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Über dieses Buch

This is the first book in a new series - "Materials Research and Engineering" - devoted to the science and technology of materials. "Materials Research and Engineering" evolves from a previous series on "Reine und Angewand­ te Metallkunde" ("Pure and Applied Metallurgy"), which was edited by Werner Koster until his eightieth birthday in 1976. Although the present series is an outgrowth of the earlier one, it should not and cannot be regarded as a continuation. There had to be a shift of scope - and a change in presentation as well. Metallurgy is no longer an isolated art and science. Rather, it is linked by its scientific basis and tech­ nological implications to non-metallic and composite materials, as well as to processes for production, refining, shaping, surface treatment, and appli­ cation. Thus, the new series, "Materials Research and Engineering", will present up-to-date information on scientific and technological progress, as well as on issues of general relevance within the engineering field and industrial society. Premiering the new series, the present book by Dieter Altenpohl gives the reader a very general outlook, in fact, a position analysis of materials and the materials industry within the framework of our contemporary technological environment. It ventures, moreover, to forecast the changes affecting this pattern in a dynamic, interdependent world. This may be an unusual way to start a scientific series - it is believed, nevertheless, to be an appropriate one.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

I. Role of Materials in the World Economy

Abstract
Civilization has passed through several “ages” each identified with one material. These ages include the Stone Age, the Bronze Age and the Iron Age. Now mankind is in the “Multi-materials Age”. A good illustration of the role materials play in day-to-day living is the ordinary domestic telephone. It contains 42 of the 92 naturally occurring elements in its components.
Dieter Gustav Altenpohl

II. Present Structure and Future Trends in Key Materials Industries

Abstract
Before we can approach the main purpose of this book, to explain and interpret changes for the materials industries, first we need to review the present structure of key materials industries, because numerous readers may not be familiar with the status quo of these industries.
Dieter Gustav Altenpohl

III. Technology Planning as Part of Industry’s Planning Process

Abstract
Chapter II has given an overview of the basic materials industry and its growth during the first three-quarters of this century. Main criteria for the development of these industries in the past were achievement of growth rates in production and consumption as high as possible, and technological improvements for further increasing output per production unit.
Dieter Gustav Altenpohl

IV. Key Issues for Technology Planning and Assessment

Abstract
Previous chapters have the clear message that the materials industry is subjected to increasing pressures and regulations from the socio-political arena. This immediately brings up the question as to what extent a national materials policy, including specific guidelines and regulations, is possible or even desirable. We have to keep in mind that from the supply of basic resources, through the whole materials cycle, to the finished products and their after-use patterns, market forces are the over-riding element and have been successful in creating many self-regulating mechanisms. Therefore, up to now, most leaders of industry and many in government agree that the rule should be: “Keep the free market forces intact wherever possible or restrain them in the form of guidelines and keep governmental interference to a bare minimum.”
Dieter Gustav Altenpohl

V. Research and Development Opportunities

Abstract
A 1978 National Science Foundation (NSF) investigation found that no “key” scientific or technological breakthroughs have occurred recently or are imminent which would substantially ameliorate overall patterns of mineral usage or supply in the USA in the very short term. However, incrementtal R & D investments, if they are made soon and provide for continuity of effort, can produce supply benefits over the longer term.
J. P. Clark, F. R. Tuler

VI. Outlook

Abstract
The era of exponential growth in materials consumption is drawing to a close. What will replace it? Zero or no-growth is not the answer. A policy of no-growth cannot work world-wide. There is a need to reshape attitudes about growth. Civilization is entering a transition period which will affect the materials industries. In this concluding chapter, we outline a few common problems facing the materials industries in the years ahead, and describe some key issues providing a birdseye view of the main trends which are visible today. Before doing this, we will briefly review the background for our analysis.
Dieter Gustav Altenpohl

Backmatter

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