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2022 | Buch

Mechanical and Industrial Engineering

Historical Aspects and Future Directions


Über dieses Buch

This book covers historical aspects and future directions of mechanical and industrial engineering. Chapters of this book include applied mechanics and design, tribology, machining, additive manufacturing and management of industrial technologies.


Chapter 1. Tribology—A Tool for Mechanical and Industrial Engineering
Human civilisation has employed the concepts of tribology from the very beginning if not in a formal way. It started with solving problems related to friction and lubrication in the activities of day-to-day life. Gradually with the interests of some bright minds, tribology began to take the form of a specific subject and humankind began to appreciate its potential of transforming their lives. Industrial revolutions definitely played a part in the development of tribology and benefits of same has been reciprocated back to the industries. The knowledge of tribology has now got an additional facet due to the present problems of energy conservation and climate change. Obviously, tribology has yet to offer lot more considering these aspects and the true potential of it can only be revealed by proper and wide application of it.
Prasanta Sahoo, Suman Kalyan Das
Chapter 2. Cutting Force Modeling: Genesis, State of the Art, and Development
The chapter gives a historical prospective of the origin and developments of empirical equations for cutting force in the manner never presented before. It is shown that the Wiebe formula published in 1858 is still in wide use today in many research and practical applications including cutting tool manufacturers’ technical guides/catalogs. The chapter analyses the historical development of the formula for the cutting force from 1858 to the preset. The foundation of the so-called mechanistic approach in metal cutting is considered. It is discussed that there are actually two considerably different mechanistic approaches used today. Although both include the use of the cutting force coefficient, the way these coefficients are determined through numerous cutting tests are considerably different. The origin, essence, and drawbacks of both approaches are analyzed in great details. The chapter argues that no further progress in meatal cutting in terms of increasing its efficiency can be made if the known approach are used. The chapter suggests that at present stage of development, finite element method (FEM) modeling is one of feasible alternative to pure experimental studies in metal cutting. The problems to be addressed in FEM simulation in metal cutting as the proper model of metal cutting, relevant constitutive model of work material behavior, and contact conditions at the chip-rake face and workpiece-flank face interfaces are revealed and the feasible ways of their resolution are suggested discussed.
Viktor P. Astakhov
Chapter 3. Evolution of Additive Manufacturing Processes: From the Background to Hybrid Printers
The Additive Manufacturing (AM) field is revolutionizing the industrial sector in different areas such as automotive, aeronautics, medicine, etc. Many patents about AM processes were granted at the end of the XXth century. However, until their release, the use of AM was very limited, mainly because of the high cost of the equipment. From that moment on, many 3D printing technologies started to bloom and, along with it, the commercialization of new 3D printers, including hybrid 3D printers. They are defined as a combination of AM and subtractive technologies within the same machine, but also as a merge of different AM technologies. With all this in mind, the present chapter first presents an overview of the different AM technologies, as well as the history of AM, including recent advances. Then, the description of the possible future trends with the use of hybrid 3D printers is discussed.
I. Buj-Corral, A. Tejo-Otero, F. Fenollosa-Artés
Chapter 4. Busbars for e-mobility: State-of-the-Art Review and a New Joining by Forming Technology
The changes in the automotive market and their effects on industry are nowadays hot topics in metal forming seminars and conferences around the world. The rise in the number of electric vehicles will inevitably lead to a decrease in the demand of components for combustion engines and power drive trains. Typical forming components such as pistons, connecting rods, valves, camshafts, crankshafts, multi-speed gear boxes and others that exist in diesel or petrol vehicles, will no longer be required. However, the lightweight construction requirements for the body-in-white of electric vehicles, the production of components for asynchronous motors and the fabrication of battery components, namely busbars, are bringing new challenges and opportunities for the metal forming industry. This chapter is focused on busbars, which are metallic strips or sheets that are utilized to distribute electric power to multiple equipment such as the electric motor, the electric power steering unit, and the AC/DC converters. In particular, the chapter addresses the challenge of replacing copper busbars by hybrid busbars made from copper and aluminium, due to the expected savings in weight and cost. For this purpose, the authors discuss the challenge of connecting copper to aluminium in hybrid busbars by means of existing joining technologies and introduce a new joining by forming process aimed at connecting hybrid busbars at room temperature without giving rise to material protrusions above and below the sheet surfaces. The effectiveness of the new process is compared against fastening by measuring the electric resistivities in both types of hybrid busbar joints. Finite element analysis gives support to the presentation and proves to be suitable for the electro-thermo-mechanical analysis of busbar connections.
Rui F. V. Sampaio, Maximilian F. R. Zwicker, João P. M. Pragana, Ivo M. F. Bragança, Carlos M. A. Silva, Chris V. Nielsen, Paulo A. F. Martins
Chapter 5. Autofrettage: From Development of Guns to Strengthening of Pressure Vessels
Autofrettage is a popular metal forming process generally incorporated for strengthening thick cylindrical and spherical pressure vessels. It is based on the principle of pre stressing a vessel due to an applied load to achieve a partial or complete plastic deformation followed by unloading. The process induces compressive residual stresses in the vicinity of the inner wall that is beneficial to the vessel. The process has its roots to the nineteenth century during which military engineers invented techniques to enhance the performance of gun barrels by increasing the range and accuracy of the gun along with the reduction of weight. As these efforts and techniques progressed with the advancement of material science and metallurgy, the concept of autofrettage was born. This chapter presents a history of autofrettage. The events of the military engineers in seeking methods to overcome the shortcomings in the early design of the gun barrels to the eventual invention of autofrettage are presented. The further evolution of autofrettage into various types in the following years is also presented.
Rajkumar Shufen, Uday S. Dixit
Chapter 6. Machining of Fibrous Composites: Recent Advances and Future Perspectives
Fibrous composites have emerged as a promising alternative to conventional metals and steels in view of their outstanding properties. Machining of these composites is a critical procedure to get target shapes and desired quality. The present chapter reviews the machining aspects for fibrous composites by critically analyzing the recent advances achieved in the scientific literature. A brief introduction to the fundamental concepts of fibrous composites is initially presented, and then the basic composite cutting mechanisms, machining responses, and tool wear issues are all illustrated. Additionally, the developing trends of advanced machining techniques for fibrous composites are briefly reviewed. Finally, technical perspectives regarding the future development of machining fibrous composites are outlined.
Jinyang Xu, J. Paulo Davim
Chapter 7. Management of Industrial Technologies
The technology can be considered a systematic, knowledge-based action, applicable in industrial processes in order to transform resources into products requested by the customer. Technology uses scientific resources but is, at the same time, itself a science of applying knowledge for practical purposes. Technology is ultimately the measure of the efficiency of industrial management. The management, as a science, takes the information regarding the management processes and submits them to some analysis procedures in order to perfect the existing management methods and to complete them with new ones. The applicative character of the management results from the fact that the experiences regarding the systems management are materialized in the design of new systems, methods, techniques, and procedures that constitute the tools made available to the managers for achieving the company's objectives. The manager must prove the ability to understand economic and social phenomena, the laws that govern them, objectively identifying the risks and opportunities, in order to plan the company's activities. An equidistant, efficient and coherent policy established by the management guarantees the success and ensures the agreement of the company's existence with the market evolution.
Marius Gabriel Petrescu, Costin Ilincă, Maria Tănase, Hailong Fu
Mechanical and Industrial Engineering
herausgegeben von
Prof. Dr. J. Paulo Davim
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