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01.02.2013 | Original Paper | Ausgabe 1/2013 Open Access

Cellulose 1/2013

Mechanical and other characteristics of cellulose ester bonded with modified cardanol from cashew nut shells and additional aliphatic and aromatic components

Zeitschrift:
Cellulose > Ausgabe 1/2013
Autoren:
Masatoshi Iji, Kiyohiko Toyama, Shukichi Tanaka

Abstract

Novel cellulose-based bioplastics, mainly using inedible plant resources, were produced by bonding cellulose diacetate (CDA), a modified cardanol, and additional aliphatic and aromatic components. Cardanol is a phenol derivative with a linear unsaturated hydrocarbon side chain (carbon number: 15), derived from cashew nut shells. Esterification of the modified cardanol (3-pentadecylphenoxy acetic acid: PAA) and CDA resulted in a thermoplastic PAA-bonded CDA with high tenacity (long elongation while keeping maximum bending strength), heat resistance, and water resistance. These properties were better than those of a conventional CDA composite consisting of CDA and a conventional plasticizer. By comparing the PAA-bonded CDA with a CDA bonded with stearic acid (SA), which has a linear structure similar to that of PAA’s side chain but has no phenyl part, it was suggested that the linear side chain in PAA has a main role in these prominent properties of the PAA-bonded CDA, while the phenyl part in PAA has pronounced effects on its maximum bending strength and water resistance. Additional bonding of linear alkanoic acids, especially SA as aliphatic components improved the PAA-bonded CDA’s impact strength, and additional bonding of benzoic acid (BA) as an aromatic component further increased its maximum bending strength and elastic modulus. These components improved the thermoplasticity and water resistance of the PAA-bonded CDA while maintaining its high heat resistance relatively well.

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