innovative Technologies in Manufacturing

The majority of mechanical engineering products today are characterized by a close interaction between classical mechanics and electronics, control engineering and software, expressed aptly by the term mechatronics. However, further possibilities are emerging that extend way beyond the scope of mechatronics — systems with inherent intelligence. Future systems in the area of mechanical engineering will comprise configurations of intelligent system elements, which we also refer to as solution elements since they enable the solution to a function. The performance of the overall system is characterized by the communication and cooperation between intelligent system elements. In terms of software, this involves distributed systems of interacting agents.
J. Gausemeier
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