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Über dieses Buch

The 3rd edition of this successful textbook continues to build on the strengths that were recognized by a 2008 Textbook Excellence Award from the Text and Academic Authors Association (TAA). Materials Chemistry addresses inorganic-, organic-, and nano-based materials from a structure vs. property treatment, providing a suitable breadth and depth coverage of the rapidly evolving materials field — in a concise format. The 3rd edition offers significant updates throughout, with expanded sections on sustainability, energy storage, metal-organic frameworks, solid electrolytes, solvothermal/microwave syntheses, integrated circuits, and nanotoxicity. Most appropriate for Junior/Senior undergraduate students, as well as first-year graduate students in chemistry, physics, or engineering fields, Materials Chemistry may also serve as a valuable reference to industrial researchers. Each chapter concludes with a section that describes important materials applications, and an updated list of thought-provoking questions.



Chapter 1. What Is “Materials Chemistry”?

Life in the twenty-first century is ever-dependent on an unlimited variety of advanced materials. In our consumptive world, it is easy to take for granted the macro-, micro-, and nanoscale building blocks that comprise any item ever produced. We are spoiled by the technology that adds convenience to our lives such as microwave ovens, laptop computers, cell phones and tablets, and improved modes of transportation. However, we rarely take time to think about and appreciate the materials that constitute these modern engineering feats.
Bradley D. Fahlman

Chapter 2. Solid-State Chemistry

Of the three states of matter, solids possess the most structural diversity. Whereas gases and liquids consist of discrete molecules that are randomly distributed due to thermal motion, solids consist of molecules, atoms, or ions that are positioned in specific 3-D arrays. To fully understand the properties of solid materials, one must have a thorough knowledge of the structural interactions between its constituents. This chapter will outline the various types of solids, including structural classifications and nomenclature for both crystalline and amorphous solids. The material in this key chapter will set the groundwork for the rest of this textbook, which describes a variety of materials classes.
Bradley D. Fahlman

Chapter 3. Metals

Of the 118 elements listed in the periodic table, 80% are metals. Since the discovery of copper and bronze by early civilizations, the study of metals (i.e., metallurgy) contributed to most of the early investigations related to materials science. Whereas iron-based alloys have long been exploited for a variety of applications, there is a constant search for new metallic compositions that have increasing structural durability, but also possess sufficiently less density. The recent exploitation of titanium-based alloys results from this effort, and has resulted in very useful materials that are used for applications ranging from aircraft bodies to hip replacements and golf clubs. Indeed, there are many yet undiscovered metallic compositions that will undoubtedly prove invaluable for future applications.
Bradley D. Fahlman

Chapter 4. Semiconductors

Our technologically advanced way of life would not be possible without the semiconductor industry. The first semiconductor device, known as a transistor, was discovered at Bell Labs in the late 1940s and was widely used shortly thereafter for radio electronics. Today, transistors are still pervasive in every chip that lies at the heart of portable electronic devices, modes of transportation, and computers. In fact, modern computer chips now contain over 10 billion individual transistors—all on a surface that is smaller than a fingernail!
Bradley D. Fahlman

Chapter 5. Polymeric Materials

Take a minute to look at the room and furnishings around you. Virtually everything you see is at least partially composed of organic-based building blocks. From plastic packaging materials to individual carpet fibers, no other type of material is as heavily utilized in our society as polymers. Currently, over 362 million metric tons of plastics are produced each year—a total of more than 8.3 billion metric tons since the early 1950s! The average person in Western Europe or North America consumes 100 kg of plastic each year, mostly in the form of consumer product packaging. Unfortunately, recovery and recycling efforts remain insufficient; it is estimated that 60% of all plastics ever produced have accumulated in landfills and the environment (Fig. 5.1).
Bradley D. Fahlman

Chapter 6. Nanomaterials

Imagine how much control over resultant properties you would have if you were able to deposit and maneuver individual atoms into predefined arrangements, en route toward a new material. This is fast becoming a reality, and is the realization of the ultimate in “bottom-up” materials design. Thus far, one is able to easily fabricate materials comprised of a small number of atoms, with features on the nanometer scale (10−9 m)—one-billionth of a meter. To put this into perspective, think of a material with dimensions approximately 1000 times smaller than the diameter of a human hair follicle!
Bradley D. Fahlman

Chapter 7. Materials Characterization

Thus far, we have focused on the relationship between the structure of a material and its properties/applications. However, we have not yet focused on how one is able to determine the structure and composition of materials. That is, when a material is fabricated in the lab, how are we able to assess whether our method was successful? Depending on the nature of the material being investigated, a suite of techniques may be utilized to assess its structure and properties. Whereas some techniques are qualitative, such as providing an image of a surface, others yield quantitative information such as the relative concentrations of atoms that comprise the material. Recent technological advances have allowed materials scientists to accomplish something that was once thought to be impossible: to obtain actual 2-D/3-D images of atomic positions in a solid, in real time. It should be noted that the sensitivity of quantitative techniques also continues to be improved, with some techniques able to measure elemental concentrations down to the parts per billion (ppb) or trillion (ppt) range.
Bradley D. Fahlman


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