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This paper explores the meaning and uncertainty inherent in (a) understanding image hierarchies; (b) describing them with words; and (c) navigating the abstraction context of the viewer. A spatial-taxon hierarchy, a standardized scene architecture, partitions an image into a foreground, subject and salient objects and/or sub-objects. The introduction starts with a thought experiment (Thought experiments, borrowed from the model-theoretic isomorphism standard of structure-mapping theory, enable readers to compare two systems thought to be similar. It’s a form of inductive reasoning that expands knowledge in the face of uncertainty (Holland et al. 1986 ) by providing an explicit representation of how two systems are similar. Though the conclusion that the two systems do share an isomorphic structure can only be supported via various degrees of truth (fuzzy membership), it establishes its plausibility. Analogical reasoning is natural to human thought and communication making it useful for scientific papers.) based on a poem & an image landscape. The thought experiment is intended to provide analogical inference as scaffolding for the rest of the paper. The results of experimental data of human annotated spatial-taxon and corresponding word descriptions of two images are presented. The experimental results are analyzed in terms of spatial-taxon designation and the meaning & uncertainty presented by the human annotations. The results support the fuzzy spatial-taxon hierarchy of human scene perception described by other works, show that word descriptions depend on spatial-taxon designation and that long tail word distributions require unbounded possibility with semantic uncertainty (type 2 fuzzy sets) for the word counts in the probability distribution. Deep learning image recognition, Zadeh information restriction principal, Shannon’s distinction between information content and semantics, customized image descriptions and fuzzy inference techniques are explored.
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I chose the term “other mind” used in cognitive psychology, after personal communication with Professor Zadeh regarding an example of unprecisiated restriction, which he described as “a perception evoked in one’s mind.” In this paper “other-mind uncertainty” refers to the unknown differences between each human’s individual mental construct. It does not refer to uncertainty in the word semantics, context or particular definitions.
Excluding Quantum Mechanics.
I could have used subset ( \(ST_1\) - \(ST_2\)) as a root for a new child subset. However, to make this readable, I limit the definition to spatial-taxon children stemming from a single initial image root.
Since deep learning neural nets learn only possible classification within bound of composite training data, they are also limited by statistics.
An ensemble, often referred to as an alphabet, is the set of possible outcomes of word annotations and pixel designations. In this paper, allowed pixel designations are spatial-taxons or the edges that outline spatial-taxons. The word annotations collected and shown in the results are outcomes. Note that since nested spatial-taxons are not mutually exclusive, the results count word annotations for each child spatial-taxon [ 5], which by the definition of spatial-taxons are included in both the parent taxon and child taxons [ 8, 9].
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- Meaning and Uncertainty Inherent in Understanding Images, Spatial-Taxon Hierarchy, Word Annotation and Relevant Context
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