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## Über dieses Buch

This book takes a new approach on understanding causes of extreme poverty and promising actions to address it. Its focus is on marginality being a root cause of poverty and deprivation. “Marginality” is the position of people on the edge, preventing their access to resources, freedom of choices, and the development of capabilities. The book is research based with original empirical analyses at local, national, and local scales; book contributors are leaders in their fields and have backgrounds in different disciplines. An important message of the book is that economic and ecological approaches and institutional innovations need to be integrated to overcome marginality. The book will be a valuable source for development scholars and students, actors that design public policies, and for social innovators in the private sector and non-governmental organizations.​

## Inhaltsverzeichnis

Open Access

### Chapter 1. Marginality—An Overview and Implications for Policy

Abstract
The marginality concept calls for the integration of poverty concepts with those of social exclusion, geography, and ecology. The difficulties in reaching people at the margins of systems are explained by a set of distances, (i.e., physical distances such as being located in remote or harsh environments), social distances (being excluded, discriminated against, or not having rights or access to services or opportunities), but may also be related to technological and institutional infrastructure deficiencies. This chapter provides an overview of the concept of marginality and offers a synthesis of the findings of all the chapters in this volume. A review of policies intended to reduce marginality suggests that none of the marginality determinants need to be accepted as long term. Coherent policies and actions, however, need to match the systemic causality of marginality in order to be effective.
Joachim von Braun, Franz W. Gatzweiler

Open Access

### Chapter 2. Marginality—A Framework for Analyzing Causal Complexities of Poverty

Abstract
This chapter presents an interdisciplinary framework for the investigation of marginality which is inclusive of the diversity of existing poverty research approaches. Marginality is presented as a systemic and evolutionary concept with particular reference to the role of institutions that constrain or motivate actions as measured against a performance indicator such as productivity growth. Based on a brief review of marginality research in social, economic, and development fields, this chapter presents a definition of marginality and explains the differences between this conceptual framework and those of poverty. Finally, the components of the framework and its interrelationships are described and awareness for the need for further research on marginality is raised.
Franz W. Gatzweiler, Heike Baumüller

Open Access

### Chapter 3. Exclusion and Initiatives to ‘Include’: Revisiting Basic Economics to Guide Development Practice

Abstract
This chapter focuses on exclusion. It reconstructs the definition of exclusion and its various facets by applying a set of principles that underlie economic analyses. The analysis reveals that many initiatives to reduce exclusion under the umbrella of safety nets often lead to the introduction of differentiated products in segmented markets that may actually contribute to the perpetuation of differentiations within a population. The relations between contracts, goods and services, and exclusions are highlighted. A typology of exclusion is described by the author with the help of a supply and demand analysis of services, including: voluntary exclusion, exclusion due to a lack of awareness, exclusion for survival, exclusion due to a lack of demand, and exclusion caused by “distance” such as social exclusion or poor connectivity.

Open Access

### Chapter 4. Marginality from a Socio-ecological Perspective

Abstract
The authors analyze the concept of marginality from an ecological perspective and provide examples of some mechanisms of marginalization. Marginalization cannot solely be described as an ecological phenomenon, but rather occurs via the interplay of ecological and social aspects of complex arrangements. Hence the use of socio-ecological systems as a conceptual unit is proposed. One way to combat marginalization is to increase the resilience and adaptability of these systems. However, multiple needs must be considered simultaneously, including: food security, income generation, or ecosystem services. Research on marginality in the context of interlinked socio-ecological, complex, and dynamic systems demands paradigm shifts in scientific disciplines that are beginning to merge.
Daniel Callo-Concha, Jan Henning Sommer, Janina Kleemann, Franz W. Gatzweiler, Manfred Denich

Open Access

### Chapter 5. Mapping Marginality Hotspots

Abstract
In this chapter the authors applied innovative Geographical Information Systems mapping techniques to illustrate spatial dimensions of marginality at continental and regional levels. They sought to make the marginalized and poor more visible by identifying areas where many poor people live under difficult biophysical and socio-economic conditions. A broad set of variables covering ecological, social, and economic dimensions were described using existing datasets to identify ‘marginality hotspots’ which were then overlaid with poverty distribution data. Areas where a high percentage of poor people coincided with marginality hotspots were found in Central and South East Africa, especially the northern parts of Niger and in Chad, the Central African Republic, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mozambique, Malawi, and Burundi.
Valerie Graw, Christine Husmann

Open Access

### Chapter 6. The Poorest: Who and Where They Are?

Abstract
This chapter provides a global quantitative perspective on where the world’s poor and particularly the poorest live, and the extent of progress made in the reduction of income poverty close to and far below the international poverty line (US$1.25/day per capita) over the past two decades. The characteristics of the ultra-poor are identified based on a quantitative assessment across developing countries. Poverty reduction from 1990 to 2008 was quite equal between those who are somewhat below that poverty line and the ultra-poor—in fact it slightly favored the ultra-poor. This suggests that the theory of enduring poverty traps may not be holding true for those in ultra-poverty in recent years, as this pattern is different compared to earlier global findings. For interventions to reach the ultra-poor (i.e., those living on less than US$0.63/day) effectively, geographically marginal households should be targeted; and the low-levels of education, and in the case of Asia, landlessness should be taken into account.
Akhter U. Ahmed, Ruth Vargas Hill, Farria Naeem

Open Access

### Chapter 7. Targeting the Poorest and Most Vulnerable: Examples from Bangladesh

Abstract
Programs to alleviate poverty and hunger are most effective when they reach the poorest and most vulnerable, however, identifying target groups is often difficult. This chapter focuses on geographic and beneficiary targeting mechanisms for safety-nets, along with the strengths and limitations of each approach. Different modalities of beneficiary targeting of the poorest and most vulnerable groups were examined with examples from the United Nations World Food Programme safety-net initiatives in Bangladesh. The chapter highlights the importance of strengthening targeting mechanisms in government operated safety-net programs and improving relevant governmental capacity.
Nusha Yamina Choudhury, Christa Räder

Open Access

### Chapter 8. Correlates of Extreme Poverty in Rural Ethiopia

Abstract
This chapter examines the determinants of extreme poverty in rural Ethiopia at the household level using indicators that reflect consumption expenditures, dietary calorie intake, and household assets. The descriptive analyses results indicated that ultra-poverty in the household consumption dimension was positively associated with distance from educational and health facilities, roads, and other infrastructure. The results of an econometric model showed that ultra-poverty was positively and significantly associated with household size and the age of the household head, and inversely associated with the ownership of farming assets and livestock.

Open Access

### Chapter 9. Examining the Circle of Attachment Trauma, Shame, and Marginalization: The Unheard Voices of Young Kutchi Girls

Abstract
This chapter offers a psychological understanding of the experience of social marginality as viewed from the perspective of young girls from the Indian province of Gujarat. Secure attachments are one of the primary ‘capabilities’ that have direct bearing on an individual’s sense of identity and freedom. Insecure attachments, particularly dismissing kinds, lead to inhibitions in personality development and build up layers of shame and self-doubt. The author examines how the psyche is tormented by repeated experiences of social marginalization in the form of dismissal at the hands of family, and how shame becomes an abiding emotion—creating further doubts, disenfranchisement, and alienation.
Manasi Kumar

Open Access

### Chapter 10. Poverty, Agriculture and the Environment: The Case of Sub-Saharan Africa

Abstract
Marginal areas of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) have historically offered low productivity potential and low returns on investments in agricultural productivity growth. Population and agricultural market dynamics in Africa are improving the prospects for productivity-enhancing investments in this environment. In this chapter the authors introduce an opportunity cost framework to demonstrate where agricultural development is now an opportune strategy to reduce marginality in SSA and to guide strategic priority setting for public investment for the sustainable improvement of agricultural productivity. It then lays out policy and technology priorities for sustainable development of marginal production environments.
Prabhu Pingali, Kate Schneider, Monika Zurek

Open Access

### Chapter 11. The Marginal Poor and Their Dependence on Ecosystem Services: Evidence from South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa

Abstract
In this chapter the authors employ a meta-study to explore why it is critical to address the degradation of ecosystems for poverty alleviation, especially in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. The authors also investigate the linkages between ecosystem services and aspects of extreme poverty. Their findings suggest that the poor are often more vulnerable to the loss of ecosystem function that restricts the supply of natural goods and services. The poor depend upon ecosystem services, but the nature of this dependence is necessarily not uniform throughout the year. The poor also tend to benefit less from environmental conservation efforts than those who are not poor. The dynamic patterns of dependence on ecosystem services of the poor and their coping strategies require regionally specific and in-depth evaluation.
Pushpam Kumar, Makiko Yashiro

Open Access

### Chapter 12. Land Degradation, Poverty and Marginality

Abstract
This chapter emphasizes the complexity and plurality of the types and magnitudes of causal relationships between poverty and environmental degradation, based on a review of the literature. The authors use case studies focused on the issue of land degradation to illustrate these relationships. Land degradation (LD) is influenced by natural and anthropogenic factors, including socioeconomic conditions. LD is of importance to people because it decreases the provision of terrestrial ecosystem services and the benefits they provide for human well-being. A key question is whether lower levels of well-being lead to more or less destructive resource use and management strategies. The authors call for a systematic and science-based assessment of LD worldwide as a necessary first step toward the inclusion of LD in global measures of well-being.
Nicolas Gerber, Ephraim Nkonya, Joachim von Braun

Open Access

### Chapter 13. Tackling Social Exclusion and Marginality for Poverty Reduction: Indian Experiences

Abstract
This chapter examines changes in poverty in combination with changes in income and the character of income growth for multiple socio-religious groups in India. The extent to which income growth has been pro-poor was also evaluated. Income growth was compared between agricultural and non-agricultural livelihoods, between rural and urban areas, and across ethnic, caste, and religious groups. The analysis found that poverty was reduced at a lower rate for Scheduled Tribes, Scheduled Castes, and Muslims, who suffer from social exclusion and discrimination, than for the rest of the society. These groups have a history of high levels of poverty in India, and compared to mainstream society members these groups typically own less agricultural land, have less access to private non-agricultural economic activities, and are more dependent on wage employment.

Open Access

### Chapter 14. Consumption Behavior of the Poorest and Policy Implications in Indonesia

Abstract
Improving household food consumption involves a multitude of issues. The effort becomes more complicated when it addresses the poorest and most vulnerable. This chapter examines these issues and in particular the characteristics of the poorest households that are interconnected with their food consumption behavior. The responses of the poorest and forgotten households in Indonesia to changes fundamental economic variables, income and prices, were examined. It was found that aspects of the poorest households’ consumption behavior would have impacts on the effectiveness of food subsidy efforts, and should therefore be taken into account when such programs are designed to avoid unintended or detrimental effects.
Evita Hanie Pangaribowo

Open Access

### Chapter 15. Addressing Extreme Poverty and Marginality: Experiences in Rural China

Abstract
China’s experiences with addressing extreme poverty and marginality are presented and analyzed. The evolution of effective and efficient policies, especially in rural areas is found closely connected to China’s economic growth in the past three decades, as well as to regional inequality. The “Di Bao” (minimum livelihood guarantee system) in different areas is reviewed. In developed regions, the “Di Bao” social assistance program, social insurance and public services have effectively mitigated the difficulties of the extremely poor. In poor areas, however, addressing extreme poverty and marginality remains a challenge. Increasing the effectiveness of poverty reduction efforts in poor areas is, and will continue to be central to the eradication of extreme poverty in China.
Ling Zhu

Open Access

### Chapter 16. Experiences in Targeting the Poorest: A Case Study from Bangladesh

Abstract
This chapter examines the program “Challenging the Frontiers of Poverty Reduction” (CFPR) implemented by the Bangladeshi non-governmental organization BRAC. The program aimed to lift participants out of extreme poverty within 2 years and facilitate their entry into mainstream development programs. To achieve this, the program combined interventions specifically tailored for the ultra-poor with interventions to create an enabling environment for the ultra-poor. Experiences show that a participatory process involving the local community, and accommodating local knowledge and wisdom, is the most pragmatic way of identifying the poorest households in a community. However, meticulous implementation by a motivated workforce was also key to the success of the effort.
Syed Masud Ahmed

Open Access

### Chapter 17. Rural Poverty and Marginalization in Ethiopia: A Review of Development Interventions

Abstract
This chapter provides a comprehensive review of Ethiopia’s policy interventions for poverty reduction and inclusion of marginal population groups, and discusses a number of indicators that point at significant improvements that have been achieved in the country. The sector specific policy measures to reduce poverty are assessed, and the measures targeted at vulnerable groups and in marginal areas are analysed. The impacts of economic growth on poverty reduction are traced. Development efforts such as regional development disparity and the persistence of severe poverty despite concerted anti-poverty efforts and a relatively high rate of economic growth are highlighted.

Open Access

### Chapter 18. Macro, Fiscal and Decentralization Options to Address Marginality and Reach the Extremely Poor

Abstract
Reaching the extremely poor and marginal groups in countries where local politicians and officials have little incentive to provide for them is a challenge to addressing marginality in many countries. Financial and taxation arrangements, information constraints, and institutional aspects between central and local governments to address these challenges are identified in this chapter. The instruments that might be involved include a range of options, from transfers or assistance from higher levels of government (donors), cash support, or the provision of public services (particularly health care and education), other forms of income or employment support, to assistance for small-scale enterprises. In this chapter the author concludes that in the absence of genuine local interest in providing for the marginalized and extremely poor, direct provision of funding by central governments and aid agencies appears to be the main feasible option.

Open Access

### Chapter 19. Social Protection, Marginality, and Extreme Poverty: Just Give Money to the Poor?

Abstract
Social protection programs, especially cash transfer programs, have spread across low- and middle-income countries since the beginning of the millennium, and are increasingly part of national development strategies to assist the poor and particularly the poorest. This chapter lays out a wide range of debates about the specific goals, targets, and conditions of social protection and cash transfers. While there is no single best program option, the authors identified five overriding principles for effective efforts. Thus social protection programs and cash transfers work best when they are: fair, assured, practical, large enough to impact household income, and popular. These principles need interpretation at the national level, because no model can be automatically transferred from one country to another.
David Hulme, Joseph Hanlon, Joseph Hanlon, Armando Barrientos

Open Access

### Chapter 20. Innovative Business Approaches for the Reduction of Extreme Poverty and Marginality?

Abstract
The potential of innovative business approaches to target the poor is increasingly being recognized. This chapter outlines the evolution of thinking in the business world and explores in detail some of the relatively new business approaches that have emerged for addressing societal problems. The authors also examine whether and how these approaches can support not only those living close to the poverty line, but also help engage the marginalized at the lowest end of the income scale. While it may be unrealistic to expect businesses to be able to reach all of the extremely poor and marginalized, the authors suggest that the boundaries of innovative business operations can be pushed much further to include a far larger number of the marginalized and extremely poor.
Heike Baumüller, Christine Husmann, Joachim von Braun

Open Access

### Chapter 21. Business Initiatives That Overcome Rural Poverty and Marginality Through Creating Shared Value

Abstract
This chapter examines the Creating Shared Value (CSV) approach to reach the poor through integrated social and business goals. CSV simply means that when making business decisions on future plans and investments, companies simultaneously consider what long-term value can be created both for society and for shareholders. The chapter describes how the approach has been applied in Nestlé’s international dairy programs and identifies three major results: including more small farmers in supply chains, reducing their poverty, and increasing the local availability of dietary calories, protein, calcium, and various micronutrients.
Niels Christiansen

Open Access

### Chapter 22. The Marginalized and Poorest in Different Communities and Settings of Ethiopia

Abstract
This chapter describes how the extent of poverty and the causes and nature of marginality vary from place to place, depending on the natural resource, livelihood strategy, climatic, agro-ecological, and socio-cultural conditions. Local attributes of marginality were assessed in four different districts of rural Ethiopia. Extreme land degradation was a key force in one district, lack of credit in another, competitive commercial pressure in another district, and resource management practices according to cultural values in the remaining district. There was always a complex interplay of various factors that exclude some people from the benefits of economic growth that others enjoy. Independently from the different features of marginality, this interplay was found to be a root cause of poverty in all of the districts studied.
Tadesse Woldemariam Gole, Fite Getaneh Ilfata, Motuma Tafa, Aleka Aregachew

### Backmatter

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