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01.11.2017 | Guest Commentary | Ausgabe 11/2017

MTZ worldwide 11/2017

Master and Harness Complexity

Zeitschrift:
MTZ worldwide > Ausgabe 11/2017
Autor:
Christian Lensch-Franzen
Currently and not only in the mobility sector networking and digitisation are frequently used terms which are in the positive sense driving complexity. They reach, in a consistent interpretation, far beyond the data transfer between information-controlled vehicle and powertrain components. The interaction of all functional groups of a powertrain is a permanent exchange of input and output, which is by no means limited to the deliberate sending of electronic signals for controlled parameters. Rather, it includes all chemical-physical processes from the tribological influence in the material structure through the interaction of hydrocarbon and additive molecules from fuel and oil in the combustion chamber up to the interaction of Li ions with the anode material of the accumulator. The full complexity of a powertrain can only be utilised as a potential with a thorough understanding of these system interrelations and on the basis of their physical description in a computer and control unit environment that complies with Moore's law. In the arbitrary example of the Carnot process, the key is the wide range of constraints when operating in the real world, such as losses, material limitations and characteristics, non-ideal hydrocarbons, dynamic behaviour, environmental constraints, etc. In the broadest sense this refers to work process control, but also component wear, drift and aging behaviour with direct or indirect influence on mixture formation quality, exhaust gas aftertreatment and subsequent emission behaviour. Regardless of whether it is a combustion engine, hybrid or electric powertrain, a missing or incorrect description of such relationships in the control of variable powertrain parameters is decisive. These processes are only to be physically and chemically isolated and understood through consistent and early embedding – i.e. networking – of individual components and functional groups into an initial simulation of the complete system. The influence of an input variable on a plurality of output variables is determined by means of a targeted parameter variation while maintaining other influencing factors constant. The "signal chain" considered is sometimes very long. Observable output variables are not always in a direct and mathematically simply describable relationship to the input variable. Not to mention, sometimes undesired, arising secondary effects. Therefore, simulation models coupled with high-frequency online measurement methods for the analysis of the functional behaviour of powertrain components and resulting emissions are applied at the APL in a reproducible, real-time powertrain-in-the-loop (XiL) test environment. The development method helps to interpret time-resolved system responses and to display the necessary physico-mathematical relationships for the control unit functions. These input data are the necessary prerequisite to implement a model-based specification of combustion processes, exhaust gas aftertreatment, gear shift and hybrid strategy under real driving conditions in the XiL environment and to fully utilise the potentials of the complexity increase. Consistently applied, due to the scalability, a significant reduction of the required effort and also technical consistency in the case of the subsequent derivative developments or the integration of further parameters into the powertrain control is achieved. ...

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