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Über dieses Buch

This volume is the first practical guide for the marine conservation realm. In a unique collection of case studies, the authors showcase successful collaborative approaches to ecosystem-based management. The authors introduce the basic concepts of ecosystem-based management and five different pathways for making progress from community to multinational levels. They spotlight the characteristics that are evident in all successful cases —the governance structures and social motivations that make it work. Case analyses ranging from the Gulf of Maine to the Channel Islands in Southern California comprise the bulk of the book, augmented by text boxes showcasing examples of guiding documents important to the process. They devote several ending chapters to discussion of the interpersonal relationships critical to successful implementation of marine ecosystem-based management. The book concludes with a discussion of the implications for policy and on-the-ground practice.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Drawing Lessons from Experience in Marine Ecosystem-Based Management

Abstract
In December 2011, managers from three states and two Canadian provinces celebrated twenty years of working hand in hand to advance marine conservation in the Gulf of Maine. Together, they have leveraged millions of dollars to enable restoration projects, advance scientific understanding, and coordinate monitoring and management on both sides of the border. When they began meeting twenty years earlier, federal officials suggested they were “incredibly naive” to think they could make a difference in what had become a highly contentious environment. The U.S. State Department discouraged their efforts. Recalling this skepticism, one of the group’s cofounders laughs and says, “For some of us who are still around, we kind of smile and say, ‘Here we are twenty years later!’” From its humble beginnings with the simple objective “to learn and network and share information so that we can all do our respective jobs better,” the Gulf of Maine Council on the Marine Environment has become a model for transboundary marine conservation worldwide.
Julia M. Wondolleck, Steven L. Yaffee

Chapter 2. Navigating International Boundaries in the Gulf of Maine and Puget Sound Georgia Basin

Abstract
Since many marine ecosystems cross international borders, effective management requires transboundary interaction between agencies and policy makers. National borders may not stop marine organisms, but they definitely constrain the amount and character of interaction between scientists, managers, and decision makers. At minimum, an international border can complicate communication, travel, funding, and project implementation. More significantly, differences in law, political systems, and culture need to be navigated.
Julia M. Wondolleck, Steven L. Yaffee

Chapter 3. Mobilizing a Multistate Partnership in the Gulf of Mexico

Abstract
In the Gulf of Mexico, an innovative multistate partnership has focused attention and energy on an ecosystem of national, regional, and local importance. While large-scale efforts involving more than one state may not have the complication of an international boundary, as described in chapter 2, they still need to navigate complicated jurisdictional factors to initiate and sustain collaboration. The Gulf of Mexico Alliance (GOMA) is a voluntary arrangement that has no authority to mandate action or regulate uses. However, it has provided an opportunity for the five Gulf States to identify and pursue shared objectives at an ecosystem scale by pooling expertise, attracting funding, and finding synergies within their individual state policies and programs.
Julia M. Wondolleck, Steven L. Yaffee, Sarah McKearnan

Chapter 4. Balancing Top-Down Authority with Bottom-Up Engagement in the Florida Keys and Channel Islands

Abstract
Formal marine protected areas (MPAs) are considered by many to be the holy grail of marine conservation. Whether they are called marine sanctuaries, marine reserves, no-take zones, or the like, MPAs are generally established by law and have specific regulatory and management authorities. Many have an explicit mandate for ecosystem-based management, and their ability to restrict use enables protection at a level not achievable by most marine conservation initiatives.
Julia M. Wondolleck, Steven L. Yaffee

Chapter 5. Motivating Engagement in Voluntary Programs in Narragansett Bay and the Albemarle—Pamlico Estuary

Abstract
Chapter 4 described the unique attributes and challenges associated with formal top-down marine protected area initiatives that have regulatory teeth. This chapter shifts to the opposite end of the spectrum and examines top-down policy initiatives that possess no regulatory authority. These initiatives encourage and enable ecosystem-scale conservation through planning and capacity building. While simple in concept, these initiatives can be particularly challenging in practice. Top-down initiatives that are both voluntary and “not invented here” often languish in the face of indifference, competing priorities, and outright opposition. While some places welcome the opportunities inherent in having “the feds” convene a discussion of issues of shared concern, for others it is just one more thing on an already full plate. Hence these initiatives need to find ways to motivate engagement, instill ownership, and enable action.
Julia M. Wondolleck, Steven L. Yaffee

Chapter 6. Influencing Management from the Bottom Up in Port Orford, Oregon, and San Juan County, Washington

Abstract
In communities throughout the world, fishermen, community leaders, scientists, and agency managers are working together to advance marine conservation. These efforts often emerge in an ad hoc manner, without high-level political endorsement, a legislative or administrative framework, or much in the way of resources. As a result, community-based processes face a unique set of challenges. They require motivated individuals who step up and take leadership, and they need to find ways to establish their legitimacy and credibility so that others take them seriously. They have to be entrepreneurial in attracting resources and building capacity.
Julia M. Wondolleck, Steven L. Yaffee

Chapter 7. Bricks: Tangible Elements That Support & Guide Marine Ecosystem-Based Management

Abstract
While the preceding chapters have described the variations associated with different types of marine conservation initiatives, the next two chapters describe attributes that these initiatives share in common. The initiatives we examined arose independently in different regions of the world; they are embedded in different sociopolitical contexts and involve different individuals and organizations. Nonetheless, they all exhibit several essential characteristics. They all have organizational elements and process qualities that have enabled them to stay on track and make progress.
Julia M. Wondolleck, Steven L. Yaffee

Chapter 8. Mortar: Intangible Factors That Propel & Sustain Marine Ecosystem-Based Management

Abstract
When we began this study of marine ecosystem-based management (MEBM) initiatives, we knew that we needed to probe their structures, legal mandates, information sources, and funding. After all, we wanted to identify features that could be adopted by others trying to advance MEBM. But as much as we would probe these items in our conversations with participants, they would invariably emphasize the less tangible dimensions of their experiences. We came to appreciate that the structures and features represented by the “bricks” described in chapter 7 were only part of the story. What happens within those structures is entirely dependent on the people who are involved. The “mortar” that holds these processes together is a function of how those individuals are motivated to be involved, the relationships that they form, the personal skill sets they bring to the table, and their commitment to the process.
Julia M. Wondolleck, Steven L. Yaffee

Chapter 9. Implications for Policy and Practice

Abstract
We began our research on worldwide cases of marine ecosystem-based management (MEBM) assuming that we would find exemplars that could be used to create a model process, but those exemplars proved elusive. There is no single way to advance MEBM; rather, there are multiple ways to incorporate an MEBM perspective into management. We observed many places where people were trying to advance ecosystem considerations in decision making, following different paths, responding to different issues, and employing different strategies. All were steadfast in their insistence that they were still trying to figure it out. Yet their efforts reveal valuable insights about the critical factors that enable and sustain an MEBM process.
Julia M. Wondolleck, Steven L. Yaffee

Backmatter

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